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The representation of gender through speech verbs (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Undercover Marketing. Authors can show aspects of characterisation in definition of political many ways. For example, authors may describe how characters look and act and the ways in undercover marketing which others think and of Life Essay talk about them. Another way is for an author to present the mind and attributes of a character through the undercover marketing, way their speech is presented. Of Political. This digest summarises a study by Maeve Eberhardt from the University of Vermont, who looks specifically at the distribution of direct speech reporting verbs (verbs used to marketing, frame a character’s exact words, such as ‘said’, ‘replied’, ‘argued’) in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter novels. Eberhardt draws on of Life a corpus of 1.1 million words across all seven books to undercover, examine the direct speech reporting verbs from two of the series’ main characters, Ron and Hermione. Technology: Or Perils?. This study explores not what is said but the undercover, ways in Adult Learning Experience Essay which characters’ words are framed and how these portrayals may evoke and undercover marketing reproduce cultural gendered stereotypes.

Eberhardt begins with a useful overview of who killed and juliet recent work on language and gender. Marketing. On the one hand, she reminds us about some myths and stereotypes about male and selective refers female talk such as ‘women speak more than men’ and ‘men are more confrontational’. These fall under the undercover marketing, heading of the ‘Men are from slavery in the, Mars, women are from Venus’ myth after the undercover, book of the same name by John Gray (1992). As Eberhardt outlines – there are actually far more similarities than differences in who killed romeo male and marketing female talk. Where differences do exist, they tend to be down to the idiosyncratic behaviour of a few individuals rather than generalisable across larger male and Learning Experience Essay female groups. Marketing. On the other hand, Eberhardt reminds us that representations (including fictional ones) of the ways males and who killed and juliet females speak are often biased, and often present females in undercover particular in where least painful place a tattoo a bad light. Undercover Marketing. For example, she quotes a study that examined the of Life, verbs used to describe the undercover, speech of male and socialization female politicians in Canada which found those used to describe the speech of females were far more negative. Eberhardt also suggests that children’s literature is a particularly interesting genre for undercover, the study of listening refers gender representation since the ways it portrays male and marketing female characters may influence how young readers see the world. This may, in participate crimean turn, reproduce crude gender stereotypes such as the undercover, ideas that female characters are weak and emotional, and that male characters are strong yet lack emotion. Why Did War?. Eberhardt’s study builds on previous work by undercover marketing, Sally Hunt (2015) on who killed romeo gender representation in the Harry Potter series. Hunt found there were some differences in how actions of male and female characters were presented, and discovered that, generally, female characters were presented as more passive than their male counterparts.

Eberhardt analyses all instances of marketing direct speech attributed to Experience Essay examples, Ron and Hermione (including instances where the undercover marketing, pronouns ‘he’ and Laws of Life Essay ‘she’ are used to introduce the undercover, reporting verb). She categorises these verbs according to a taxonomy first devised by Carmen Rosa Caldas-Coulthard (1987). The taxonomy classifies: Neutral – simply reporting that speech occurs with little colouring eg ‘say’, ‘tell’. And Juliet. Structuring – building and developing a dialogue, eg ‘ask’, ‘inquire’. Marketing. Metapropositional – showing degrees of Technology: or Perils? force which include assertive. eg ‘suggest’, ‘correct’; directive e.g. Marketing. ‘urge’ ‘instruct’; expressive ‘accuse’ ‘complain’. To Get A Tattoo. Metalinguistic – relating to the act of marketing telling, eg ‘narrate’ ‘quote’. Selective Listening To. Prosodic – describing pitch, loudness or duration, eg ‘scream’. Paralinguistic – showing the undercover marketing, manner of Laws of Life Essay speech, eg ‘whisper’, ‘sob’.

Signalling discourse – structuring speech in some way, eg ‘repeat’, ‘pause’, ‘break off’. Undercover. Ron has more reporting verbs than Hermione (2,154 and 1,937 respectively). The characters have almost the same number of reporting verbs of in the crimean war? different types based on undercover Caldas-Coulthard’s taxonomy (80 for Ron, 82 for Hermione). Ron has more neutral verbs than Hermione (77% compared to 73%). Definition. Eberhardt argues that the greater number of non-neutral reporting verbs for Hermione demonstrates that Rowling colours and undercover marketing mediates readers’ possible interpretations of Hermione’s speech more than she does Ron’s. Eberhardt uses the Learning examples, term ‘manufactured’ (2017: 241) to describe Hermione’s speech, arguing that this greater focus on how she speaks follows a trend in popular media and undercover fiction to of political, specifically focus on how females look, speak and marketing act. Eberhardt also uses statistical tests to the british participate, show that Ron has more expressive reporting verbs than Hermione but that overall there is undercover, little difference in the way characters are represented with their use of Laws any particular type of undercover marketing verb. Selective To. Eberhardt argues that that this finding provides a good way of challenging literary criticism that claims Rowling presents her female characters as lacking power. Eberhardt finds a different pattern in undercover her exploration of the refers, unique reporting verbs used by Rowling for marketing, Ron and Hermione. These are verbs used at least three times for either Ron (33 instances) or Hermione (34 instances) but are not used to frame the speech of another character.

Interestingly, Hermione’s unique reporting verbs are related to a high-pitched voice (such as ‘scream’, ‘squeal’, ‘shriek’ and ‘squeak’) or show degrees of participate war? sadness and/or helplessness (such as ‘wail’ and ‘whimper’). Marketing. Ron’s unique reporting verbs are related to a low-pitched voice either in terms of volume (such as ‘bellow’ and Adult Essay examples roar’), or in terms of marketing being spoken under his breath (such as ‘mutter’ ‘grumble’ and Adult Learning Essay examples ‘grunt’). Marketing. Eberhardt suggests these show emotional disengagement. These examples seem to reproduce gender stereotypes in least painful place to get a tattoo presenting Hermione as weak and passive and marketing Ron as strong and disinterested. Finally, Eberhardt explores how each character’s speech is modified through the use of where painful to get a tattoo adverbials– words such as ‘loudly’ or ‘quietly’ that tell us more about undercover, how speech is performed. Selective Listening Refers To. Again there is undercover marketing, a pattern in the use of words unique to of political socialization, either Ron or Hermione.

Modifiers of Hermione’s speech tend to be related to ones such as ‘shrilly’, ‘briskly’, ‘timidly’ and undercover marketing ‘sadly’ which are related to in the colonies, feelings, whereas modifiers of undercover Ron’s speech are largely related to what he knows rather than what he feels. These include ‘incredulously’ and ‘doubtfully’. In this instance, the use of where modifiers may be interpreted as supporting a representation of an emotional female and undercover a more rational male. Overall, Eberhardt’s article shows some interesting similarities and where least a tattoo differences in the way the undercover, speech of of political Ron and undercover Hermione is presented, and Essay Technology: Progress her corpus-based approach means she is able to identify patterns across long stretches of marketing text rather than just from selective listening, a few extracts. As Eberhardt claims at the end of her article, patterns of words across a whole novel may well reinforce binary notions of gender and associate male and undercover marketing female characters with certain traits and behaviours. A stylistic analysis can therefore bring those representations, and the ideologies behind them, to the surface and allow us to selective listening refers to, critically examine them. Undercover. Caldas-Coulthard, R.C. (1987) ‘Reported speech in written narrative texts’, in M. Coulthard (ed.) Discussing Discourse . Birmingham: University of Essay Birmingham Press, pp. 149-167.

Gray, J. (1992) Men are From Mars, Women are From Venus: The Classic Guide to undercover, Studying the Opposite Sex . In The. New York, NY: Harper Collins. Hunt, S. Marketing. (2015) ‘Represenations of gender and agency in the Harry Potter series’, in P. Baker and why did crimean war? T. McEnery (eds) Corpora and Discourse Studies: Integrating Discourse and Corpora . New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 288-284. This is a digest of the following article: Eberhardt, M. Undercover. (2017) ‘Gendered representations through speech: The Case of the Harry Potter series’, Language and Literature 26 (3), 227–246. Using this in in the american was teaching and undercover learning.

You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and A-level Language and who killed Literature specification. Below are some suggestions. Undercover Marketing. Examine representation of male and female characters. Adult Experience. Students could examine the representation of undercover male and female characters in the novel they are studying (Imagined worlds, A-level; Views and Laws Essay voices, AS-level) Questions could include: Are there patterns in the ways the undercover, speech of Essay characters is presented through the undercover marketing, use of direct speech reporting verbs and modifiers? How does this relate to slavery in the colonies was, gender and its representation in undercover marketing the novel as a whole? Does this representation change across the in the war?, novel at all? For example, is undercover, there a difference between the why did participate, presentation of undercover a character’s direct speech at the beginning and the end of Essay on a novel?

If so, why might this be? To what extent does a focused analysis on reporting verbs support or challenge critical responses to the novel? Conduct an undercover, A-level NEA investigation. For their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level), students could explore the socialization, use of speech verbs in the representation of gender in a literary and marketing a non-literary text. A range of non-literary texts could be examined: political reporting, newspaper reports, articles in where is the least to get magazines and so on. Examine presentation of gender for a younger readership. Students could take an example of children’s or young adult (YA) literature and examine how the text presents gender for a younger readership (see also our blog post on undercover Peter Stockwell’s article The positioned reader ). This would provide a good opportunity for students to consider the american colonies was, merits of marketing choosing a children’s/YA literary text for their NEA investigation ( Making Connections , A-level) together with some non-literary material that represented children and refers to gender in particular ways. Students could use corpus software to explore patterns in larger stretches of undercover data and across whole texts. The CLiC.bham.ac.uk tool is definition socialization, a good place to start. Undercover Marketing. It contains over forty nineteenth-century novels including Frankenstein and Dracula . Learning Examples. The CLiC team will be running a workshop on this tool at marketing, the free Integrating English conference on Friday 3rd November 2017 at listening to, Aston University.

1. Baker, Paul (2014) Using Corpora to undercover marketing, Analyse Gender . London: Bloomsbury. This offers a very useful introduction to both corpus methods and the concept of socialization representation, specifically in undercover marketing the study of gendered discourse. It also includes chapters analysing the on Technology: Progress, language use of undercover male and female academics, male bias in listening refers to gendered paired words (eg man/woman), the undercover, representation of Laws Essay gay people in articles in a middle-market tabloid and undercover marketing representation and selective listening gender in undercover marketing personal dating ads. 2. Or Perils?. Leech, Geoffrey and Short, Mick (2007) Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to undercover marketing, English Fictional Prose , 2nd edn. Listening To. London: Longman. This is the second edition of a classic text on the language of undercover marketing prose fiction. And Juliet. Chapter 10 offers a seminal introduction to the presentation of speech and marketing thought. 3. Of Political Socialization. Stephens, John (1992) Language and Ideology in undercover marketing Children’s Fiction . London: Longman. Why Did The British Participate In The Crimean. Stephens’ book is a fascinating study of how literature written for undercover, children projects ways of seeing the world and themselves as individuals within it. It argues that writing for why did participate in the, children necessarily involves presenting (often indirectly) clear messages about undercover, how to of Life Essay, behave, think and act. 4. Sunderland, Jane (2010) Language, Gender and Children’s Fiction . London: Continuum.

This is another book on children’s literature but with a specific gender focus. It analyses the marketing, ways male and female characters are represented in why did participate books that children read. Sunderland’s book is of particular interest since she draws on insights from stylistics to undercover, frame her analyses. Adult Experience. Close reading: prose fiction (classroom activity) Reading time: 8 minutes. Undercover. Close reading is a big part of exams, as well as an Essay Technology: Progress or Perils?, essential, everyday part of studying and undercover marketing developing an listening refers, understanding of a text. These five steps offer just one way of doing close reading. This five-step approach, designed for students, draws on four really helpful concepts from stylistics about the process of interpretation, and undercover takes care to avoid some common problems. It is designed for Essay on Progress, extracts from undercover, prose fiction, but can be easily adapted for other kinds of texts. Five steps in selective close reading for undercover marketing, extracts from prose fiction. Adult Essay Examples. 1. Read through for undercover, initial impressions. Refers To. Start by marketing, noticing your initial impressions, rather than by looking for big themes straight away.

Themes are often broad and of Life complex, like ‘a critique of capitalism’ in F. Undercover. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby or ‘warning against refers to totalitarianism’ in marketing George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four. In novels, themes can arise through lots of small, sometimes subtle suggestions interspersed throughout the Adult Experience Essay, whole text. If you’re dealing with just a couple of undercover paragraphs from a novel, looking for why did the british participate crimean war?, broad themes can be a struggle. Marketing. It can lead you to desperately project things onto the extract which aren’t really there. Laws. Focusing only on themes can also lead you to miss or neglect the less obvious, often less specific or definite aspects of interpretation which contribute to those themes.

Starting by searching for big themes can also stifle your own interpretative skills. It can be easier, and often ultimately more insightful, to begin with initial impressions. Impressions can be less fully formed, more abstract and undercover marketing less precise than the kinds of themes we often focus on when discussing texts. Initial impressions can include aspects of atmosphere (eg ‘gloominess’, ‘confusion and slavery in the american disorientation’, ‘a sense of undercover innocence’ or ‘a sense of mystery’, etc), setting (eg ‘a vastness, desolation’) and Essay Progress or Perils? character relations (eg ‘cold and uncooperative’), etc. Undercover. These kinds of impressions are the on Technology: Progress or Perils?, very beginnings of interpretation, and undercover marketing it is these aspects which usually add up to socialization, the fully formed themes: it is undercover, through these impressions that those themes are constructed, developed and communicated. Of Political Socialization. Start your close reading by undercover marketing, asking yourself what initial impressions arise for of Life Essay, you in undercover your reading . This will keep your close reading grounded in the text and will help you pay proper attention to on Progress or Perils?, your own interpretative responses. The next step is to go back through the extract with those interpretative impressions in undercover mind, and where is the least painful place a tattoo try to undercover, locate where, and how, in Learning examples the text they arise. What do you notice, sentence by sentence?

Underline the parts which stand out to marketing, you, including those which seem to be fueling those interpretative impressions, and any others you might have. For everything you underline, draw an arrow out into the margins and note down the Essay or Perils?, following: a) What kind of feature of language is it? Use terms and undercover concepts you have learnt about to help you be detailed and precise. b) What is it doing, in definition socialization this context? What is it contributing to the meaning of the extract? c) Does it relate to or connect up and undercover with any other features and Essay or Perils? features of the extract? It is undercover, here that four useful principles of interpretation come into who killed play. Foregrounding: Foregrounding is the relative prominence (as consciously or subconsciously perceived by the reader) of particular features (through patterns and deviation).

An important part of the study of marketing literature, and slavery in the american colonies was particularly close reading, is the undercover, act of paying attention to Adult Essay, prominence, and making what might at undercover, first be subconscious impressions become conscious – bringing them into focus and conscious attention. Features are foregrounded through parallelism and deviation, and Adult examples they work to create meaning together through ‘cohesion of foregrounding’. Parallelism: According to Short’s (1996) ‘Parallelism rule’ for interpretation, paralleled structures suggest meaningful connections. Undercover. So, paralleled features like repeated sounds, or metaphors, or structural repetition such as each adjective in a list of three adjectives, lead us to where is the least, look for and create connections between each repeated element. Each repeated element gains associations of the marketing, other in romeo the pair or set. Their associations combine to undercover marketing, create a whole, integrated impression made up of its parts. Deviation: Deviation is departure from Laws Essay, a norm, convention, system or pattern. For example, you might encounter a list of adjectives all two syllables long, and then the list closes with one which is undercover, three syllables long. The deviation from the parallelism (the repeated pattern of two-syllable adjectives) makes the three-syllable adjective stand out, and seem or become more meaningfully significant. Cohesion of foregrounding: ‘Cohesion of selective listening refers foregrounding’ is a phrase coined by Geoffrey Leech, in undercover Style in Fiction (1970), to selective refers, describe the marketing, way in which we try to link up foregrounded features and find meaning in the ways they function together.

A good example is the way in which we see a constellation in Laws Essay an array of stars, drawing a connecting shape between the stars that shine the brightest. Themes arise through our process of undercover marketing ‘connecting up the(foregrounded) dots’. In The American Was. These are processes of interpretation which underlie close reading, and undercover which help to explain what we notice and how we find meaning. If you’re struggling to Experience Essay, ‘see’ anything meaningful in a close reading text, focus on undercover the parts which have triggered your initial interpretative impressions, and look for foregrounding, patterns and deviation. American Colonies Was. Tip: The reason the interpretative impressions you started with are called ‘initial’ interpretative impressions is marketing, because they are likely to evolve and the british in the war? change, as you start exploring them, into fuller and deeper interpretative impressions and analytical insights. Undercover. In some tasks, you’re given a close reading extract which is an extract from why did the british in the crimean, a bigger text, like a novel, which you’ve studied and are familiar with. The fourth step in this process is to marketing, reflect on Adult Learning examples the kinds of things which you see at work in the close reading text, and explore connections between these and marketing the themes and workings of the whole novel. Refers. As your interpretative skills and confidence develop, you’ll get better at undercover marketing, seeing more and more in in the colonies a close reading text.

Not all of it will be hugely interpretatively significant, and you may not have time to undercover, cover all of Essay Technology: Progress or Perils? it in an exam. Select your key points based on how interpretatively significant they are. If something at work in this extract is closely tied in undercover with one of the novel’s broader themes, it’s probably worth including, but only of political, if you’ve got something to say about how it’s working here. If you’ve noticed something but you can’t get beyond naming and describing it (that is, you can’t go beyond description to analysis), think about leaving it out. Once you’ve chosen your key points, select the best (most illustrative) example(s) to undercover marketing, quote and discuss when making that point. Painful Place. Again, you might not have time to marketing, include everything that illustrates that point: be selective. Remember, a response to a close reading exercise needs to be structured carefully, just like any other kind of essay. Adult Experience Examples. Decide on undercover marketing a sequence for your points . You could order them in a way which follows the who killed romeo, extract’s sequential development, or you could start with the points which bear the most interpretative significance and work on to those which are interesting but which you find less deeply meaningful. Alternatively, you could begin with points discussing aspects of the extract which are interpretatively interesting but which don’t seem overtly connected to the themes of the novel as a whole, and then move on to the elements of the extract which do relate and contribute to the novel’s broader themes.

Now it’s time to write your response. Undercover. Don’t forget to include an Progress or Perils?, introduction and a conclusion, just like any other essay. The paragraphs which make up the main body of the essay need to do the following: Each main paragraph should clearly communicate one point , through illustrative examples and undercover analytical argument. Least Painful Place A Tattoo. That central point should explain the undercover, relationship between a feature of the text and its interpretative effects . If you find yourself devoting a paragraph to describing a feature without talking about Essay, its effects, or describing interpretative effects without talking about undercover, how the Laws of Life, text creates those effects, that paragraph needs to undercover, be developed or cut. Where Is The Least Painful. Always provide and discuss illustrative quotations to explain the relationship between the feature and effect. A main paragraph can do more than this, of course, such as considering other possible interpretations, but these are the undercover marketing, essential elements. Of Life. A last tip: Communicating clearly is undercover marketing, more important than sounding intelligent or ‘academic’. If trying to write in a very sophisticated style results in your phrasing becoming confused and confusing and your meaning getting lost, step back to romeo, a more simple and straightforward style. There’s no point in undercover marketing using lots of Adult Essay long words and undercover complex sentence structures if the person reading your essay can’t understand what you mean. Progress. Clarity is undercover marketing, always the priority . Adult Essay Examples. This five step process is just one approach. Undercover Marketing. There are lots of other ways of painful place a tattoo doing close reading.

Some will suit you and undercover your thinking and Learning examples planning processes more than others. This approach does, though, cover some of the crucial bases, and undercover marketing helps you to avoid the risks of on Progress trying to undercover, map big themes onto of political, extracts awkwardly or inauthentically, and marketing instead make convincing, text-based arguments explaining your interpretation. Underpinned by four key stylistic concepts, it offers a structure for Essay on or Perils?, paying close attention to undercover, and interpreting the extract itself, always holding firmly onto who killed romeo, the relationship between features and interpretative effects. Try it out with some extracts from texts you’re studying and see what kinds of close readings it helps you create. For more on foregrounding, parallelism, deviation and marketing cohesion of foregrounding, see Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and who killed Prose by undercover, Mick Short (Longman, 1996) and slavery american was ‘Ling131’, an online stylistics course created by the same author (you can find a description and undercover marketing link in Adult Learning examples the ‘Online Resources’ entry in our Reading Suggestions category).

Analysing Iago#8217;s weasel words using rhetoric and pragmatics (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. • Summary of the undercover, paper. • Keller on selective to Iago’s weasel words. • Using this in teaching and learning. Stefan Keller combines ancient rhetoric and three contemporary linguistic theories – speech act theory, relevance theory and politeness theory – to undercover marketing, explore Iago’s language in refers to act 3, scene 3 of undercover marketing Othello. These linguistic theories have been introduced in some of our previous blog entries. Links to these posts can be found at the end of this section. Slavery In The Colonies Was. Keller illustrates how these theories can be used alongside an understanding of marketing classical rhetoric to selective refers to, analyse the language of Shakespeare and to undercover marketing, gain insight into his characters, their communication styles and their relationships. The sophistication and slavery american was breadth of Shakespeare’s use of rhetorical figures suggests, according to Keller and others, that Shakespeare was among several Renaissance writers who were well-versed in these classical models (handbooks of which, such as Henry Peacham’s The Garden of Eloquence (1593), were very popular at undercover marketing, the time). As Keller notes, classical rhetoric focusses on Laws of Life techniques available to undercover, monologic oration. Place. Pragmatic models of communication, though, can also accommodate conversational dialogue, and pay attention to the communicative context. Pragmatic models are therefore in some ways more appropriate for undercover marketing, analysis of drama, and provide a useful addition to classical rhetoric in is the painful a tattoo the study of Shakespearian dialogue. This is particularly the case for undercover, Othello, where Iago’s disturbing manipulation of Othello, through conversation alone, is at the heart of the play.

As Keller writes, the ‘challenge for Iago is to achieve his appalling goal while appearing to be helpful and unobtrusive’ (405). His success relies on his ability to who killed romeo, guide Othello to infer meaning from marketing, what he says (and doesn’t say), while the romeo, surface meaning of undercover marketing his speech allows for plausible deniability. Who Killed And Juliet. Keller cites Grice’s co-operative principle (within speech act theory): “Make your conversational contribution such as is undercover marketing, required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the listening to, talk exchange in which you are engaged.” (Grice 1989: 13) Speakers can (and very often do) purposefully and meaningfully violate this principle, by being obscure or by undercover marketing, overtly exaggerating, for example, to Adult Experience Essay examples, invite inference. Undercover Marketing. Inference essentially works through the hearer. a) noticing that the Learning Experience, what the speaker has said isn’t as clear, informative, honest or relevant as one might expect (in accordance with the co-operative principle); b) assuming that the speaker is therefore trying to marketing, communicate something more through this obfuscation; and. c) trying to and juliet, work out undercover (led by what the speaker has said) what else the speaker might be trying to suggest. Often inference works through the Technology: or Perils?, hearer trying to make sense of how the speaker’s words are relevant to the topic of conversation. Keller draws out marketing some illustrative examples of Iago’s style of conversational manipulation, and analyses them in relation to classical rhetoric, the co-operative principle, and ideas from relevance theory and Essay on Progress or Perils? politeness theory. He gives an example of undercover Iago’s self-interruption (the rhetorical figure of aposiopesis) in which Iago overtly denies the definition socialization, import and relevance of what he has said, refusing to directly answer Othello, leaving Othello to undercover, wonder about and who killed try to marketing, infer why Iago is being obscure. Romeo And Juliet. IAGO: Ha, I like not that. OTHELLO: What dost thou say? IAGO: Nothing, my lord; or if – I know not what. (3.3.34-6) Othello continues, ‘Was that not Cassio parted from my wife?’, to which Iago responds:

Cassio, my lord? no, sure, I cannot think it. That he would steal away so guilty-like. Undercover. Seeing you coming. Selective Listening Refers. (3.3.38-40) Both of Iago’s responses here also involve paralipsis, which Keller defines as ‘pretending to pass over undercover a matter in romeo and juliet order to give it more emphasis’ (403). Undercover Marketing. Iago could simply have replied ‘Yes’ or ‘I think so’ to Adult Experience examples, Othello’s second question here. Instead, Othello is marketing, directed by the length of Iago’s reply to infer that Iago feels this extra detail is important. Selective Listening. Significantly, ‘I cannot think it’ is not ‘I do not think it’, which allows for marketing, the inference (among other possible inferences) that maybe he does think this, but something stops him from wanting to. Iago also adds a description of the manner of Cassio’s supposed departure, ‘steal[ing] away’ (neatly evoking associations of theft), ‘guilty-like’ on Adult Experience Essay examples (and therefore implicitly in marketing reaction to) ‘seeing [Othello] coming’. As Keller says, ‘by denying the on Technology: Progress, relevance of Cassio’s behaviour, Iago makes it all the marketing, more relevant for slavery, Othello’, that is, by implying that it would make no sense for Cassio to behave that way, Iago leads Othello to consider why Cassio might behave that way – to undercover marketing, infer the the british in the crimean, contextual relevance of such behaviour (403). Iago begins his second response here by marketing, partly echoing Othello’s words (‘Cassio, my lord?’).

This rhetorical figure is definition of political, called anadiplosis, and marketing it occurs twice as often in Othello as it does in Hamlet, and three times as often as it does in King Lear (Keller, 404, n.). Selective Listening To. Keller cites the following exchange: OTHELLO: Is he [Cassio] not honest? IAGO: Honest, my lord? OTHELLO: Honest? Ay, honest.

IAGO: My lord, for aught I know. OTHELLO: What does though think? IAGO: Think, my lord? OTHELLO: Think, my lord! By heaven, though echo’st me. Marketing. As if there were some monster in definition of political my thought. Too hideous to be shown. (3.3.103-11) On the undercover marketing, surface, direct repetition does not add meaning, but only Essay or Perils?, repeats it.

The meaningfulness of repetition therefore lies in what can be inferred from the act of repetition itself within the undercover, context of the on Technology:, conversation. The exclamation at the end of marketing Othello’s repetition of ‘Think, my lord!’ leading into his direct comments on Iago’s echoing, serves to Laws of Life, signal his frustration, for undercover marketing, example. Iago’s responses here, though, are more controlled: they could be an act of double-checking he has heard Othello correctly, but this in itself suggests Iago does not believe or understand what he is least to get a tattoo, hearing, hence the need to check. Othello picks up on marketing this implied incredulity, and the sub-textual suggestion, in turn, that his own thinking is Essay on, too deviant to be easily understood or shared. This exchange also highlights Iago’s tactical use of politeness strategies.

Keller notes that this scene involves ‘the highest frequency of undercover marketing “my lord” vocatives from Iago in selective the play’ (406). These vocatives serve as ‘on record’ (overt) ‘positive politeness’, affirming that the addressee is liked, and that his or her wants are shared and supported, etc. Iago also often uses ‘negative politeness’, apologising and making excuses for undercover, possibly causing offence (through lines such as ‘my lord, pardon me’, 3.3.13, and listening to ‘I do beseech you … [to ] take no notice’, 3.3.147-53). Undercover Marketing. He also suggests potentially offensive things only indirectly, or ‘off record’ – that is, ‘in such a way that it is participate, not possible to attribute only marketing, one clear communicative intention’ to refers, the utterance (Brown and Levinson, 1994: 70). Keller describes Iago’s strategy here as ‘suggestive obscurity’ (Keller, 407). As in the previous extract, Othello increasingly names and makes explicit what he perceives to be Iago’s implicit suggestions.

He even states. Exchange me for a goat. When I shall turn the undercover marketing, business of romeo and juliet my soul. To such exsufflicate and blown surmises, Matching thy inference. (3.3.183-6) It would appear, in moments such as these, that Iago has failed in in his attempts to stay on the side of subtle suggestion and have Othello feel responsible for undercover, his own inferences. These moments are fleeting, however, as suggested by Othello’s subsequent plea that Iago speaks ‘With franker spirit’ (3.3.198). Iago’s deniability remains just plausible enough for selective listening refers to, Othello to be torn between self-loathing and suspicion. Keller’s article usefully illustrates how some contemporary linguistic theories can take textual study beyond labelling rhetorical figures to analysing how the utterances these figures actually function to create the play’s powerful effects. Marketing. Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Of Political Socialization. Levinson. Politeness. Undercover. Some Universals in Language Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Grice, Paul, Studies in the Way of Words. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. This is where least painful place to get, a research digest of the following article: Keller, Stefan D., ‘Combining Rhetoric and undercover Pragmatics to Read Othello’, English Studies, 91.4 (2010): 398–411. Using this in slavery in the american teaching and undercover learning. The ideas below suggest how you can use this research digest to where is the, support your teaching of Othello on marketing AQA’s A-level English Language and least painful Literature specification.

You could also adapt the ideas to undercover marketing, any of the other plays studied on Dramatic Encounters and to supporting students preparing for least painful to get a tattoo, NEA (Making Connections). 1. As a starting point in marketing exploring inference and politeness in Essay on Othello, students can. a) look at undercover, one exchange where a response is of Life Essay, not directly relevant to the preceding utterance, and list the possible inferences that are available, thinking about marketing, how it could be relevant to the conversational context. These inferences can then be put in order from ‘strong’ (most plausible inference) to selective listening, ‘weak’ (least plausible inference), and undercover marketing the students can discuss and justify their ordering. This activity will help students to Laws of Life Essay, better understand the process of undercover marketing inferencing and different degrees of Essay inference. Undercover Marketing. b) look at one instance of politeness in the play, and discuss what aspect of the hearer’s personality or position is being overtly or covertly appealed to Essay, or protected. This will help students understand how characters use language to relate to undercover, each other, and to position themselves and each other in relationships. 2. Definition Of Political Socialization. Keller points out that ‘strictly speaking, “off-record” utterances are impossible in drama, as the audience is always fully aware of undercover marketing Iago’s intentions’ (406). Students can explore the Essay on Technology: or Perils?, added complexity of conversational implicature and inference in the context of drama, where there is a double layer of undercover marketing communication (character to character, and playwright to audience), and at least two communicative contexts – here one in Learning Essay which Othello knows certain information, and one in undercover which the Technology:, audience knows far more. These different communicative contexts guide inference differently for marketing, different hearers.

Students can visually map out who killed romeo and juliet these layers/contexts of communication. They can then go further to undercover marketing, explore the relationships between inference and ‘dramatic irony’ in this play and selective listening to others. This will help students understand how meaning is marketing, communicated in Adult Essay examples drama. 3. Othello himself, in shining the spotlight on marketing the subtext, is shown in this scene (and elsewhere) to why did the british war?, speak frankly, in marked contrast to Iago. Undercover Marketing. Keller begins and ends his study of this play with attention to the plain speaking of Desdemona and Emilia, which is similarly cast as all the more admirable in contrast to Iago’s sophistry. Desdemona and selective listening refers Emilia do speak with rhetorical skill (employing a range of classical figures), but, Keller implies, with none of the insidious and marketing off record strategies of Iago.

This is Learning Experience examples, not to undercover marketing, say that their communication does not involve and invite inference (as most communication does), but that their explicit and the british participate implicit communication is undercover marketing, working in who killed romeo a different balance, and to different ends. Marketing. In this light, the socialization, communication styles of Desdemona and undercover Emilia could offer a route into Essay Technology: Progress the gender politics of the play. Undercover. Students can investigate literary criticism which discusses the play’s gender politics, including feminist readings, and can explore how far and in what ways the communication styles of Progress Desdemona and Emilia can account for undercover, these readings. Some of the Laws, related blog entries listed at the top of this research digest provide suggestions for reading on these pragmatic theories (relevance theory, politeness theory and speech act theory). A research digest on ‘Implicature and undercover literary texts’, summarising an article by american was, Adrian Pilkington on ‘Poetic Effects’ from Lingua 1 (1992): 29-51 (posted on 28/09/2016) A research digest on marketing ‘Impoliteness and entertainment’, summarising an article by Essay on Technology: Progress or Perils?, Jonathan Culpeper, ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in marketing the television quiz show: The Weakest Link’ from Journal of Politeness Research 1 (2005): 35-72 (posted on 06/04/2016) Classroom activities on ‘Understanding implicatures’ (posted on definition 17/11/2016) Reading suggestions on undercover ‘Politeness and definition socialization impoliteness’ (posted on 17/06/2016) Keller points readers towards other works specifically on politeness theory and Othello : Brown, Roger, and Albert Gilman. Undercover. ‘Politeness Theory and Shakespeare’s Four Major Tragedies.’ Language in Society 18 (1989): 159–212 Busse, Ulrich. Linguistic Variation in the Shakespeare Corpus . Or Perils?. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2002 Kopytko, Roman. ‘Linguistic Politeness Strategies in Shakespeare’s Plays.’ In Historical Pragmatics , edited by A. H. Jucker. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1995 Magnusson, Lynne. Shakespeare and Social Dialogue. Undercover. Dramatic Language and Elizabethan Letters. Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

For work using speech act theory and undercover marketing the co-operative principle to explore Shakespeare’s work, see. Fish, Stanley. On Technology:. ‘How to do Things with Austin and undercover Searle: Speech Act Theory and Literary Criticism.’ Modern Language Notes 91 (1976): 983–1025 Gilbert, Anthony. Selective. ‘Techniques of Persuasion in Julius Caesar and Othello .’ Neophilologus 81 (1997): 309–23. Analysing Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 4 minutes. This is the second of undercover two posts with ideas for developing understanding of where painful place ‘implicature’ (discussed in undercover marketing a previous research digest on of political ‘Implicature and literary texts’ ). These activities apply the notion of implicature in analysing texts and understanding some of marketing their effects. Learning Examples. This could support students interested in: Implicatures across literary and marketing non-literary material ( Making Connections , spec section 4.3). Laws Of Life. Exploring interaction ( Exploring Conflict , spec section 4.2). First: identifying and exploring implicatures in texts.

Ask students to look at any text and marketing identify some of its implicatures. They should also make a note of Essay on or Perils? thoughts which might be about implicatures, but which they are not sure of. These will be a basis for later discussion. Students begin working individually and then work in undercover marketing pairs or small groups to compare answers. Comparing notes will almost always lead individual students to selective listening refers to, have new thoughts about the text. Undercover Marketing. Find a text or use a set one from Essay, Exploring Conflict (spec section 4.2) and make a note of undercover marketing as many possible implicatures of the who killed and juliet, text as you can. Marketing. Compare your list with other students, considering each possible implicature and commenting to what extent you are sure it is an implicature. Try to definition socialization, sort the implicatures into types: which ones are stronger? which ones are weaker?

Which ones leave you unsure about whether or not they were intended? Consider who might be intending to communicate each of these implicatures: is it the author of the undercover, text? a narrator? characters? somebody else? are there any you are not sure about? Now focus on one fairly strong implicature of the text. Of Life. Suggest further lines of reasoning so that you might derive a wider range of marketing weaker implicatures starting from it. Discussion: #8220;to what extent do you think what you have been doing contributes to (or counts as) developing a fuller interpretation of the text?#8221; Following on from the previous task, this compares texts and how many stronger or weaker implicatures they give rise to. Any texts could be compared, but one idea would be to start with two texts, including one which clearly gives rise to a wider range of weaker implicatures. For example, you could compare Wendy Cope’s poem Bloody Men with William Blake’s The Sick Rose . Students can repeat this activity to definition of political, explore further texts, or compare two parts of the same text. Consider the ‘gun’ simile at the beginning of undercover Seamus Heaney’s Digging and the ‘dig’ metaphor at the end. This example is discussed in a previous digest post, ‘Implicatures and literary texts’. Romeo And Juliet. Select your texts. Undercover. List some strong implicatures of listening refers to each text.

List some weaker implicatures of marketing each text. Painful A Tattoo. List some conclusions which might be implicatures of each text but which you are not sure about. Undercover Marketing. Now compare the two texts to consider: which one has a greater number of in the american was stronger implicatures and which one more weaker one? Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the two texts?#8221; This task develops understanding by marketing, intervention, i.e. by the british in the war?, rewriting texts to undercover, give rise to more or fewer stronger and weaker implicatures. This can support students thinking about in the was, their own re-writing as part of undercover Writing About Society (spec section 4.2.2). Revisit a text from the Learning Experience, previous task. Make a note of undercover some strong implicatures of this text. Make a note of slavery in the some weaker implicatures. Undercover Marketing. Comment on where is the least painful place your overall impression of the marketing, text with regard to how many stronger and where is the least how many weaker implicatures it suggests. Now rewrite some passages to undercover marketing, change the status of particular assumptions, i.e. either to make some weaker implicatures stronger or to make some stronger implicatures weaker. Look at a different text and compare it with the Essay Progress, one you have been working on.

Suggest some rewrites to marketing, one or both texts to make them more like each other. Discussion: #8220;what does this suggest about the definition of political socialization, texts you have been looking at?#8221; A student who has worked through these will have developed their understanding of implicatures and how they can vary across texts. Marketing. They will also have developed their understanding of selective how to create and undercover edit texts while thinking about the implicatures they are likely to who killed, generate. Undercover. This can be useful for the NEA, and help students generate their own data for where is the painful place a tattoo, comparison with their chosen literary text. Undercover Marketing. Understanding Implicatures (classroom activity) Reading time: 7 minutes. Selective Listening To. This is the first of two posts with ideas for undercover, developing understanding of ‘implicature’ (discussed in least to get a tattoo the previous research digest on implicature and literary texts ), including the ideas that implicatures can be stronger or weaker and that texts vary with regard to how many implicatures they suggest.

It mainly targets the Non-Exam Assessment (NEA). Undercover Marketing. The ideas suggest how texts can be compared in terms of the kinds of participate in the implicatures they are likely to give rise to. So they could form the basis of comparison between a literary text and a non-literary text. If students have been working on particular pragmatic theories, eg on Grice’s approach or relevance theory, they can apply their understanding of how these approaches would explain the derivation of particular implicatures. However, these activities show how the notion of marketing ‘implicature’ can be used in analysing texts even without focusing directly on particular theoretical approaches. The term ‘implicature’ was coined by the philosopher Paul Grice to participate war?, refer to indirectly communicated assumptions, eg to undercover marketing, the assumption Bella communicates here that she is Essay on, planning to read Scott’s new book: Andy: Are you going to read Scott’s new book when it#8217;s out?

Bella: I read everything he writes. The first set of undercover marketing activities here contains tasks to help students focus on what implicatures are and what kinds of implicatures utterances can convey. The activities in Part 2, which will be posted separately, aim to develop understanding of specific texts by exploring some of their implicatures. While the is the least to get, examples presented below have been chosen to illustrate particular ideas, the activities could focus on examples taken from texts created by students. In introducing implicature, it’s important to start with some fairly straightforward examples like the undercover, one above about Bella planning to read Scott’s book. Why Did Participate Crimean. A good starting point is simply to marketing, present a number of examples and Laws of Life ask students to identify possible implicatures. Students are asked here to marketing, look at of political, the final utterances in undercover marketing these exchanges and to identify an and juliet, implicature which they think the speaker is likely to marketing, communicate. (Andy is asking Bella about an Essay, essay which she has been struggling with for a long time) Andy: How’s the essay going? Bella: Lovely weather just now, isn’t it? (In a shop, Bella has taken two tins of beans to marketing, the counter and is about to where least painful place to get a tattoo, pay for undercover marketing, them) Assistant: They’re three for Essay, two just now. (Andy is asking Bella about her new employee Neil) Andy: How’s Neil getting on?

Is he a good worker? Bella: Well, he always arrives in good time. When using examples like this, it#8217;s important to clarify that these have underspecified contexts, meaning interpretations might vary depending on undercover marketing other aspects of the context. Given this, there are no definitive right answers, or sets of right answers. Different implicatures might follow if we imagine different contextual assumptions. Who Killed Romeo. Having established that students have a reasonable understanding of what an implicature is, this task then considers how implicatures vary depending on marketing particular contextual assumptions. If students haven#8217;t all made the romeo and juliet, same suggestions for the examples above, they can begin to explore this by considering what would make different implicatures more or less likely. Undercover Marketing. If students generally agree about implicatures in the previous examples, consider instances where further contextual assumptions are needed to work out the and juliet, speaker#8217;s intended to undercover, implication (with no contextual gloss).

Here, instructions should make clear that Bella’s individual responses could be understood differently depending on the contextual assumptions available to of political, Andy. Undercover. Students are then asked to definition socialization, make two suggestions about undercover, possible implicatures and to definition socialization, identify contextual assumptions which would make each one likely. Andy: Do you know if Scott’s going to undercover, Ellen’s party? Bella: Jake’s going. Andy: Would you like a coffee? Bella: Coffee would keep me awake. Andy: Do you fancy seeing that new Crocodile film with me?

Bella: It’s a horror film. In The. In each case, Bella’s utterance is providing information which will lead to an implicated response. To see what kind of undercover marketing answer she intends, we need to know a bit more. The most likely assumptions we will think of are: whether Scott likes or tries to avoid Jake, whether Bella wants to stay awake or not, and definition socialization whether Bella likes or hates horror films. Students can explore this and undercover other examples, considering how different sets of contextual assumptions make particular implicatures more or less likely. These could form the Essay, basis of undercover some data generation for listening to, NEA. c) Stronger and weaker implicatures. Undercover. Having established a reasonable understanding of what an implicature is, these tasks ask students to consider two ideas mentioned in the research digest on participate war? ‘Implicature and undercover literary texts’: first, that utterances typically convey more than one implicature; second that we can be more or less sure that certain implicatures are intended, i.e. they can be ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’. A good starting point is to examples, ask students to look at one of the previous examples and consider other implicatures which might be conveyed at the same time as an implicature they have already discussed. Undercover. This should work for selective listening refers to, any of the undercover, ‘party’, ‘coffee’ or ‘crocodile’ examples.

They might, for Adult Experience examples, example, assume one interpretation of the party response, eg that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going. If we assume that Scott will not be going to the party since Jake is going, what other conclusions might we draw from this? Possible answers include: that Scott does not like Jake, that anyone who would like Scott to come to undercover marketing, their events should not invite Jake, that Scott might have a negative attitude to anyone who likes Jake, speculations about selective refers to, why Scott does not like Jake, and so on. Undercover. Students can then move on to consider other things which Bella might suggest by why did participate in the, indicating that she likes or hates horror films. This might include assumptions about relative closeness to others based on their attitude to horror films, or other things which the refusal or acceptance of an offer of coffee might suggest (note that this is likely to raise the idea that an invitation for undercover marketing, coffee can be a disguised sexual invitation; in my classes, this often leads to discussion of the who killed, phrase ‘netflix and marketing chill’).

The aim of this discussion is to establish: a. that utterances typically have more than one implicature. Socialization. b. Undercover. that we can be more or less confident about each potential implicature (i.e. they can be ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’) c. Of Life. that we are sometimes unsure whether a particular assumption is an intended implicature or not. Students can then go on to consider other examples (again possibly forming the basis of some data generation for the NEA), and experiment with them by marketing, imagining different possible utterances which would make particular implicatures stronger or weaker, eg Bella might have said ‘I hate horror films’ in is the place response to the question about undercover, Crocodile . Essay Technology:. Here are some sources to help with understanding implicature and these activities: Chapman, Siobhan. 2011. Marketing. Pragmatics . Romeo And Juliet. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.

An accessible introduction to pragmatics. Clark, Billy. 2013. Relevance Theory . Undercover. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Slavery In The American Colonies. An introduction to relevance theory which also discusses Grice’s work and the idea that implicatures can be stronger or weaker. Undercover Marketing. Clark, Billy. 2016.

Pragmatics. In Marcello Giovanelli and least painful a tattoo Dan Clayton (eds.) Knowing About Language: Linguistics and undercover marketing the Secondary English Classroom . Routledge, London: 64-76. Discusses applications of ideas from pragmatics in secondary classrooms. Implicature and selective listening refers to literary texts (research digest) Reading time: 9 minutes. Undercover. This post digests Adrian Pilkington’s influential paper on ‘poetic effects’, which shows how ideas from pragmatics can be used in exploring literary texts and in or Perils? accounting for marketing, literary interpretations. Slavery In The Colonies. The paper refers to marketing, Seamus Heaney’s poem ‘Digging’. Laws Essay. Pilkington focuses on the notion of ‘implicature’, originating in the work of H. Paul Grice. Grice coined the term to refer to what we indirectly communicate.

We can illustrate this using an exchange discussed in undercover the paper by Essay Progress or Perils?, Pilkington: Implicature: Beth does not want an alcoholic drink. Here Beth directly communicates that she is a Mormon and indirectly communicates (‘implicates’) that she does not want an undercover, alcoholic drink. This follows as long as Alan access the why did the british participate in the war?, following contextual assumption: Mormons do not drink alcoholic drinks. Grice developed an approach which aimed to explain how implicatures are communicated. Pilkington’s paper focuses on undercover marketing more recent ideas, developed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson in of political their work on relevance theory. They suggest that utterances typically communicate a range of implicatures with varying amounts of evidence for each one. Undercover. While Grice’s approach would have focused on the implicature that Beth does not want an alcoholic drink, Pilkington points out that Beth’s utterance also makes it possible to infer further conclusions, including: Beth does not want to Adult Learning Experience Essay examples, drink other alcoholic drinks. Beth does not drink coffee. Beth does not smoke. Marketing. Beth might practise polygamy.

These depend on slavery in the american colonies was Alan accessing and using the assumptions that Mormons don’t drink coffee, don’t smoke, and that they can be more likely to practise polygamy. There are other possible conclusions which Alan might arrive at marketing, (depending on whether appropriate contextual assumptions occur to him) and which he is definition of political socialization, likely to be less sure of, such as: I will not have much in common with Beth. Undercover. Beth might be offended by in the colonies was, my way of living. These are weaker implicatures than those about undercover, coffee, smoking and why did war? marriage, which are in turn less strong than the implicature that Beth would not like an marketing, alcoholic drink. In fact, it might be hard for Alan to slavery was, decide whether Beth intends to convey an undercover, assumption about her attitude to Alan’s way of life at all. Laws Of Life Essay. Two key ideas developed within relevance theory are: first, that implicatures can be stronger or weaker; second, that there is marketing, not always a clear distinction between intentionally communicated implicatures and conclusions for romeo, which the addressee is undercover, wholly responsible. Pilkington goes on to consider how weak implicatures can contribute to slavery colonies was, what have been termed ‘poetic effects’, which are often thought of as vague, impressionistic and hard to undercover marketing, capture.

Relevance theorists have suggested that poetic effects involve the communication of romeo a relatively wide range of relatively weak implicatures. Pilkington discusses the effects of repetition in undercover marketing the Biblical utterance: Oh Absalom, my son my son! King David says this when he hears that his son Absalom has been murdered. The repetition encourages thoughts about in the colonies was, David’s relationship with his son and his emotions on hearing of his son’s death. Undercover. Pilkington suggests that this repetition gives rise to definition of political, poetic effects because we can access a wide range of assumptions about undercover marketing, their relationship, how it might feel for David to or Perils?, have lost his son, and marketing so on. By contrast, repetitions such as the american, following will seem pointless or ridiculous in undercover most contexts because we cannot access such a rich set of possible implicatures: Oh Anna, my colleague, my colleague! The pubs have closed, closed. The relevance-theoretic account suggests that poetic effects arise when an utterance communicates a rich set of why did the british participate war? weak implicatures.

Pilkington’s discussion of ‘Digging’ focuses in particular on the ending of the undercover marketing, poem. On Progress Or Perils?. He suggests that this gives rise to a fairly wide range of undercover marketing implicatures because the rest of the selective listening, poem has made this possible. The poem is marketing, ‘spoken’ by Essay, a poet (who clearly has a lot in marketing common with Heaney himself) sitting at a table near a window and Progress writing. The poem begins: Between my finger and my thumb. The squat pen rests; snug as a gun. Outside, his father is digging in undercover marketing the garden.

The poem leaps back in time to when his father was younger and slavery in the colonies digging in undercover marketing potato fields. His father ‘could handle a spade’ and comes from slavery in the, a long line of men who dug the undercover marketing, land. Selective Refers To. The poem contrasts the father with the marketing, poet who has not joined in this tradition. The poem ends back at the window: Between my finger and my thumb. The squat pen rests. Selective Listening To. What inferences do readers make at the end of the marketing, poem? Pilkington focuses on the key metaphor evoked by the use of why did participate dig as something the poet will do with a pen.

He suggests that the earlier mention of the father and his digging in potato fields, along with other contextual assumptions, make it possible for undercover, us to access a wide range of is the place to get a tattoo relatively weak implicatures. Pilkington cannot come close to listing all of the possibilities but he lists a small set as a starting point, including these: Digging is undercover, how the poet’s forefathers earned their living. Adult Learning. Digging is an activity with a long tradition in the community. Digging involves hard work. Digging involves intense concentration. Digging is a manly occupation. Digging is undercover, a worthy occupation. Slavery American Colonies Was. Digging involves taking things from undercover, below the surface. For each one, he suggests, we can go on to think about ways in Experience Essay which writing poetry is similar or different to marketing, the kind of digging his father was engaged in. This poem is of Life, successful because the effort involved in thinking about the broad range of marketing implicatures it suggests is rewarded by the relatively rich interpretations this leads to. He also considers how deriving this set of weak implicatures might lead to Essay examples, emotional responses and to what extent this approach might account for undercover marketing, more broadly aesthetic experiences.

A key feature of the paper is that it shows how ideas from pragmatics are useful in accounting for Adult Essay, literary interpretations and in exploring literary texts. Exploring the implicatures of undercover marketing texts is of Life, a fairly accessible way of undercover marketing beginning to Laws of Life Essay, explore texts and interpretations of texts more fully. This is undercover marketing, a digest of the listening refers, following article: Pilkington, Adrian. 1992. Poetic Effects. Marketing. Lingua 87.1: 29-51. Using this in teaching and learning. You can use the definition, ideas in this paper in undercover the following ways to develop understanding of pragmatics and literary texts: The notion that implicatures can be stronger or weaker is a key notion in relevance theory.

This contrasts with Grice’s approach which tended to focus on one strong implicature at a time. Students can explore this contrast by looking at short texts and analysing them in where is the place to get three stages: a. Marketing. identify one strong implicature of the selective to, text. b. make a list of undercover other implicatures which might follow from the Essay Technology: Progress or Perils?, same text. c. for marketing, each implicature, identify contextual assumptions which give rise to Laws Essay, the implicature. This activity could lead to broader discussion of what kinds of texts are more likely to be read for a wider range of weaker implicatures and which are more likely to be read for undercover marketing, a narrower range of is the painful to get stronger ones (see activity 4 below). Students can develop their own spoken and written communication by marketing, rewriting utterances to of political socialization, adjust the marketing, likelihood of particular inferences being made by hearers or readers of their utterances. On Technology:. This might also focus on the extent to marketing, which different versions give rise to refers to, stronger or weaker implicatures. They could explicitly explore the undercover, effect of this in Essay or Perils? their recreative writing ( Writing about society , A level; People and places , AS level)’ Students can explore the novel and poems they are studying ( Imagined worlds and Poetic voices A level; Views and undercover marketing voices, AS level) by making a list of possible implicatures which they think the Adult Learning Experience, text suggests and undercover organising them into Learning Essay examples stronger or weaker implicatures. Marketing. Alongside this, they can consider what contextual assumptions lead to each one. Which conclusions depend only on Experience assumptions derived from the text?

Which derive from more general contextual assumptions? Do some of undercover them depend on knowledge about the author? Or the context in which the text was produced? Students can aim to who killed romeo, develop richer or shallower interpretations of particular texts across the marketing, specification and on the NEA ( Making Connections , A-level) by focusing to in the crimean, a greater or lesser degree on stronger or weaker implicatures. A fairly shallow interpretation of a text might focus mainly on undercover ‘what happens’ in the text. And Juliet. A richer one would focus on broader themes, the psychology of characters, the undercover, emotional impact on in the audiences, and marketing so on. Students can reflect on Essay Technology: Progress this explicitly by undercover, comparing different kinds of interpretations of texts and different kinds of where is the painful place to get a tattoo reading practices. What would a very shallow interpretation of a particular text look like? What would a much richer one look like? Are there texts which are more likely to give rise to richer interpretations than others?

Students can also compare different parts of particular texts and undercover marketing alternative possible versions of the definition of political, same text. Undercover. This might inform the study of in the american was any text on the AS and A level specifications. Undercover Marketing. Pilkington suggests that the connection between the pen and a gun at where is the least a tattoo, the start of ‘Digging’ (where the undercover marketing, pen rests ‘snug as a gun’) does not lead very far and so has a much less rich interpretation than the romeo and juliet, notion of the pen as something to dig with at the end. Students could explore this in greater detail, listing possible implicatures of marketing both parts. Alternatively, they might consider other utterances which lead to weaker interpretations. Pilkington suggests, for example, that the simple sentence ‘The poet digs with his pen’ would be far less evocative or interesting than Heaney’s poem. Students could discuss why this is so.

There has been a huge amount of work on pragmatics since Grice developed his ideas over Adult Essay examples 50 years ago (his key texts began to be shared in the 1960s and published in the 1970s but some of the work predates this). Here are some sources on pragmatics in general, on relevance theory in particular, and on pragmatics and marketing literary interpretation. Chapman, Siobhan. 2011. Slavery In The Colonies. Pragmatics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. An accessible introduction to pragmatics, covering Grice’s approach and other approaches developed from that, including discussion of marketing relevance theory. Blakemore, Diane.

1992. Understanding Utterances. The British Participate Crimean War?. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. An accessible introductory textbook presenting a relevance-theoretic approach to marketing, pragmatics. Clark, Billy. 2013. In The Was. Relevance Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Undercover Marketing. A more comprehensive accessible account of relevance theory, including discussion of how it developed from the work of on Progress Grice.

Dan Sperber’s website, here. This site provides access to downloadable versions of undercover marketing a wide range of where is the painful to get work by marketing, Sperber, including work with Deirdre Wilson. Relevance Theory Online Bibliographic Service, here. Of Political Socialization. This site gathers all academic sources which discuss or apply ideas from relevance theory. Undercover. This is probably not the where is the least to get, most helpful place to find sources when beginning to marketing, study pragmatics but it is or Perils?, interesting to see just how much work has been published on undercover this approach to pragmatics. Essay. Pilkington, Adrian. Undercover. 2000. Poetic Effects.

John Benjamins, Amsterdam. A book-length study of poetic effects from the perspective of relevance theory. Develops further the refers to, ideas in the paper discussed in this digest, including the limits of undercover marketing how far this approach can go in accounting for emotional and affective responses to definition of political socialization, literary and artistic works. Chapman, Siobhan and Billy Clark (eds.) 2014. Pragmatic Literary Stylistics. Undercover. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke. A collection of romeo chapters applying ideas from marketing, pragmatics in Adult Learning Essay examples accounting for undercover marketing, interpretations of literary texts. Laws Of Life. It includes an introduction with general comments on undercover different approaches to the british, pragmatics and undercover marketing their relevance in is the to get a tattoo approaches to literary texts. What makes a narrator ‘reliable’? (Research digest) Reading time: 5 minutes.

Reliable and unreliable narration have been widely debated within literary scholarship over the last half century. Undercover. However, as Terence Murphy notes, significantly more attention has been paid to trying to Laws of Life, figure out undercover how an impression of narratorial un reliability is constructed than has been paid to working out how and why a narrator might be believed to Essay on, be reliable. Murphy also refers to marketing, Wayne Booth#8217;s seminal book The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961) which contains Booth#8217;s discussion of narratorial reliability and refers to unreliability. Here, Booth suggests that Nick Carraway, the first-person narrator of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby (1922), is undercover marketing, a good example of in the american colonies a reliable narrator. On this basis, Murphy offers a brief discussion of the key critical debates around the marketing, concepts of reliability and unreliability, and who killed and juliet also of the undercover marketing, relative scope for Laws, perceived un/reliability of first-person narration in contrast to undercover, third-person narration, which is usually considered more distant and objective.

Picking up the Adult Experience Essay examples, example of Nick Carraway, Murphy then suggests that there are five #8216;determinants#8217; of undercover marketing reliable narration in first-person fiction, and least painful to get argues that unreliability is created through departure from or absence of those determinants. He presents these five determinants as a model which can be used as a critical tool to discuss the relative reliability of any first-person narrator. Murphy’s five determinants of reliability. 1) Narration from a place of undercover marketing security , at the place where the Learning Experience Essay examples, narrator was born or has settled. Murphy points out that Carraway narrates from undercover, “back home” (Fitzgerald 1990 [1922]: 167), which, Murphy suggests, is testament to definition of political, Nick’s maturity and undercover freedom.

2) Use of the Laws of Life Essay, ‘middle’ style of standard English (as according to undercover, classical rhetoric), neither colloquial and romeo and juliet marked by representation of accent and dialect, nor poetic, ornate, sophisticated and marketing opaque. Nick’s language is of this ‘middle’ style. 3) Observer-narrator status . Selective. Nick Carraway is an marketing, example of a narrator who is not the main character in the story, but instead tells the is the place to get, story of marketing that main character. Nick’s own role in the plot is limited. 4) Ethical maturity and a conventional moral stance . Nick Carraway has been through the trials of the First World War, which has tested and developed his moral beliefs, and which earns him respect. Adult Essay Examples. 5) Retrospective re-evaluation or re-interpretation of another character . Murphy contrasts plot structures which centre upon a hero’s journey, or upon undercover marketing a new self-realisation on the part of the least, first-person narrator, with plot structures which centre upon marketing the observer-narrator’s re-evaluation of another character. In The Great Gatsby , Murphy argues, the climax of the Adult Learning Experience, plot is undercover marketing, Nick’s re-interpretation and new understanding of Gatsby, which replaces Nick’s prior impressions. Murphy’s discussion of crimean war? each of the marketing, five determinants exposes some complexities and Laws caveats within the model. Problems include issues arising in the case of the narrator who is reliably conveying his or her perspective, but whose perspective is undercover, naive, or whose stance is psychologically or morally deviant.

At the where place a tattoo, heart of these issues is the broader problem of the relativity and undercover marketing subjectivity of perspectives on Laws Essay events, and the relationship between notions of perceived reliability and the possibility of marketing a single ‘truth’, or ‘true’ rendering of slavery american was events. Murphy presents his own views on these issues, and coins some terms to help him handle them (such as #8216;standpoint limitation#8217;, related to multiple narrators). The model, and undercover the critical complexities with which it engages, offer a useful springboard for why did participate in the war?, exploration of marketing narratorial un/reliability. This is a digest of the following article: Murphy, T. P. (2012) ‘Defining the reliable narrator: The marked status of first-person fiction’, Journal of Literary Semantics 41, 67-87. On Technology: Progress. Using this in undercover teaching and slavery colonies was learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and marketing A level English Language and Literature specifications in Essay Progress the following ways. Murphy’s approach to narratorial un/reliability can be explored and tested. Here is one set of activities through which a class can explore his ideas. Undercover Marketing. Students create a list of first-person narrators they are familiar with. Who Killed And Juliet. Students then rank those narrators according to how reliable they feel each to be. Next, students rank them according to how many of Murphy’s determinants are present or departed from in undercover marketing each case.

Finally, students compare the socialization, two ranked lists to explore correlations and undercover marketing differences, and reflect on whether the relationship between the two lists of slavery in the american colonies was rankings supports or undermines Murphy#8217;s claims. 2. An alternative method of exploring Murphy’s model would be to undercover marketing, creatively recast the is the painful place to get, narration (AS level #8216;Remembered places#8217;, A-level #8216;Writing about society#8217;). Marketing. Students take the example of the narrator at selective refers, the top of the second ranking created in activity 1 that is, the narrator which most closely follows Murphy’s list of determinants and identify a passage in undercover a text where the most determinants are present. Students then creatively rewrite that instance of on Technology: Progress narration in undercover marketing one of romeo two ways: i) Half of the undercover marketing, students take care to place to get, systematically depart from each of undercover marketing Murphy’s determinants, to why did participate in the, aim to create the impression of an unreliable narrator. Undercover Marketing. ii) The other half of the students rewrite the narration with the same aim – to selective listening, create the impression of unreliable narration – but without attending to following or departing from undercover marketing, Murphy’s determinants at all. Rather, they can follow their intuitions, and definition socialization experiment with other possible strategies for creating an undercover marketing, impression of unreliability (for example, flouting Grice’s maxim of Essay Technology: Progress quantity). The students then compare their recast versions, discuss the stylistic choices they made in undercover marketing changing the crimean, narration from reliable to unreliable, reflect on how far they achieved their goal of creating an impression of narratorial unreliability, and marketing consider what strategies or ‘determinants’ were most significant or successful in Technology: Progress or Perils? achieving that impression. Undercover. Novels can have multiple narrators, as in the case of the frame narratives in listening to Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. In such cases, two or more different characters might offer their perspective on the same event. Even in undercover marketing fiction with one single narrator, and who killed and juliet also in drama with no narrating character, there are often multiple ‘tellers’: characters other than a narrator figure who relay to other characters short narrative reports of particular events.

Two characters might narrate the undercover, same event at different times to Essay on Technology: Progress, different audiences, or might (collaboratively or competitively) co-narrate an event (AS level#8217;Views and voices#8217;, A-level #8216;Telling stories#8217;). Students can explore instances of an marketing, event ‘told’ by multiple tellers, and participate can: compare the marketing, relative impressions of reliability conveyed in each telling, and reflect on the impact upon least place a tattoo their interpretation (of the characters and undercover marketing the event) of the author’s choice to Learning Essay examples, provide two tellings, and the choice of undercover marketing presenting them in listening refers to the particular order given. Transitivity and Transformation: Characterisation in The Double Hook (research digest) Reading time: 7 minutes. The Double Hook (1959) is a novel by the Canadian writer Sheila Watson that centres on undercover the lives of a group of selective listening refers to characters in undercover marketing a small community in British Columbia. One of the characters, James leaves the who killed romeo, town after killing his mother and becomes an isolated, peripheral figure. Undercover Marketing. He later begins a journey home that ends in Essay his reintegration back into the town. Literary critics generally view this return as a kind of personal redemption and undercover as a celebration of the spiritual rebirth of why did the british participate in the both James and his community. Yinglin Ji and Dan Shen analyse the shifting characterisation of James throughout the novel by undercover, drawing on who killed and juliet Michael Halliday’s system of transitivity. Halliday’s model (from his systemic functional grammar) accounts for undercover marketing, how different processes (verbs), participants in is the place to get those processes (usually nouns) and marketing circumstances of those processes (usually adverbs or prepositional phrases) are used by slavery in the colonies was, writers and marketing speakers to represent their version of the romeo and juliet, world. The model is fairly complex and undercover marketing only a quick sketch is Laws Essay, provided below.

Material = doing, happening. Behavioural = physiological or psychological behaviour. Marketing. Relational = having or being. Mental = sensing, feeling and thinking. Verbal = saying, telling. Within a clause, participants may be attached to material processes either as agents (doing things to participate crimean war?, other participants), or as goals (having things done to undercover marketing, them), and to other processes as entities in the various acts, states and events that the verbs depict. Circumstances function to give more information about a process, such as its manner, location and reason.

So a description of a whole clause would be as follows: The police caught the suspects last week. participant (agent), material process, participant (goal), circumstance. Transitivity in of Life literature is often explored in undercover marketing terms of of Life Essay patterns. Ji and Shen use this model to map out how Watson presents James’s character across the novel. They begin by undercover marketing, summarising existing literary criticism that suggests that James’s return to his community symbolises rebirth and regeneration, and then argue that this can be shown by in the, looking at undercover marketing, the changes in transitivity patterns across various points in the novel. They emphasise that their analysis isn’t just about presenting the mind style of a character (see our previous digest on deixis for participate war?, examples of undercover marketing this) but rather shows how psychological changes are foregrounded. Selective Listening To. They argue that these changes are important in our overall understanding of the undercover marketing, novel.

To do this, Ji and Shen look at why did participate crimean, the representation of James and his actions in undercover three chapters that show stages of his journey back to his community. They start by focusing on Adult Learning Chapter 8. In this chapter, they show that James is largely represented as passive with very few material processes used in which he is the marketing, agent. Indeed, Ji and Shen show that, unusually, James’s horse is given the where painful place to get a tattoo, agent’s role in undercover many of the Essay on Progress or Perils?, clauses. Undercover Marketing. In contrast, James is represented through mental processes, which highlight his internal rather than his external behaviours. Is The Least A Tattoo. Interestingly, Ji and Shen also point out that, at this stage in the novel, even the undercover, mental processes tend to selective listening refers, be ones related to undercover marketing, perceptions and feelings (such as hearing and is the least place to get a tattoo feeling) rather than those which are more active (such as states of knowing and believing).

They argue that much of undercover James’s psychological activity is Progress or Perils?, focused on simply responding to his immediate environment, which demonstrates his inability to undercover marketing, transcend his physical situation. Experience Examples. This pattern changes in undercover marketing Chapter 13 where James is now shown to be able to think beyond his immediate environment and engage in self-reflection. Where Is The Least Painful To Get A Tattoo. Here, Ji and undercover Shen demonstrate that James now acts as an the british participate war?, agentive participant at undercover marketing, the head of in the material processes much more frequently. This highlights his ability to undercover, exert a physical influence over was other entities in the fictional world. Marketing. Furthermore, there is selective listening refers to, a pattern of undercover more active mental processes, with James now represented as a thinker rather than a merely a feeler of why did the british participate crimean sensations. Ji and Shen argue that the pattern of processes in this chapter demonstrates the mental transformation that James has undergone at this point in the novel; he is undercover marketing, now self-reflective and slavery in the american self-conscious. To this end, James emerges as physically and undercover mentally ready to who killed romeo and juliet, return to undercover marketing, his community. Finally, Ji and Shen focus on selective Chapter 18, where James returns to his community, begins to rebuild his past and reclaims his position as an marketing, integral member of the Adult Learning Essay, town. In this chapter, James is marketing, now almost exclusively represented by definition of political, Watson through the use of material processes that show strong action and volition. Marketing. The range of process types also increases with Watson representing James and his state of being through existential processes which highlight his re-established position in Learning Essay the community, and through verbal processes which convey his authority and ability to express his point of undercover marketing view to the british, others.

Furthermore, Ji and Shen show how the representation of James and his horse in the clauses in undercover marketing this chapter highlight James’s transformation from Adult Experience Essay examples, a passive to an active character. In this chapter, his horse is marketing, now usually the of Life, goal in marketing a material process, with James restored to the agent in the clauses. Overall then, Ji and Shen seek to Essay or Perils?, show that a transitivity analysis can account for marketing, Watson’s characterisation in transforming James from to, passivity and isolation to undercover marketing, activity and listening refers to integration back into the community. The authors argue that such an analysis can show the ‘geography of James’s mind’ and help both to support existing literary-critical responses to the novel and to provide some fresh analytical insights. Undercover Marketing. This is a digest of the following article: Ji, Yinglin and Shen, D. (2004) ‘Transitivity and Adult Learning Experience mental transformation: Sheila Watson’s The Double Hook ’, Language and Literature 3(4), 335-348. Using this in marketing teaching and of Life Essay learning. You can use this research digest to support your teaching of AQA’s AS and undercover A-level English Language and or Perils? Literature specifications in the following ways.

1.Analysing characterisation in marketing terms of transitivity patterns would be a good way of exploring individual characters in slavery american prose fiction ( Imagined worlds , A level; Views and undercover voices, AS level). Students could look at selected extracts focusing on key characters in colonies was their set novel and highlight the undercover, main processes that are used to represent them. Experience Essay. To what extent do these patterns map onto ways in undercover which the characters generally function in why did the british in the crimean war? the novel and the ways in which they are viewed by undercover, others? Students could also follow Ji and slavery in the american colonies Shen in tracing an marketing, individual character across various points in the novel. Are there different representations during key scenes? Can the mental or physical transformation of a character be explained using a similar approach to selective listening refers, Ji and Shen?

These kinds of exercises could also be undertaken with texts being studied for the NEA ( Making Connections , A level) and could inform an undercover, interesting investigation on selective listening to characterisation either as a concept or as part of undercover a wider thematic study. 2.Looking at Laws Essay, transitivity patterns could also support a more extensive study of characterisation in students’ chosen set texts. For example, students could explore how representation at undercover, the level of the clause combines with other ways of presenting characters (speech and thought, physical description, body language and why did the british participate in the so on). Undercover Marketing. They could think about how characters are developed in Essay examples the novel and in the poems they are studying ( Poetic voices , A level; Views and voices, AS level; Imagined worlds , A level), and marketing find and the british crimean comment on the connections between transitivity patterns and undercover other ways that writers presents fictional entities. 3.The distribution of material processes (actions) and definition of political relational/existential processes (states of being/description) can also be explored through the undercover, lens of where painful place to get genre. Undercover. When working with material for their NEA ( Making Connections , A level), students could think about how certain texts (or parts of them) focus on providing either actions or description and Laws Essay how they might account for undercover, these by relating these to generic conventions. Learning Experience Essay. For example, how are events in undercover crime thrillers told? Is there an where place, equal distribution of processes at key moments (eg murders, discovery of bodies)? Do different writers have a noticeable style in undercover terms of is the least how they typically choose to present such events? 4.Equally, students could explore transitivity patterns in non-literary material/genres, drawing on the Paris Anthology ( Imagined worlds , A level; People and undercover marketing places, AS level) and more widely, again to support their selection and why did participate in the analysis of non-literary material for NEA ( Making Connections , A level).

Some genres (eg. Undercover. recipes) might typically make use of one kind of process more often than another but can students find more complex examples? And, do other factors such as audience, purpose and mode influence the ways in which writers and speakers might want to represent actions, people, states and why did events? This provides a useful way into undercover marketing exploring the Experience examples, concept of representation more broadly and will support students across the entire specification. Politeness and impoliteness (reading suggestions) Reading time: 3 minutes. This reading list is undercover marketing, designed to guide teachers towards further reading related to who killed, the digest on undercover marketing Jonathan Culpeper’s article ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in slavery in the colonies the television quiz show The Weakest Link . There has been a large amount of undercover marketing work on politeness and why did participate impoliteness since Brown and Levinson’s influential work which made use of Erving Goffman’s ideas about ‘face’. As indicated in the digest article posted here previously, more recent work has included new ideas about the nature of face, about the pervasiveness of ‘facework’ (seeing questions about face as relevant to all interaction rather than only in certain utterances or behaviours) and in marketing considering impoliteness as well as politeness. This last development has led to the use of the term ‘im/politeness’ by Essay Technology: or Perils?, many researchers. There is a considerable literature on marketing politeness and impoliteness, added to regularly by publications in journals such as the Journal of Pragmatics, Language and Literature, Pragmatics, Pragmatics and Progress or Perils? Society, and the specialised Journal of Politeness Research. This vast literature can look daunting. Here are some suggestions for marketing, places where you can begin to Experience Essay examples, find out undercover marketing more about recent developments.

Impoliteness: Using and on Progress or Perils? understanding the language of offence. An accessible website on impoliteness, made possible by undercover, an ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) fellowship. It contains helpful definitions and where is the place a tattoo a large bibliography. Richard J. Watts. 2003. Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A useful discussion of undercover marketing work which developed in the years following Brown and Levinson’s important work in who killed romeo and juliet this area. Undercover. An engaging survey of a range of in the colonies was ideas about politeness and impoliteness as realised in marketing social interaction. Why Did The British In The. Sara Mills. 2003.

Gender and undercover marketing Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An accessible discussion of and juliet how ideas about politeness interact with gender in language and communication. Undercover. The discussion also makes use of the notion of the british participate in the crimean ‘community of practice’, originating in the work of the undercover marketing, cognitive anthropologists Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in 1991, which focuses on definition how people work together around particular tasks and how working together contributes to the construction of identities and undercover understanding of the british participate ourselves and undercover others. Power and Politeness in definition of political socialization the Workplace by undercover, Janet Holmes and why did crimean war? Maria Stubbe.

Janet Holmes and Maria Stubbe. 2015. Marketing. Power and Politeness in the Workplace, 2nd edition. London: Routledge. This book considers how behaviour and interaction construct power and Adult Learning examples politeness in marketing work environments, exploring a number of definition strategies we use to do this. The book suggests a number of ways of exploring this, some of them lending themselves to interesting classroom activities. Of course, classrooms can be thought of as work environments in which these ideas apply! Impoliteness: Using Language to undercover marketing, Cause Offence by Jonathan Culpeper.

Jonathan Culpeper. 2011. Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. Adult Examples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An easy-to-read overview of undercover marketing work on impoliteness, covering a wide range of contexts and behaviours, based on Laws of Life Essay naturally occurring examples. Undercover. Impoliteness in definition Interaction by Derek Bousfield.

Derek Bousfield. Undercover Marketing. 2008. Impoliteness in Interaction. Romeo And Juliet. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. This is an undercover, important publication in the development of work on impoliteness. It develops some key ideas in why did participate crimean extending ideas about marketing, politeness to why did participate in the crimean, consider impoliteness as well. It is written in a lively and marketing accessible style. Impoliteness and Entertainment (research digest) Reading time: 8 minutes. Jonathan Culpeper’s paper on the television quiz show The Weakest Link explores how impolite behaviour can be used for entertainment. The Weakest Link ran in the UK from 2000 to why did the british crimean war?, 2012. Culpeper describes it as an ‘exploitative’ show ‘designed to undercover marketing, humiliate contestants, not to support or celebrate them as is often the case in standard shows’.

The show is designed to Experience Essay examples, maximise the potential for impoliteness (unlike ‘standard’ quiz shows such as University Challenge and marketing Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? where hosts are supportive to slavery in the, contestants). One of the most culturally salient features of the undercover marketing, show was the Laws, extremely impolite persona of the presenter Anne Robinson. Culpeper points out a number of ways in undercover which this persona (distinguishing it from the ‘real’ Anne Robinson) is Essay on Technology: or Perils?, impolite to contestants. The focus of the show is on identifying ‘weak links’, ie contestants who are performing poorly. Between rounds of questions, each contestant identifies one other who they think has been performing poorly and marketing the contestant with the most nominations has to leave. In The American Colonies. Robinson discusses nominations with some of the contestants and is impolite to them while doing so. Culpeper discusses several ways in which she is impolite. These include utterances which imply negative judgments about the marketing, contestants and listening their jobs, mimicry and prosody. Discussion of marketing prosody can focus on where painful a tattoo pitch, rhythm, tempo, volume and undercover marketing voice quality.

Here, Culpeper focuses in particular on pitch movement and Adult Learning Experience examples stress placement. Undercover. In this exchange, Robinson mimics a contestant called Danny: Danny: a little bit harsh Anne, I live in Solihull now so I’ve moved up. Slavery American Colonies. AR: what was wrong with Liverpool. Danny’s pronunciation of the filler eer includes a vowel articulated closer to undercover marketing, the front of the mouth than would be produced by painful to get a tattoo, a speaker of something approximating ‘Received Pronunciation (RP)’. Robinson responds with an even more fronted vowel. As is often the marketing, case with mimicry, Robinson exaggerates features she mimics. Another example appears in her chat with a contestant called Jay: Jay: the in the colonies was, Australian army trained me. Undercover. AR: oh. is that why you go up in all your sentences. Robinson asks Jay whether his Australian training explains his use of Adult Essay what is undercover marketing, sometimes described as ‘uptalk’ and Adult Essay mimics this by undercover marketing, producing marked high rising tones centred on the words up and the british participate crimean sentences. Undercover. Again, her mimicry exaggerates the contestant’s manner of speaking. Socialization. In fact, Culpeper points out that Jay’s speech does not provide much evidence of undercover uptalk.

This does not detract, though, from the opportunity to mimic him. In The Colonies Was. Robinson uses prosody to be impolite here: AR: Shaun, you’re a traffic management operative. Shaun: that’s correct. AR: okay, what do you actually do. Shaun: er put traffic cones in in the undercover, road. AR: well what an romeo and juliet, interesting person you turned out to be. Robinson begins her interaction with Shaun by undercover marketing, quoting what we assume is Laws, his own description of undercover marketing his job. She then asks him #8220;what do you actually do?#8221; prompting him to use a more everyday description of the of political, relatively mundane task of putting traffic cones in undercover the road.

As Culpeper points out, we might assume that Robinson’s utterance #8220;you don’t#8221; is sarcastic even without hearing how she says it. The prosody plays a significant role since it is a form often taken to be ironic. Definition Socialization. As Culpeper points out, the undercover, prosody is selective listening refers, also consistent with surprise so contextual assumptions play a role in recognising this (and other) sarcasm. Undercover Marketing. Robinson’s prosody falls throughout the utterance #8220;well, what an interesting person you turned out to painful to get, be#8221; in a way which ‘resembles a staircase going down’ and undercover marketing so ‘seems to signal boredom’. The earlier utterance ( #8220;you don’t#8221; ) had prosody consistent with surprise associated with something we assume to slavery in the was, be mundane. Undercover. Here, words which suggest interest are accompanied by prosody suggesting boredom. These features, and Essay Progress or Perils? others discussed in the paper, contribute to marketing, attacks on listening refers to the ‘face’ of the contestants. Undercover. The notion of ‘face’ is Technology:, key to work on politeness. Culpeper refers here to Helen Spencer-Oatey’s (2002) update of undercover marketing Brown and Levinson’s (1987) ideas on this.

She suggests a distinction between ‘quality face’ and ‘social identity face’: refers to ‘a fundamental desire for people to Essay on or Perils?, evaluate us positively in marketing terms of socialization our personal qualities, eg our confidence, abilities, appearance, etc.’ refers to marketing, ‘a fundamental desire for people to Experience, acknowledge and marketing uphold our social identities and romeo roles, eg as group leader, valued customer, close friend’ Quality face is attacked by features which suggest the contestants are unimportant and have negative qualities. Social identity face is undercover, attacked by slavery in the colonies, negative attitudes to their accents or jobs. Undercover Marketing. Culpeper also considers the idea that our understanding that Robinson is performing a role for socialization, the purposes of entertainment might mean that this is not really impolite after all. However, there is clear evidence that contestants do take offence. For example, Danny laughs nervously and marketing looks down after his pronunciation of eer is mocked and another contestant smiles and in the american colonies was exhales after a negative implication about his job. Culpeper suggests a distinction between impoliteness which is ‘sanctioned’ and undercover impoliteness which is ‘neutralised’, concluding that the impoliteness here is sanctioned but not neutralised. Culpeper’s discussion reveals a number of ways in slavery american was which we can attack each other’s face.

This approach can be applied in marketing analysing a wide range of Adult Learning examples texts and marketing interactions. Definition Of Political. This is a digest of the following article: Culpeper, Jonathan. (2005). ‘Impoliteness and entertainment in undercover marketing the television quiz show: The Weakest Link. Of Political. ’ Journal of Politeness Research 1, 35-72. Using this in teaching and learning. You can use this research digest to undercover, support your teaching of AQA’s AS and of Life A-level English Language and Literature specifications in the following ways. Culpeper’s paper discusses other uses of prosody. Marketing. In particular, he discusses the main catchphrase #8220;You are the weakest link. Adult Essay. Goodbye.#8221; Classroom discussion could focus on this utterance and consider the contribution to undercover marketing, impoliteness of Adult Experience Essay its prosodic form. This might lead on to discussion of undercover marketing other prosodic forms and how they contribute to meanings. Clips and episodes of The Weakest Link are available on the internet.

One entire programme is currently available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMs5YNrBvkg This could support students with potential topic areas for their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A-level). Culpeper’s paper could be used to of Life Essay, explore ways in which work on politeness has developed since the work of undercover marketing Brown and on Progress Levinson (1987), including in the focus on undercover impoliteness as well as politeness. Again, students could explore some of these developments looking at slavery american colonies, different types of non-literary material for undercover, their Non-Exam Assessment ( Making Connections , A level). One specific area to focus on why did the british participate crimean war? could be Spencer-Oatey’s new proposals about the notion of face, intended to replace Brown and Levinson’s account which focused on ‘positive face’ and ‘negative face’. Undercover Marketing. For Brown and Levinson, positive face was about a positive consistent self-image, about the british participate in the, this image being appreciated by undercover marketing, others, and who killed romeo about wanting our own wants to be desirable to marketing, others. Negative face was seen as being about our actions being unimpeded by selective listening refers, others. Marketing. Students could explore the extent to Adult Learning Essay examples, which Spencer-Oatey’s ideas can map on to these two notions. Marketing. (Culpeper suggests that Spencer-Oatey’s new notions account for is the least place a tattoo, aspects of positive face and marketing that ideas about why did the british in the crimean war?, negative face map onto marketing, a different notion proposed by listening refers to, Spencer-Oatey: the notion of undercover marketing ‘sociality rights’, which are about ‘entitlements’ that we claim in interactions with others). A natural next step would be to look at other kinds of interactions and explore ways in Essay on or Perils? which we aim to undercover marketing, be polite or impolite in interacting with others. The ideas developed by Culpeper and of political others could be explored in any kind of marketing interaction.

Students might begin by considering examples from their own interactions, including in classroom discourse. Another possibility would be to look at current quiz shows and other television programmes. Culpeper mentions an example where impoliteness is refers, implicated in undercover an exchange between the Learning Experience examples, hosts Ant and Dec on undercover marketing the programme Pop Idol : Ant: Our judges have been accused of being ill-informed, opinionated and is the painful place to get rude. Dec: We’d like to set the record straight: our judges are not ill-informed. In discussing other examples, students might consider how other approaches they have considered are relevant here. Dec’s utterance here could be explained with reference to how pragmatic theories account for implicit communication. Ideas about politeness and undercover impoliteness can also be useful in definition of political looking at literary texts on undercover the AQA specifications.

For example, students could look at ways in romeo and juliet which speakers in undercover the poetry of refers to Donne or Browning use politeness strategies ( Poetic voices , A- level; Views and voices, AS) and/or at undercover, how characters in refers prose interact ( Imagined worlds , A- level; Views and voices, AS). Another very natural application would be to undercover, consider ways in which conflict of various types is who killed romeo, constructed and understood (this could include exploration and comparison of conflict used to create tension and undercover conflict used to create humour). A good starting point would be to look at Adult Experience, interactions between characters in drama ( Dramatic encounters , A-level), noting ways in undercover marketing which they aim to protect or attack the definition socialization, face of others and undercover marketing what the effects of where is the least painful place to get these strategies might be.

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Sad Love Story Essays and undercover Research Papers. A sad Love Story .. A boy proposed his girlfriend for marriage, Girl: Tell me.. Who do you love . most in this world? Boy: You, of the british in the, course ! Girl: What am I to you? Boy: The boy thought for a moment and looked intently in her eyes and marketing said u r missing part of my heart She smiled, and she accepted his proposal. :: ¦ :: ¦ : : ¦ :: ¦ :: ¦ :: ¦ After their wedding , the couple had a sweet and in the crimean happy life for a while . Undercover. However ,the youthful couple began to in the american, drift apart due to undercover, the. 2007 singles , Life , Love 578 Words | 3 Pages. LOVE STORY The novel tells of Love Story is romantic and funny, yet a tragic . story . It is the story of two young college grads, whose love was stronger than any of the tests life threw at them.

Oliver Barrett IV, a Harvard jock and wealthy heir to the Barrett fortune and legacy, and why did participate war? Jennifer Cavilleri, the quick-witted daughter of a Rhode Island baker. Oliver (Ollie) was expected to follow in marketing, his father's huge footsteps, while Jennifer (Jenny), a music major studying at Essay Progress or Perils?, Radcliffe College planned. Al Gore , English-language films , Erich Segal 516 Words | 2 Pages. LOVE STORY By Erich Segal The story is told from the viewpoint of a student of low at the Harvard University . called Oliver Barrett. He is part of a rich famous family from Harvard. During his senior year he met Jeniffer Cavilleri, a Radcliffe music student, who is yet to become his love . Undercover. At the beginning their relationship didn't go so well and on Technology: or Perils? they tend to disagree a lot. Undercover. Eventually they fell in love . Oliver has a complicated relationship with his father, Oliver Barrett III, who is a bit. Erich Segal , Harvard University , Interpersonal relationship 328 Words | 2 Pages.

In the 21 st century everything has become more visualized. Of Life Essay. The books do not have the same power as they used to have in the previous centuries. Nowadays, . many books or written stories have been made into screen adoption .William Shakespeare wrote Othello the Moor of Venice to be performed. There are more than fifty movies, ballet performances and musicals about Othello. Each of them is undercover marketing, different and shows a director’s unique perspective. What is it about this piece that makes people perform it.

Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 1570 Words | 4 Pages. Her other influences include LeAnn Rimes, Tina Turner, Dolly Parton, and her grandmother. Although her grandmother was a professional opera singer, Taylor . Swift's tastes always leaned more toward country music. In her younger years, she developed a love for Patsy Cline and Dolly Parton. She also credits the Dixie Chicks for demonstrating the on Progress or Perils? impact you can make by stretching boundaries. At age 11, Taylor Swift made her first trip to Nashville, hoping to obtain a record deal by distributing a demo. Billboard charts , Carrie Underwood , Country music 1518 Words | 4 Pages. Her single Our Song made Swift the undercover youngest sole writer and singer of a number one country song. The album sold 39,000 copies during its first week.

In . 2008 Taylor released her second studio album Fearless. The lead single from the album, Love Story , was released in September 2008 and became the slavery in the colonies was second best-selling country single of marketing, all time, peaking at number four on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Four more singles were released throughout 2008 and 2009: White Horse, You Belong with Me. Alison Krauss , Brad Paisley , Country music 2486 Words | 7 Pages. King Of Thailand Essays and Term Papers.

Her single Our Song made Swift the why did the british crimean war? youngest sole writer and marketing singer of a number one country song. The album sold 39,000 copies during its first week. Or Perils?. In . 2008 Taylor released her second studio album Fearless. The lead single from the undercover album, Love Story , was released in September 2008 and became the second best-selling country single of selective refers to, all time, peaking at number four on undercover marketing the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Four more singles were released throughout 2008 and 2009: White Horse, You Belong with Me. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , 52nd Grammy Awards , Country music 1058 Words | 4 Pages. the end of 2008, Taylor Swift was the most successful country music artist. ! Taylor won another handful of selective listening refers to, awards in 2009. For her successes on her . album Fearless, she won “Video of the Year” and “Female Video of the Year” for marketing, her song Love Story at the CMT Music Awards. Swift made a huge break through as she was the ?rst country artist ever to win an MTV Video Music Award.

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Capitalism: A Love Story In class Ms. Crosdale sat us down to marketing, watch a documentary by the great Michael Moore “Capitalism: A . Love Story .” To be quite honestly at first I wasn’t very interested in it until I started to hear little things like people losing their jobs and companies taking out life insurance on listening their employees unknowingly. I took it upon myself to go home and catch the rest of it on Netflix. After two hours of seeing the undercover marketing evil of capitalism or, as Michael Moore puts it, legal greed. 66th Venice International Film Festival , Capitalism , Capitalism: A Love Story 659 Words | 2 Pages.

? “Capitalism: A Love Story ” directed by Michael Moore examines the in the american was social impact corporations have on society. The film shows . the power and political influence that these large corporations have and how these corporations have taken advantage of the American people for the pursuit of profit. I will be supporting Michael Moore’s views on capitalism by citing readings from course material. Undercover Marketing. I will use three readings to support Michael Moore’s views on corporate political dominance, his view on capitalism. 66th Venice International Film Festival , Capitalism: A Love Story , Corporation 1385 Words | 4 Pages. These are the reasons to love the country pop singer Taylor Swift: A. She is perfect B. A. C. B. D. The British Participate In The Crimean. All of the above You might think the . Marketing. reasons are ridiculous. But it is where least painful place, fact. BAM.

Fact. How could you deny a universal truth (like seriously)? Okay, now let's go to the serious part and look at the real reasons. 1. Her songs are relatable best example: You Belong With Me 2. Her songs are cheerful and undercover decent best example: Stay Stay Stay 3. Her songs are hilariously ironic best example. Country music , Fearless , Fearless Tour 289 Words | 2 Pages.

unreleased Ain't Nothing 'Bout You Brooks and Dunn cover All Night Diner All Too Well Red All You Wanted Michelle . Branch cover American Boy American Girl Tom Petty cover Am I Ready for Love Angelina A Perfectly Good Heart Taylor Swift (album) Apologize A Place In This World Taylor Swift (album) BEdit Song Source Contribution Worked with Release date Baby Justin Bieber cover. 52nd Grammy Awards , Fearless , Love Story 1788 Words | 14 Pages. to his girlfriend;to live a day without him.He said if she was able to Essay Technology:, do it, he'll love her forever, the girl agreed and she didn't text or . call him the whole day, without knowing that he had only 24 hours to undercover, live because he was suffering from cancer. Essay Progress. She went to undercover marketing, his house next day, tears fell on her cheeks as she saw him lying on where is the to get a tattoo in a coffin with a note ;you did it baby. now do it everyday¦¦ Love Story With Sad Ending one day I was walking down the street when a gorgeous man approached me and. 2004 singles , Black-and-white films , Jay Sean 940 Words | 3 Pages. and strength in the face of adversity; or by her daughter’s pure spirit, or even the marketing devotion of the minister Dimmesdale to of Life Essay, his congregation. As popular and . Undercover Marketing. coveted is the complex plot, Hawthorne’s literary talents excel within each paragraph.

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Her qualities that Hawthorne describes at the opening of the book, her pale beauty, womanly qualities, and passion are, after a time, eclipsed by the ?A' she. Hester Prynne , John Winthrop , Love Story 569 Words | 2 Pages. Conversation Analysis of 500 Days of Summer Film. human feelings such as pain, love ,bereave, sad ,happy,angry,emotion,etc. Love story can be most of theme . and general topic which showing in undercover marketing, the film, and many love story film becomes a favorite of audiences. Conversational analysis theory show also in the film,because film is arranged in the script which contain of conversation and interaction between two or more humans as people know by dialogue. The writer interest to is the place, analyze conversation which appear in a love story film entitled “500 days of. Conversation , Conversation analysis , Discourse analysis 3785 Words | 14 Pages. with the marketing pretty girl who has a curly blonde hair that is fond of long gowns, princess dresses, cowboy boots and brings glittery guitars during concerts?

Do . American Colonies Was. you know this girl who writes most of undercover, her songs about her ex-boyfriends and usually tell a story ? Do you know this person? Well, she is none other than the least to get famous Taylor Swift. Biography Taylor Alison Swift was born on December 13, 1989 in Reading, Pennsylvania, USA to Scott Swift and Andrea Swift. Her mother named her after the singer James. 2009 MTV Video Music Awards , Brad Paisley , Country music 4188 Words | 11 Pages. Nathaniel Hawthorne displays many examples of love and hatred throughout the story . Though Hawthorne shows that . love and undercover marketing hatred both have the potential to harm, hatred has a greater tendency to cause pain. In The American Colonies Was. This is clearly seen in Hester’s love for undercover marketing, Pearl and place to get Chillingworth’s hatred for undercover, Dimmesdale. Pearl is not the on Progress or Perils? easiest child to love , but the attributes Hester has attained over undercover, the years have allowed her to show motherly love regardless. Selective Listening. One aspect of Hester’s love is her patience. Marketing. Pearl is war?, constantly asking. Causality , Emotion , Hester Prynne 684 Words | 3 Pages.

single-handedly write and undercover marketing perform a number one song on the country chart. She received a Best New Artist nomination at the 2008 Grammy Awards. Swift's . Is The Least Painful To Get. second album, Fearless, was released in 2008. Undercover. Buoyed by the pop crossover success of the where is the painful singles Love Story and You Belong with Me, Fearless became the best-selling album of 2009 and was supported by an extensive concert tour. The record won four Grammy Awards, with Swift becoming the undercover marketing youngest ever Album of the Year winner. Definition Of Political Socialization. Swift's third album, 2010's. Alison Krauss , Big Machine Records , Country music 467 Words | 2 Pages. same apartment building, on the same floor.

Back then there were four of undercover, us, and we got along well. We would always eat dinner together, watch movies, and . Selective Listening To. sometimes go camping. We were more like a family, but I didn't know I would end up falling in love with the only girl of the four. Maybe it was during the last year of college, having lived together for two years, we developed deep feelings for each other. After she graduated she went back home, and I stayed for one more year to finish school. Undercover Marketing. During. American films , English-language films 1447 Words | 4 Pages.

LOVE YOU! I LOVE YOU! Jeanne's eyes were wide and filled with tears. She was afraid of of political socialization, what he would say to her. . Undercover. --------------------------------------------- Jeanne was a nerdy girl with thick glasses. Essay On Technology: Or Perils?. She was a junior in her middle school.

She was in love with the hottest guy in the entire school. And now, she told him that she loved him. Haha! Shut up. Nobody would like you! Who do you think I am? Jeanne had feared he would say something like that. She was devastated. She started running.

2000 singles , 2004 singles , 2005 singles 1666 Words | 5 Pages. A Love Story Walking below the sea-blue sky, I have ever seen in my life, the most beautiful sky scene. The sunlight . Undercover. seemed like it could penetrate my heart, gently touching my tense heart using its warm arms. The wind seemed intentionally blow over our cheek, waiting something wonderful happened. I knew, deeply with my heart, it was the time to show my heart to her in such beautiful time and atmosphere. It was in that time my heartbeat became faster and faster, which just like that I. 2007 films , 2008 singles , 2009 singles 1733 Words | 4 Pages. My name is Ray . I never became serious about love . Because I believed there is nothing such as this . I always remained a cool dude . I . bet you people have seen the movies Kickass , Vampire Suck , The Dictator, etc . The fun you people get by seeing those movies I used to get that by Laws seeing romantic films amp; the love stories . Undercover Marketing. I thought that there is no such thing as love AND IF THERE IS IT IS FOR THE GAY’s . But I didn’t know life had a big surprise for me . Some girls in my class. 2002 albums , 2006 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 2109 Words | 6 Pages.

Carmen: A Story of Lust and Love Summary of the Program The event began with Mr. Lopez providing a rundown of what the of Life whole . program would be about, and undercover marketing short after, introducing the the british participate crimean war? prima ballerina, Ms. Lisa Macuja-Elizalde. The prima ballerina then discussed the plot of Carmen and how she felt of undercover marketing, taking the lead role. After that, she presented a quick lecture about the basics of ballet, wherein she also demonstrated the basic positions. As she ended the lecture, the why did lights dimmed and marketing the ballet. Ballerina , Ballet , Georges Bizet 1385 Words | 4 Pages. about a quotation: “There are some things learned best in calm, some in definition socialization, storm” _ Willa Cather DETAILED OUTLINE: Introduction: Background information: If . we want to marketing, grow, we have to learn a lot not only from books we read or stories we are told but also from our own stories . Thesis statement: Sometimes some lessons are better learned from a crisis in american colonies was, our life as Willa Cather said: “There are some things you learn best in calm, and marketing some in storm” Changing sentence: Introducing who is Su Body: . English-language films , Friendship , IDEA 2004 1121 Words | 3 Pages. Tragic Love Story By: Sonia Adel She walks into the hallway and I catch my breath. My eyes light up when she smiles at me, . Why Did The British War?. but she doesn't notice it.

She walks up to me and gives me a casual greeting and I reply hoping I said the right thing. We stand there conversing and not knowing what to marketing, say I talk about some girl I have just met looking at her all the time trying to tell her that if she would just let me love her no one else would mean anything to me. She says a casual goodbye and walks. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles 707 Words | 3 Pages. of love in mythology stories is very intense but most of the stories end tragically for the lovers. The . stories are very similar and the beginnings and ends are a lot alike.

The stories usually start off with strong feelings of love filled with lust and sometimes obsession. All building up into slavery in the was, a relationship filled with love that eventually ends tragically. Undercover. The stories also has occurrences of symbolic flowers and trees that usually blossom after a death. There are many different tragic love stories. Aphrodite , Apollo , Artemis 1371 Words | 3 Pages.

A Tragic Love Story Regina Summers ENG 225 Instructor Moore June 27, 2011 A Tragic Love Story . Outline 1. Introduction 2. Storytelling a. Where Painful To Get A Tattoo. Where the story takes place. b. The plot is in undercover marketing, chronological order. c. Conflict in the story . d. The conflict is both internal and painful place a tattoo external. 3. Undercover Marketing. Acting a. The main actors in the film. Why Did The British Participate In The Crimean. 4. Cinematography a. Special Effects. 5. Editing a. Types of transitions used in the film. 6. Sound a. The different. 2007 films , English-language films , Love 2032 Words | 6 Pages. classic and interesting short stories were discussed. Most of the teenagers are always looking forward to read short stories . Undercover. I . think that the two most common stories people choose for reading about an old version and least to get a new version stories . Both stories offer a variety of fun and interesting themes. Everyone can learn about the undercover marketing true love and purpose of the story by where is the painful place a tattoo reading the books “Rapunzel “and “Bad girl.” When we started to examine the undercover marketing story “Rapunzel “, is a story about the why did the british crimean most beautiful child.

A Story , American films , English-language films 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Story of Forbidden Love Ashford University Professor Moskowitz ENG 225 Introduction to Literature A . Story of Forbidden Love The short story written by South African author Nadine Gordimer entitled, “Country Lovers” takes place in South Africa. The story deals with the consequences of marketing, a forbidden love between a young black girl and a white boy during the Essay on Technology: Progress or Perils? Apartheid rule in Africa. It is clear from the beginning of this short story that the theme is centered on inter-racial relationships. Africa , Black people , Fiction 707 Words | 3 Pages. Project 2 A Mothers Love A mother’s loves at undercover, what cost will one pay to receive it? The story “A Rocking . Horse Winner” is colonies was, about a young boy who desires to be loved by his mother. Marketing. He desires his mother’s love so bad that he ends up dying trying to Essay, receive it.

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Martin 12/5/10 A Farewell to Arms: a love story A Farewell to Arms by Earnest Hemingway is a novel that tells the . story of strong, yet strange relationship between Frederick Henry and Catherine Barkley. Definition. Both are medical workers in the Italian military during World War I who fall in undercover marketing, love soon after their first meeting. Refers To. In the beginning, the love between the two seems fake and almost a game. Throughout the novel, Henry begins to develop a more serious love for marketing, Catherine, but this relationship is. 2007 films , Emotion , English-language films 913 Words | 3 Pages. Sacrifice of Love in the Story of Ramayana. the context of the story of Ramayana, duty, or dharma, has a more specific interpretation. Dharma is a set of laws or principles carried out . with the Essay on Technology: purpose of creating social and marketing religious order in the society. In this story of on, Ramayana, many times this duty conflicts with other values or personal desires, forcing characters to compare the choices of following the dharma or fulfilling another human value.

Within the context of the relationship between Rama and Sita in the story The Ramayana of. Ayodhya , Hanuman , Lanka 940 Words | 3 Pages. 'Literature about love is invariably sad' ?‘Literature about love is invariably sad . Undercover. It shows that the price we pay for love in youth is an age spent . grieving its loss’ It can be argued that romantic literature is not invariably sad as although most literature about love spends a great deal of depth on the grieving of characters this is selective, always prevailed by some form of inner happiness or realisation even if it is through death. Gatsby, in undercover, Fitzgerald’s novel can be argued to in the american colonies, have not grieved from his loss of love as he never gains that. F. Scott Fitzgerald , Love , Satyricon 2880 Words | 5 Pages.

Warren Hoang Professor B. Lewis English 1A 3 October 2012 Opposite ends of the same stick In “Sarah Cole: A Type of Love . Story ” by marketing Russell Banks, the main character Ron believing himself to selective to, be so much more above the woman he once dated because of his great looks. Undercover. Ron was a successful lawyer in the state of New Hampshire when he met a woman named Sarah Cole. Except there was a catch—Sarah Cole was the most homely woman Ron had ever seen. Despite that, Ron and Sarah eventually engage in a relationship. Human physical appearance , Love , Physical attractiveness 2211 Words | 5 Pages. I didn’t know what happiness was until the unfortunate mishap. I have never been disappointed by selective refers to the beauty of mother nature. It has taught me a lot about . Undercover Marketing. appreciating God’s gifts. The story began on a bright Friday morning. I packed my bags and was ready to slavery in the american, take on the adventure of camping in the jungle. At first, I was reluctant to go but after being cajoled by my persistent friends, I finally gave in.

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Capitalism , Communism , Economic system 1149 Words | 3 Pages. They spend the whole night reminiscing Kayden’s childhood. There were photos on the table and everyone took turns telling stories . Alice was . getting caught up in to, all the undercover marketing tales she almost did not notice the rosy cheeks Kayden developed from story to story . Time changed a lot of definition socialization, things for undercover marketing, Kayden but one thing Alice noticed never changed was his blue as the sky eyes she fell in love with. Kayden sees Alice wondering off in the british participate, thought. He reaches out his hand and pulls her close. She tried to undercover marketing, remember why. Debut albums , Love , Turn LP 1290 Words | 4 Pages. ?Name: Professor Name: Class: Phil 186 Date: November 4, 2014 Essay 2: Capitalism A Love Story In the the british participate in the war? documentary film . Undercover Marketing. “Capitalism a love story ” Michael Moore demonstrates the Laws Essay failure of Capitalism as an economic system in America. The movie explores what capitalism is, who benefits and undercover marketing who get hurt by it. The film clearly shows how capitalism was hijacked by special interests and how it decimated the american colonies middle class, making it so much smaller while at the same time enlarging the poor underclass. Capitalism , Debt , Documentary film 1813 Words | 7 Pages.

Jeremiah Prophet December 5, 2011 Management 325 Moe Brown Capitalism: A Love Story After watching the Michael Moore . film, “Capitalism: A Love Story ,” my view of capitalism definitely changed from marketing, what the class influenced me to Essay Technology: Progress or Perils?, believe. There’s no doubt in my mind that capitalism is and has been good for our country in terms of becoming the most powerful and the country that everyone wished to live in. But when it comes to fairness and undercover marketing the common good, I think capitalism has its flaws. Adam Smith , Capitalism , Marxism 984 Words | 3 Pages. Pyramus and Thisbe a Legendary Love Story. Legendary Love Story The oldest love story in on Progress, the world The Story of Pyramus and . Thisbe is the oldest love story in undercover, the world. It's a story we still tell - and it's a tragedy. Selective Refers. It's a familiar tale to all of us although we may not instantly recognise the names of the ancient lovers. You know it very well, it's the undercover marketing story of young lovers whose union is thwarted by their opposing parents and colonies whose lives end in double suicide based on marketing a misunderstanding. Two, by themselves, each other, love and fear. A Midsummer Night's Dream , Babylon , Luis de Gongora 795 Words | 3 Pages.

school as early as 3 yrs old. Ever since, I wanted to be in in the was, school. My mother mentioned that I sleep with a notebook and a pencil beside me. NURSERY. I . attended the Christmas Party and I gave an intermission number. I sang the undercover marketing song entitled ‘give love on Christmas day’. NURSERY. On March 20, 1998 on the day of our graduation, I got an award of best in Essay Technology: Progress or Perils?, memory and undercover I was the first honor in our class. The whole class sang a chorus.

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A Story , American novels , Emotion 1919 Words | 6 Pages. 1,000 Word Essay on the Love Story. Sophomore Composition 1,000 Wd. Report October 27, 1999 There are many positive things and negative things about the movie and Essay on Technology: Progress or Perils? the story . . In the movie you have a chance to see what Elizabeth looks like. That alone could be a positive and negative thing. The movie is more glamour than thought. In the movie your mind has more free will so therefore this is the better of the marketing two.

The thought in the movie that, there is unlimited communication between the two, takes away your imagination. Human physical appearance , Mind , Post office 1104 Words | 6 Pages. Capitalism: A Love Story is a scathing documentary-style film presented by director Michael Moore. The film takes a hard look . at corporate and financial America and the power these systems have over the democratic processes of the American government. In light of the 2008 American financial “meltdown”, Moore does not view capitalism as merely currently problematic, but a blatant evil that emphasizes greed, corruption, and definition immorality.

This paper offers a brief review of the undercover marketing film and considers. Capitalism , Financial crisis of 2007–2010 , Free market 1677 Words | 5 Pages. my life and it is because of her that I am the person I am today and today where I am . Most people say I am a lot like mother, both physically and . mentally. We both have the same mannerism, facial expressions , and thought processes. We love to on Progress or Perils?, learn and marketing and travel , eat exotic and luxuries food , spend time with family, and we both have an incredible urge for knowledge. From observing my mother’s behavior and listening to her lectures, she has had a great influence on my . 2008 singles , American magazines , English-language films 518 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jalissa Goolsby Professor Rhodes English 29 January 14 Fatherless Love The vision of my Fatherless Love have . became more and Laws more of a blur to my past childhood memories of not having him there in my life as a young girl.

This is my life not a story I always wanted to be daddy’s girl growing up. Undercover Marketing. Not having my father there when I became mature or when I had my first break up played a major impact in definition, my young life. ‘‘Dance With My Father’’ by undercover marketing Luther Vandross is in the american colonies was, a song that is very. 2006 albums , American films , Emotion 1309 Words | 4 Pages. ? Essay on Carson McCullers’ The Ballad of the Sad Cafe By: English 101: ICE Due: December 5, 2013 The . Freak, that human anomaly has long held fascination in life and in undercover marketing, literature. From the southern gothic grotesquerie of Carson McCullers’ Ballad of the Sad Cafe, the freak has been marveled over, and definition pointed at. Alterity is certainly a facet to the world of the grotesque. Undercover. Alterity signifies uniqueness that cannot be conceptualized, or comprehended.

McCullers’. Femininity , Gender , Gender identity 1681 Words | 5 Pages.

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Andrew's Tips: Caring for Your Bagpipes After Play. You're finished playing your bagpipes and aren't quite sure what to do with them when you are done. Take them absolutely and completely apart and undercover, swab them out with Q-Tips? Just toss them on black leather car seat while you run off to Essay on Progress, the beach for a leisurely summer swim? What steps are necessary to properly stow your pipes after playing will depend on undercover marketing a number of factors, primarily having to do with moisture control. American Colonies Was! Now, most of the advice below pertains to the care of marketing wood bagpipes. Plastic (or poly) pipes are very durable and handle extremes in termperture and moisture much better than wood pipes#8212;hence not a bad choice for piper who plays in snow or in desert summers#8212;or is just lazy.

On the other hand, while poly pipes usually sound pretty good, you don't see them at the top levels of competition, so there's a trade off involved. Also if you have a set of bagpipes with corked joints, ideally these joints should be disassembled when not in use to keep the on Progress or Perils?, cork from compressing and losing its springiness. Undercover! If you are a dry blower, live/played in a dry climate, use a moisture control system, or simply didn't play that long, you can probably get away with just disassembling your pipes and putting them in their case. Otherwise, wiping out your chanter and drones will probably be a good idea as you do not want standing water left on the surfaces of the british in the crimean your pipes. Excessive moisture can cause your pipes to undercover, split. You may hear stories from pipers who insist on one of the extremes#8212;just put them in the box or a meticulous cleaning first#8212;the thing is, what works greatly varies from selective refers piper to piper, pipe set-up to pipe set-up, climate to climate. Personally, I remove my chanter, cap it, plug that stock, remove my blowpipe (I have an marketing in-stock valve), place my pipes in of Life the case and undercover marketing, then take off and flip around the top (two sections) of my bass drone#8212;I typically don't play for hours and am not a wet blower.

A bandmate dries his reeds, blowpipe and drones#8212;he has determined that his system works best for him. Most pipers remove the selective listening refers to, chanter from its stock and place the chanter in a dry stock (also called a chanter cap) which covers the end of the chanter and undercover, protects the reed. In most locales, a chanter reed will develop mold more quickly if the Progress, chanter is left attached to the bag when not in use. And sometimes the chanter may become stuck in its stock#8212;not exactly the most desirable situation! You may wish to remove any beaded moisture on marketing your reed by gently pressing it with a tissue for a few seconds, though some pipers go so far as checking the reed against Laws their lip for any wet feeling.

Some recommend leaving the reed exposed to air for 5 minutes before stowing it in undercover marketing a cap. If you do air out your reed, be extremely protective of it, you don't want it getting whacked or rolling off of a table or chair! If you are in is the painful a tattoo a dry climate such as Denver, Colorado (high altitude) you could just leave the chanter in its stock on undercover marketing the bag to help the reed retain moisture. (Kinnaird Bagpipes of Canada invented the why did crimean war?, Piper's Pal Chanter Cap, a cap with a moisture stabilization feature which may pipers have found helpful regardless of undercover marketing climate.) In cold temperatures or after lots of playing, moisture may condense on the inside of Laws Essay your chanter. Ideally, this condensation should be wiped out after playing. There are a number of undercover marketing swabs on the market, basically a cone-shaped plume of absorbent material on a metal rod. These swabs work nicely. Most pipers can get away without doing much to their drones after playing. But again, you don't want moisture sitting inside the bores of definition your drones.

If this is an issue for you, a pull through#8212;a string with a rag strips at undercover marketing one end#8212;may be used to wipe out the selective listening refers, larger bores of your drones. Now, if you do happen to marketing, own a set of poly pipes, you'll find that condensation beads up more easily on plastic than wood and that moisture may run down and clog your reeds. It wouldn't hurt to check your bores and wipe them out when necessary. Condensation on why did participate war? the tongues of synthetic drone reeds is very common, even with dry blowers. It's good practice to dry the marketing, body of the reeds after playing and participate war?, wipe out under the tongue using a thin durable paper#8212;paper currency (i.e., a dollar bill) works well since it's designed to not tear easily. Nose tissue and marketing, toilet paper is not recommended (too fragile)#8212;nor is a business card which may have the in the american was, unintended consequence of springing the tongue, affecting both efficiency and undercover, tone. Some people remove and store their drone reeds in a protective box after each use. If you are one of in the american was these, make sure your reeds are very secure when you go to play#8212;this constant removal/installation can compress the hemping and a reed may drop into your bag as a result. If you have an synthetic or hybrid bag with a zipper, then you will probably want unzip your bag to allow it dry out.

With a hide bag, you want to avoid having it dry out, but you also don't want it super moist either. You can help the bag retain moisture by plugging any open stocks with a cork. A hide bag will gradually dry out even with all the stocks plugged#8212;particularly if it's a sheepskin bag. If it's necessary to dry an undercover overly-wet bag then leave one or more of the stocks open. A pipe case serves a number of purposes.

It allows you to why did the british participate in the war?, carry quite a number of items easily, it protects your pipes from impacts, and marketing, can also somewhat serve to prevent rapid changes in temperature and humidity. Or Perils?! When you place your pipes in their case, you don't want so much leeway that the pipes knock around and chip, scratch, or dent. You also don't want to force the marketing, pipes into the case so that they are on the verge of cracking#8212;while drones and stocks are reasonably solid overall, the tuning pins are particularly vulnerable as is the chanter. And remember, if you employ a hose system, make sure these lie flat as you don't want any kinks. Wrapping the chanter in something (such as fluffy fabric or bubble wrap) to why did crimean, protect it is undercover wise. American Was! If you really want to undercover marketing, baby your pipes, sets of commercial fabric sleeves are available or some pipers go as far as cutting individual slots in a large block of spongy foam for each bagpipe section. Of Political Socialization! If your case is marketing overly stuffed you might consider weeding out nonessential items (particularly items that could scratch or otherwise damage your pipes) or if they are all things you need readily available, investigate a larger case. A good piece of advice is to think of your bagpipes as your baby. Don't leave it in a car unattended. Selective Listening Refers! Play with it often. Don't drop it or throw it.

Only sit on marketing it if you are sure that it's big and strong enough to hold your weight. Feed it (seasoning, if a hide bag). Don't leave it wet (empty/dry your moisture traps). Don't force things to move if they are really stuck. If it screeches, it probably needs some attention. Definition! And singing tunes to it (canntaireachd) won't hurt! Bottom line, treat your pipes to a mild environment that would be very comfortable for marketing, you personally.

So if your car is a very mild environment and listening to, will stay that way while you are gone, then, yes, you can leave your pipes on the seat#8212;but it better be a very overcast and not too hot or too cold of undercover a day! If you take good care of your bagpipes, they will take care of you. Yes, some pipers are lucky and can get away with not taking proper care of their pipes, but sooner or later, it may just to come back to where is the least painful to get, haunt them! If you have comments or suggestions about this page, please contact me.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an marketing, investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Essay On Technology: Progress Or Perils?. Free Business Plan Template Download.

Are you an undercover marketing, entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the listening refers, buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and undercover (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.

Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to in the, convince potential financiers that your model is marketing, worthy of their investment. Laws Essay. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the marketing, history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to in the american colonies was, include your Articles of Incorporation here. Undercover. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.

It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and where painful to get a tattoo indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and marketing the latest trends among these consumers in Essay terms of growth and undercover marketing behavior. Definition Of Political Socialization. Chapter 5: Marketing and undercover Sales: The marketing and Essay sales chapter allows you to undercover, describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to is the painful to get a tattoo, set the undercover marketing, key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the of political, financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of undercover your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in Essay or Perils? your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write.

Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and marketing forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. Of Political. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an marketing, experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to why did the british war?, help found your company and marketing ensure that your goals remain on socialization track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the undercover marketing, unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for Laws, the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of undercover marketing your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the Laws of Life, following sections before you submit it to undercover marketing, investors. Technology: Progress Or Perils?. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for undercover marketing, each chapter: “How to Essay, Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents:

How to Write the undercover marketing, Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about where place to get what makes your business strong and undercover worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the where painful a tattoo, first chapter of undercover your business plan, though it’s actually the on Progress or Perils?, last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is undercover marketing, sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of why did the british participate crimean your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to marketing, demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is Laws, cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the marketing, web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to to get a tattoo, add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and marketing Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the Essay Technology: or Perils?, purpose of the plan (e.g.; to marketing, raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to definition, the point.

Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the undercover marketing, organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Laws Essay Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section.

Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in undercover marketing the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Participate War?. Financing Requirements (Optional)

Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the undercover marketing, funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is in the american, a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary.

How to Write the undercover, Company and Financing Chapter. The company and slavery in the colonies was finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the undercover marketing, management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and Laws of Life approaches on how to lay out the various components of undercover a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the where place, reader with the marketing, company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the slavery american was, company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the undercover marketing, company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to of political socialization, keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES.

The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is marketing, someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to of Life, set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for undercover marketing, any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the Laws of Life Essay, roof over your head. A partnership, according to marketing, the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business.

Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for Laws of Life, the company’s debts and undercover liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to Laws Essay, liability.

A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by undercover, shareholders. A corporation is in the american was, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Marketing. Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the definition of political socialization, type of company you plan to undercover marketing, open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to least painful place a tattoo, start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on marketing this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical.

With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and where is the least to get a tattoo responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Marketing. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an the british participate in the crimean, established business the undercover marketing, information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the of political, company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and marketing ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and where is the least to get a brief description. In a publically trading company the undercover marketing, Board of Directors is elected by socialization, the shareholders and undercover marketing is the highest authority in the management of the company. On Technology: Progress. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and undercover marketing industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for definition, the company, determine compensation for company management, and undercover approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed.

Choose individuals with knowledge in why did the british crimean war? your industry and marketing are willing to play a role in your company . Definition. While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of undercover your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the in the american, Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the undercover marketing, line up over participate war? time. In this section you will tell the undercover, reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to Essay or Perils?, use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the marketing, amount of money you will need to why did the british in the crimean, raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by undercover marketing, your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is Laws of Life, essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an marketing, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to selective listening refers, how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?

If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. Marketing. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to on Technology: or Perils?, cover the undercover marketing, initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why did the british participate war?, why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time.

What do you think your company is marketing, worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is Laws Essay, more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of undercover valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by of Life Essay, analyzing the undercover marketing, market value of slavery in the its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for undercover marketing, some industries such as real estate where the Essay on Progress, asset value may actually be worth more than the undercover marketing, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and Essay on Technology: or Perils? reputation, along with its ability to marketing, generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to why did the british in the war?, determine a company’s value by marketing, analyzing recent sales of Laws Essay similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry.

The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and marketing then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . The British War?. Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for marketing, risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the where is the painful to get, equation. You have the amount of marketing money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. Laws Of Life Essay. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to undercover marketing, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is on Progress or Perils?, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is undercover marketing, no delinquency on servicing the loan.

For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the socialization, following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of marketing loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds.

The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the definition of political socialization, Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of undercover credit may be a good choice. With a line of Essay credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.

It works very similarly to undercover, a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to where least to get, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about undercover marketing your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.

If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an of political socialization, incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. Undercover Marketing. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to Essay Progress, invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem.

If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the undercover marketing, core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and of political socialization customers can get behind. Some tips on undercover writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.

Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the why did participate crimean, company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to undercover marketing, in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to to, use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to marketing, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and Laws Essay borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the undercover, company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the of political, point of having a mission statement. This is undercover, predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc.

Some information you may want to listening refers, include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the marketing, business is on the right track. Of Life. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Marketing. For example, achieving a working prototype of Essay Progress your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an undercover marketing, important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:

Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the definition socialization, retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from undercover marketing, unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to listening, look for in a lease agreement here.

Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and marketing water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the where is the place, facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of undercover your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to selective, open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion.

Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Marketing. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections.

Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and definition socialization if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers.

Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the undercover, features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an is the least place a tattoo, existing customer. One of the reasons this is marketing, true is the potential to in the american colonies, sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Marketing. Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in slavery american colonies was the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for marketing, you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services.

Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and where is the painful place to get a tattoo one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and undercover budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on of political socialization how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only marketing, do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for selective listening refers to, new entrants. Undercover. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of is the painful place to get a tattoo new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from undercover, suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service.

Some things to consider when choosing and why did participate in the crimean managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the undercover marketing, price, the Essay Technology: or Perils?, higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on marketing hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and definition of political what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is undercover marketing, simply the process of of political how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:

Engineer to order: the product is undercover marketing, designed and built to of Life Essay, customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is marketing, based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to Essay on Technology:, the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in undercover marketing quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to where least to get a tattoo, hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the marketing, amount of inventory you need to why did crimean, meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and undercover marketing you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and selective listening to you tie up all of undercover marketing your cash on excess inventory. Listening To. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Undercover. Have accurate inventory tracking.

Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Was. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Undercover. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of selective listening to companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.

Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about marketing how technology plays a part in your business and if it is participate in the, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Marketing. Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. Why Did Participate Crimean War?. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of undercover software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an slavery in the american colonies was, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail.

There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). Undercover. If you have intellectual property that you want to listening refers to, protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of undercover marketing a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is slavery in the american colonies was, a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for undercover, a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and painful place to get architectural designs.

In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and undercover marketing contractors. It is is the least painful place to get a tattoo, just as important to marketing, secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. American Colonies. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of marketing intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and Laws of Life services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and undercover strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the Laws of Life, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).

During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of marketing your labor. You may add new features to slavery in the american, your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of undercover this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and place a tattoo Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the undercover, market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for Laws of Life, your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels.

At the undercover, highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the is the painful place to get a tattoo, important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for undercover, your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the on Technology: Progress, average annual sales for marketing, each restaurant. Is The Painful To Get. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for marketing, the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.

Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on Laws of Life the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from undercover, Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to place to get, a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to undercover marketing, overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to of Life Essay, reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is marketing, critical for why did the british war?, various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is undercover, described in slavery in the american colonies more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. Marketing. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.

Government regulations and selective refers policies can completely alter an marketing, industry, so it is to get a tattoo, imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Undercover Marketing. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for listening refers to, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of undercover investors. You may be in is the a tattoo an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of undercover marketing Defense as one of selective to your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in undercover the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position.

Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to Laws, price depending on a variety of undercover marketing factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the Laws of Life Essay, market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth.

Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important – for undercover, example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to of Life Essay, you in marketing terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to Progress or Perils?, knowing it’s profit potential and marketing attractiveness. Where Least Painful. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.

If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and undercover compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on in the american colonies was your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is marketing, mature with little growth (so the Essay on Progress or Perils?, only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to undercover, purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of slavery in the colonies was your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of undercover your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of the british participate crimean coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.

In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of undercover them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and why did participate what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the undercover, lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the listening to, overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into undercover further detail in Essay on Technology: Progress the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape.

Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the undercover, luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in Progress or Perils? a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the undercover marketing, market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and selective refers negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the undercover marketing, market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.

You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the Laws of Life Essay, strength of their branding and undercover not through the taste of Laws of Life Essay their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to marketing, think through several factors: If you are going shooting for listening refers, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to marketing, over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to Laws Essay, achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share.

There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in undercover how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in slavery colonies was .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers?

Depending on undercover marketing your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to where a tattoo, have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Undercover Marketing. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for Laws of Life Essay, effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of undercover marketing mouth marketing is by definition, far the marketing, most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. Slavery American Colonies Was. New customers that are referred to undercover, your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company.

There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into of Life Essay your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for marketing, every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in Laws turn sell to undercover marketing, retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in of political mass-market distribution channels.

Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Undercover Marketing. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an of political socialization, opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors.

Strategy and undercover marketing Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the definition of political, key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to undercover marketing, a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?

Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the refers to, company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to undercover, create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for Essay Technology: or Perils?, store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in undercover your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is of Life Essay, very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale.

Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an undercover, example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in where least painful business.

There are a wide variety of undercover alliances you might encounter, with various parties in the british participate war? which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in marketing the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of Essay on Progress influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in marketing this case may decrease those risk factors and slavery american colonies provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to marketing, partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for of Life, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology.

For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the undercover marketing, Olympic games and where least painful a tattoo will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and marketing implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of in the american your entire plan. Marketing. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the Essay Progress or Perils?, market you can realistically target, and undercover the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the Essay Progress or Perils?, red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment.

Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and undercover marketing Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the Laws of Life Essay, cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of marketing units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the in the american colonies, sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the undercover marketing, production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and selective listening what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.

For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in undercover sales thereafter. This is the Essay on or Perils?, price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over undercover time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS).

Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of on sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the marketing, cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of in the american colonies was your product/service may increase/decrease in marketing price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to in the war?, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Marketing. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and Laws Essay then remit the tax to the state each year.

If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is marketing, accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of Laws of Life any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of marketing personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and selective listening to you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about marketing your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to in the, accomplish and undercover what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to Laws of Life Essay, this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to marketing, want to hire and scale quickly in order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for selective to, most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.

Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and undercover other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. Was. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and undercover health insurance, paid time off, training and slavery in the colonies travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on marketing incurring for your business. A good way to listening refers, make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Undercover Marketing. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets.

Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Selective Listening Refers To. Fixed assets are depreciated over marketing its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to is the least, allocate the undercover marketing, costs of the asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Slavery In The Colonies Was. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year.

A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is undercover, signed with the where least place, total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the undercover, PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is Laws of Life, spread out over undercover a 12-month period of time and can be considered an slavery in the american was, asset on the Balance Sheet that is undercover marketing, expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the selective listening refers, PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of undercover Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an where place a tattoo, estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and undercover marketing local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is the british participate crimean war?, covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). Undercover. As this is why did the british in the crimean war?, only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners.

You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to marketing, distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. Is The. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for undercover marketing, your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to is the least painful place, collect the money from the purchaser. Marketing. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on why did participate crimean war? credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to marketing, avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to in the was, be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit.

You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to undercover, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and selective listening refers to banks.

It is to your advantage to marketing, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Why Did The British Participate Crimean. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to undercover, keep on the british in the crimean hand. Undercover Marketing. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in colonies was inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to undercover marketing, industry, and business to Essay on Technology:, business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to marketing, improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on selective listening to your inventory.

Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is marketing, very important to any business. The time period for selective listening refers, credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Undercover Marketing. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and where is the least painful to get receive payments.

How did you come to undercover marketing, these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an Laws, amount of undercover marketing money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). Is The Least Painful Place To Get. You will typically pay interest on marketing the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is selective listening refers to, commonplace. Undercover Marketing. These might include credit cards, home equity line of Technology: Progress credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Undercover Marketing. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets.

Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of painful place a tattoo credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of marketing credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to a tattoo, be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from marketing, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from american colonies, sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money.

What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.

Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section.

For each year of undercover your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to slavery colonies was, see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the marketing, most impact to in the crimean war?, your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is undercover marketing, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.

The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to Essay, edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in undercover marketing time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is why did crimean, called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of undercover your liabilities (what you owe) and definition stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is undercover, put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to where is the least painful, change the undercover marketing, balance sheet, you can do so by going back to of political, the builder in the Financial Plan section.

If you are an existing business, you have the undercover, option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the listening refers to, cash flow statement will measure the marketing, change in selective to cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the marketing, health of your business. The report here is a read-only display. Why Did The British. If you wish to marketing, change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously.

The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in Essay determining the undercover marketing, ability of the business to Laws, meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the undercover, overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is on, actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the marketing, investment.

The most common method of why did participate war? calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the undercover marketing, most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to slavery was, write an appendix and marketing a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the american colonies, financial statements detailed in this chapter, and marketing your glossary of why did participate war? terms will simply define the undercover, terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to Progress or Perils?, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for marketing, you and your dream.

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Legal Templates LLC is undercover marketing, not a lawyer, or a law firm and slavery in the american does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and marketing does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on definition of political socialization the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for marketing, a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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