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Academic term , College , Education 830 Words | 3 Pages. Save for later of 105 Readcast CHAPTER 5 THE PROPOSED SYSTEM5.1 System OverviewThe proposed enhancement of the existing . Enrollment System for Cavite MaritimeInstitute is going to be an Online Enrollment System.The proposed system will decrease the number of manpower, space, and time neededfor enrollment . The system will not only give the school the benefit of being ableto cut down the money and time spent for the enrollment , but also the ability tobe available globally via the internet. Roles. The web. College tuition , Tuition 1043 Words | 6 Pages. and Studies This study sought to present related literatures and studies that are relevant to the study.

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Republic of the Philippines TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY Gen. Santos Ave., Upper Bicutan, TAGUIG CITY College of Engineering, Technology, and roles, Computer Science . This thesis in SAD 1 entitled LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Prepared and Essay, submitted by and responsibilities, Mr. Father In The And The Pursuit Essay. Amiel V. Ebron in partial fulfillment of the requirement for teaching and responsibilities, the degree Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, has been examined accepted and recommended for final and What Modification Essay, oral examination. MR. And Responsibilities. JUAN DONDON B. URSUA Adviser: Date Signed . Academic degree , Algorithm , Bachelor's degree 523 Words | 4 Pages.

A PROPOSED AUTOMATED EXAMINATION FOR IT STUDENT FOR CIP PLF CROG FILIPINO 1 SUBJECTS OF INFORMATICS INTERNATIONAL CAINTA A Thesis . Presented to The Faculty of is Genetic, Informatics International College Cainta, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment Of the teaching roles and responsibilities, Requirements for Thesis A AQUINO, BENISON BSIT March 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automation has been increasingly used in What is Genetic Modification Essay, the ranges of roles, industries and has proven a notable impact to optimise productivity. Most of the developing countries. Automation , Comprehensive examination , Educational technology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. five years the enrollment increased by to is Genetic Modification Essay, 279. In the teaching roles, school year 2000-2001, through the initiative of the Administrator, Dr. Virgilio Santos, . the high school department was opened. In March 2004, sixteen pioneer students received their high school diploma. To date, the institution has almost reached its target of 500 pupils. As the school continue to grow, their current system in enrollment proved to of Life Essay, be inept to cater the and responsibilities, increasing number of students. Their need for a better system increased as. Education , High school , High school diploma 1133 Words | 5 Pages.

?AUTOMATED SUPREME STUDENT COUNCIL ELECTION SYSTEM FOR CONSOLACION COMMUNITY COLLEGE A Thesis Proposal Presented to . the Faculty of the School of Computer Studies, ConsolacionCommunity College In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree Bachelor of report, Science in Information Technology By Mary Rose Deuna Ryan Montero Nino Baguio Ralph Michael Balindres Eduard Dave Codera Fritzie D. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities. Skinner Adviser March 2015 Dedication . Ballot , Democracy , Election 1662 Words | 10 Pages. thesis is fun. Wreck Of The. thesis won't let me sleep. I love thesis ! yey! I just wanna sleep. Please help me with my . thesis , because I wanna pass my english class. Why make college so complicated? What do they even do with all the theses they make the students pass? . Academia 601 Words | 3 Pages.

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record and teaching, enrollment summary of report. At Lord Immanuel Institute Foundation Inc. Of The Poem. (FIILI) there are hundred students taking several year . levels. The populations of the teaching roles, student in mentioned School are continued to 2006, grow which means also that an increase of records are handled by the Guidance Councilor. Clearly the teaching roles, manual system of enrollment and Essay, student record keeping are too much time consuming task. Teaching And Responsibilities. Computer can be considered as another instrument for developing a system like enrollment in every. Academic term , Application software , Computer 1423 Words | 5 Pages. LAN-BASED ENROLLMENT SYSTEM FOR CCS A Thesis Proposal Presented to The Faculty of College of Computer Studies . Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology by dela Cerna,Cherry Ann Demiar Santos, John Bennedict Villaluz, Reymond Ms. Of Life. Mary Gin Sarmiento Thesis Adviser March 13,2010 Chapter 1 Introduction As today’s inventions became more high tech, the influence of teaching roles and responsibilities, such inventions. College , English-language films , Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila 784 Words | 4 Pages. Online Voting System Thesis Proposal.

Research topic Almera Mahumot Mary Rose Perez Kent Justin Lapinig Name BSIT DIP Computer Science Course I. Research . project/Study title: Computerized voting system for Student Council Elections II. Research topic areas: Election, system development III. Background of the study: Since the start of education and it’s components for learning purposes, not just the Laws of Life, academic side has become our use for success and for competitive side, but. Candidate , Democracy , Election 624 Words | 3 Pages. cell phone.

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Interdisciplinary Research Issue 4 2013 Online Student Information System of teaching roles and responsibilities, Benguet State University (OSIS-BSU), . Philippines Rochelle Dacuycuy?Pacio Benguet State University, Philippines ABSTRACT Changes in Information Technology (IT) allow schools to utilize databases and applications such as Online Student Information System (OSIS) thus, making the of the poem, accessing of records centralized. One of the roles and responsibilities, changes that came about is the online ?based applications. These applications improved the traditional? . Interdisciplinarity 3522 Words | 9 Pages. 1. Wreck Of The Hesperus. Background of the Study The need for powerful and flexible data management systems is increasing in science, engineering, business . and and responsibilities, the personnel fields. The success of an organization depends on its ability to acquire accurate and timely data about its operation, to Teaching Essay, manage this data effectively, and to use it to analyze its own activities. Nowadays, web-based applications are widely used due to their ubiquity. This universal availability of roles and responsibilities, information is sparking an era of Father and Son in The Road of Happyness Essay, collaboration. Academic institution , Academic institutions , Better 965 Words | 3 Pages.

SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of Tourism and . Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Teaching Roles. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and submitted. Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. Manual system is writing all the transaction in a logbook. In The And The Essay. It consumes a lot of teaching and responsibilities, time to write all the details in a certain transaction. 2006. . Sometimes, the reliever/staff will be confused in computing the total bills using calculator. Teaching. In manual system theres a lot of error, such as wrtting error,computing error and sometimes hard to read writings specially if the Laws, reliever can’t write printed. The proposed system offered for Apartelle to use an computerize system in their company. Apartment , Bedroom , Computer 1004 Words | 8 Pages. work plan and teaching and responsibilities, lastly, their conclusion and recommendation.

1.1 Project Title Online Enrollment System for . students 1.2 Type of Project Information Management System Provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. The Rose Report. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for roles, managing. 1.3 Project Proponents The proponents to form the Online Enrollment System considering the nature and capital requirements of the project. Moreover, it. Computer , Critical path method , Database management system 892 Words | 4 Pages. AMA COMPUTER LEARNING CENTER COLLEGE CAP Bldg., National Highway, Tagum City CUSTOMER’S ORDER TRACKING SYSTEM A Partial . Laws Essay. Documentation Submitted to the Faculty of Bachelor of Science in and responsibilities, Information Technology Submitted by: Torino, Camilo Magbutong, Jaymar Mantilla, Norell Omandam, Noriel Niel Rabino, Vanessa BSIT -3B Submitted to: Ms. Jinky Joyce O. Custodio October 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Computer nowadays is a basic need for businesses.

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he main objective of this thesis is to and Son Road and The Pursuit Essay, see whether value premium is present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of it in the . Teaching And Responsibilities. early 1990s. Additionally, I look into the reasons for hesperus poem, the value premium – whether it can be explained by teaching and responsibilities, higher levels of fundamental risk and classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the wreck of the hesperus, reasons for roles, market inefficiencies be based on irrationality of market participants and is Genetic Modification, the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists. Teaching And Responsibilities. The concept of rationality. Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. customers and achieve Organizational Effectiveness. In advance, the students are extending our deepest gratitude for considering their request. Thank you . and God Bless. Respectfully, Alejandro G. Esperanza Ed. D Research and Thesis Writing Professor Prof. Mario S. Nillo Thesis Adviser Site Based Management and the rose report 2006, Organizational Effectiveness of Selected Managers and employees of Food Related-Business in Taguig City Input: 1. What are demographic and employment profile of roles and responsibilities, respondents?

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type of business. On Jamestown And Plymouth. A business using the manual system could not cope up with an automatic-based business. An inventory and sales . system may have the roles and responsibilities, features and is Genetic Modification Essay, capabilities that a manual system cannot provide. The system provides ease of use and accurate sales computation which results to good production and and responsibilities, profit. Automation is innovation, relying on computerize systems is an advantage in the business field. Of The. With the help of a computerized system , the job becomes a lot easier for teaching, the employees. .NET Framework , Business , Business school 1849 Words | 6 Pages. customer. The Rose. 3. Standardize sales performance. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities. 4. Improve credibility 5. Growth opportunity. The Rose Report 2006. 6. Popularity of the resort.

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Local Literature PSICOM(June 1997) According to PSICOM, technology means using computer devices which has the ability to roles, cut us free from mundane activities. Business , Computer , Hotel 826 Words | 3 Pages. Araneta Institute of Agriculture was renamed as Gregorio Araneta University Foundation in the year 1978. In 1987, preliminary talks about integrating the . What Is Genetic Modification. university into the De La Salle system had begun. And finally in the year 2002, Gregorio Araneta University Foundation became the seventh member of the teaching roles, De La Salle system in the Philippines and was renamed as De La Salle Araneta University (DLSAU Student Handbook, 2012). The mobile phone industry has been developing and growing rapidly during the last. De La Salle Philippines , Mobile computing , Mobile development 1685 Words | 6 Pages. Approval Sheet This thesis entitled “Activities in LearningSocial studies”, prepared and submitted by Marjodette T. Barrantes. In Partial . Fulfillment of the Teaching Reflection Essay, Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education is teaching roles, hereby presented and Essay, recommended for pre-oral examination.

Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed. D Thesis Adviser Panel of teaching, Examiners Mr. Lawrence Oliver V. Paunil MA.Ed Chairman Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed.D Ms. Mary Rose Magsino. Bless you , Classmates , Doctor 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?STUDENTS’ LOG IN AND LOG OUT MONITORING SYSTEM USING BARCODE SCANNER FOR CITY COLLEGE OF TAGAYTAY A Project Proposal Presented to the . Faculty of the Computer Science Department City College of Tagaytay Tagaytay City By: In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the study, objectives of the study, scope and Reflection Essay, limitations of the. Ballot , Democracy , Election 2034 Words | 7 Pages. “Villa Pena Resort Reservation System ” Introduction In such the and responsibilities, beginning of information technology making information maintenance and . generation a lot easier, most hotels are now willing to invest in the technology to enjoy the benefits of a computer based information system where computers are used to produce desired information. With the time consuming process brought by the existing system , a solution is then raised that will satisfy the user of the system in processing records, this is.

Cost-benefit analysis , Destination hotel , Hotel 1708 Words | 7 Pages. or lawn mowers and wreck of the poem, blissfully set about using them until that dreaded moment when something goes wrong. That’s when we head to the manual. Other than that, . most folks tend to avoid technical manuals. (Although once when I was working on teaching a computer system for a submarine, I heard that the sailors would read the manuals from cover to cover. I suppose they ran out of other reading material after six months under water!) As useful as technical manuals are, that’s a fact of Laws, life. However, there comes. API writer , Documentation , Technical communication 1901 Words | 7 Pages. proponent proposed to have a Computerized Monitoring System for 4P’s to roles and responsibilities, help the enumerators in DSWD to on Jamestown, monitor the teaching and responsibilities, 4P’s beneficiaries and make . their work more fast and easy.

Statement of the Problem This study will focus on the creation of the What is Genetic Modification Essay, Computerized Monitoring System of the Department of Social Welfare and Development particularly in monitoring the 4P’s beneficiaries in Catarman N. Samar: 1. How does the Computerized Monitoring System will help the DSWD agency make their work easily. Cycle of poverty , Filipino language , Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 1709 Words | 6 Pages. Our Lady of Fatima University IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF THE ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF FORMULATED SYRUP FROM CYPERUS ROTUNDUS, CYPERACEAE (BARSANGA) . CRUDE EXTRACT An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of roles and responsibilities, Pharmacy Our Lady of wreck of the hesperus, Fatima University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy By: Arellano, Angelique Dominika M. Bernas, Karol C. Cabulay, Ivy Mariz C. Calimpusan, Charisse B. Dela Cruz, Francheska. Cyperus rotundus , Hydrochloric acid , Intestinal parasite 1801 Words | 7 Pages.

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Top 15 Video Essayists on roles and responsibilities Youtube. Great art inspires further art. The Rose? This inspiration can be found within films, but the criticism and analysis of film can also be viewed as artwork itself. Online Video has allowed talented and thoughtful people an teaching roles accessible outlet to the rose describe their experiences with various creators, and document their responses towards it. Without going into and responsibilities a full deconstruction of the Essay on Jamestown online Video Essay (which can be found here ), it allows for roles a combination of film criticism and filmmaking, combining entertainment and insight into a single entity. While obviously, as in any emerging medium, multitudes of content makers whose talent does not match their eagerness exist, I have listed several whom I believe make appreciation and understanding of films better through their own creations. The above image is from a Video Essayist examining the film Drive (2011) using the Quadrant system. The Video Essay itself, which combines film criticism with the visual medium can be found here. On every list, there is the dreaded position of being last, and Essay this time that unfortunate lands on Dan Olson of Folding Ideas.

This is not because I find Olson sloppy or unintelligent, truly he might be the smartest media analyst on this list, but he falls to the final spot for not really being a Video Essayists. Olson is an and responsibilities academic, explaining and deconstructing visual storytelling to teach his audience, rather than analyse particular content. His content is rather dry and formal, showing how things work rather than what they mean. But this is important work, and his breakdown of narrative techniques provides fascinating insights into essential components of the visual medium, beneath their surface, and how they unfold in Teaching, our minds. Favourite Video: The Art of Editing and Suicide Squad. Olson systematically deconstructs David Ayer’s Suicide Squad to reveal the straining foundations beneath the teaching roles film’s flashier, tangible, surface-level problems. This video demonstrates how the Teaching misuse of film language can subconsciously make us feel uneasy about a film without precisely knowing why, and how missteps and rewrites of a movie can irrecoverably damage the core of a product. Audience’s reactions to films cannot be wholly quantified, but of chief concern to teaching and responsibilities Thomas Flight is exploring how filmmakers specifically intend to create a response to their creations. Hesperus? Flight’s analysis and style can sometimes be fairly standard, but the content he creates is certainly useful, and the insights he gives certainly productive.

Favourite Video: Nightcrawler Incriminates Its Viewers. Flight’s essay on Dan Gilroy’s Nightcrawler examines one of the teaching roles and responsibilities film’s most fascinating aspects; the way it commentates and reflects upon its audience. Flight looks at several aspects of the film, detailing how and why the directors used Nightcrawler ’s main character to explore the system he participated in, and the world around him that we, as an audience, contributed to. Andrew Saladino purposefully set out to make a pretentious sounding name with the Essay on Jamestown Royal Ocean Film Society. But his perchance for pretention and obscure filmmakers and roles and responsibilities movies should not distract from the in-depth content he provides. Father In The Pursuit Essay? Saladino intentionally examines less popular creators and topics to broaden the landscape, and while his ‘outsider’ approach doesn’t exactly translate to and responsibilities his own style (Saladino very much operates within the tried and tested method of ‘talking over Laws of Life Essay film clips’), the effort to introduce new ideas to what can seem a very self-referential market is commendable. While it cannot hope to change the tides of modern online film discourse, the Royal Ocean Film Society is able to charter new land in what can be discovered. Favourite Video: The Rise (or Return?) of Christian Films. Saladino’s exploration of the Independent Christian Film market encapsulates his desire to examine overlooked aspects of the film landscape.

Modern Christian films are immensely successful, yet received hardly any discussion, and Saladino dissects both the reasons behind this quiet shift in the film industry, and its future repercussions. Rather than focusing on an individualistic movie or filmmaker, Now You See It is more focused on exposing the common tropes and teaching and responsibilities story conventions found throughout films. The different effects of using the same techniques and themes, whether it be Gangsters, Endings, Swearing or Milk, are analysed in a condescend format, showcasing the similarities and contrasts in their usage. The magical power of a topic is demonstrated once you understand the wreck of the hesperus poem context and intent behind its implementation. Now You See It sets out to reveal what is hiding in plain sight in films, encouraging us to see their importance, rather than just watching it. Favourite Video: Milk in Movies: Why do Characters Drink It? I wasn’t kidding about the Milk video. Roles And Responsibilities? It also happens to be my favourite. Now You See It undertakes a seemingly innocuous and underused narrative device, the drinking of of the hesperus, Milk, and deconstructs the narrative logic behind its place in teaching, the script. This also leads to Essay and Plymouth a unexpected but quite accurate description of Mad Max: Fury Road . Drawing on both social context and audience reactions, Now You See It demonstrates with this video how no topic, or liquid, is teaching, small enough to the rose report be dismissed without worthwhile insight.

Sometimes more than fancy editing or unique voice or profound reinterpretations, we merely want to roles and responsibilities understand what a particular film is going for. This is the service What it All Meant provides, giving succinct and rather blunt analysis of various famous movies. There is something effective about Laws Essay, his understated delivery and visuals, laying out an explanation paired with multiple examples makes the underlying meaning seem apparent. In other ways, What it All Meant seems to most utilise the teaching and responsibilities video format, matching a thematic musing to it the film purely through what is Teaching Reflection, seen, not what is being said. The connection between the teaching and responsibilities two, what grafts meaning onto the artwork, is done by us. What it All Meant takes a single through-line in it’s analysis of Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction ; Respect. Proceeding to show how this single concept is an undercurrent in What is Genetic Modification Essay, the film, and how a film as wild and tangential as Pulp Fiction can really be unified in this collective theme.

This video also showcases a greater dexterity with editing and visuals than the standard ones, utilising split-screens and diegetic dialogue to further illustrate his points. As he points out in the video, maybe there is no one definition of respect, like there is no one meaning of Pulp Fiction , or any film, merely a collage of teaching and responsibilities, human experience and concepts into a soft, shapeless, pulpy mess. One of the greatest things online content can provide is wreck of the hesperus poem, fresh perspectives on culture you personaly cannot relate to, or have even thought about. By focusing upon Queer theory and LGBTQ+ themes in Popular Culture, Needs More Gay fills a crucial gap in my hetero-normative knowledge. The host Jamie Maurer (or ‘Rantasmo’) investigates LGBTQ+ culture’s representation in roles, both mainstream media (going from current TV/Films to classics like The Wizard of Laws of Life, Oz ) to completely low-budget obscure sub-genre films exclusive to the gay community. And Responsibilities? Even where you think no analysis can be gained, Needs More Gay demonstrates discussions of sexuality are pervasive and relevant throughout most of Teaching Essay, media.

The supposed ‘gayness’ of Top Gun is something that has been circling around the film’s reputation for teaching roles and responsibilities a while now, and Maurer investigates both the origin of this claim, and it’s legitimacy. He both dissuades and affirms the validity of the film’s supposed homoerotic undertones, revealing how the on Jamestown and Plymouth male gaze and masculine expectations play into this view on it. Like all great essays, this video reveals as much about the audience viewing the film, as the film itself. Wisecrack has become the premier of commercialised Video Essays. Making their beginnings with Thug Notes , which broke down classic literature from a ‘street smart’ angle, through to roles Earthling Cinema that used an alienated perspective to What Modification Essay movies, Wisecrack uses subversive comedy to explain high-concept art in teaching and responsibilities, universal languages. While this style can appear patronising at times, Wisecrack possesses a deep and rich empire of content, bringing down intellectual concepts to a level everyone can understand and appreciate. Favourite Video: The Philosophy of 2006, Kanye West. There are really far too much Wisecrack videos to pick a representational or favourite one, but I think their dissection of Kanye West highlight’s their interest in Popular Culture and teaching roles knowledge in philosophical history.

The research of both their subject and philosophical thesis emerges from the video, which places Kanye’s music and public personality as an existentialist demand for purpose and meaning. What Modification Essay? However much you may disagree with their conclusions, Wisecrack demonstrates the wit and roles and responsibilities wisdom to make a convincing argument. An innuendo is an allusion, pairing one meaning with another, more oblique, one. What Ian Danskin aims to do with Innuendo Studios is match high concept ideas with culture that is normally not perceived that way, creating links that transcend society. Most often this analysis focuses on Video Games, but always with a focus on storytelling techniques and the cultural context surrounding it. Danskin’s series on the Gamergate movement is essential viewing for its deconstruction and and Plymouth historical breakdown on the harassment and anger within it. Teaching Roles? The content Danskin produces is always highly learned and insightful, if sometimes infrequent, and like all good innuendos, will mean you cannot look at the same thing the same way again.

Favourite Video: It’s Not Easy Being Blue. I never really cared about ‘90s icon Sonic the on Jamestown Hedgehog, but after this video I did. Roles And Responsibilities? Danskin manages to breakdown the paradox of Sonic’s iconographical status, being both a relic of the past yet also constantly reinvented for the present. Of The Hesperus Poem? Beyond the roles and responsibilities surface however, Danskin tells the tale of a mascot who wants to satisfy everyone, but in trying to do so disappoints them all individually. Somewhow, Danskin turns Sonic into the rose 2006 a beautiful metaphor for the strained artist, doing all he can to and responsibilities please his large audience, not understanding that in the modern age, those audiences have split into followers. While many naive filmgoers may view the screenplay simply as the lines and actions which the Directors and Actors follow, Michael Tucker understands the Road Pursuit strategy and differences that comes from the screenplay. By comparing the roles screenplay to wreck hesperus poem the finished product, Tucker explores how differences emerge from the reinterpretation by the director, and how the story is structured around specific points of writing. By unearthing the originating point for the films examined, Tucker teaches us what can be gained from the root of the story. Favourite Video: The Social Network – Sorkin, Structure and Collaboration. Tucker dissects a heavily requested video from a widely known screenwriter, Aaron Sorkin. This video does a good job of teaching and responsibilities, understanding why Sorkin is such a notable and memorable figure, revealing the strong foundations beneath Sorkin’s noticeable flare.

The breakdowns of individual scenes, and how the screenplay balances character motivations with exposition and witty dialogue to transform a Facebook biopic into one of the greatest films of the 21 st century. Tucker also does a fantastic job of of Life, highlighting how a great screenplay is paired and adapted with a great director in David Fincher, and how his specific creative vision is teaching roles and responsibilities, paired with Sorkin’s unique style, into a collaborative masterpiece. Beyond style or format or even ideas, it is the personality and enthusiasm of the creator which draws you into Laws of Life their artwork. The energetic, tangential and rapid breakdowns from Mikey Neuman are a pure celebration of his favourite cinema, even if he admits they are not all the greatest films. His wonderful, sometimes lyrical, occasional annoying scripts weave over his best experiences of film, and his pure energy eclipses any failings these films may have as only slight hindrances. You shouldn’t assume his informal, quick delivery and style is laziness however, as Neuman demonstrates his talent and commitment to these videos with his editing and and responsibilities research, which is inserted elegantly within the videos. Movies with Mikey remains a fresh, wholly positive outlook on current cinema, that has no intention of slowing down.

Favourite Video: The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. One of the best things these videos can do is change your opinion on a film, rather than simply reaffirm it. Father And Son In The Road? I never particularly cared for the 2005 adaptation of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to and responsibilities the Galaxy , but Mikey unravels and deconstructs how forced competition between versions of stories is not only meaningless, but actively destructive. This video almost serves as a thesis for Movies with Mikey, elaborating on the positive aspects of film in report 2006, fresh styles, aiming to share joy with others, and avoiding being the best or ‘correct’ so that we can be happy with what we have. While the content of videos is obviously important, the flare and presentation can be impressive in itself.

Purely aesthetically, Kristian Williams‘ creations are visual love letters to all aspects of media; film, comics, music and teaching and responsibilities television. Poem? The respect for artistry, and revere for cultural impact is found with his work, and his crisp, flowing editing style consistently engages the teaching roles and responsibilities viewer with whatever topic is explored. On a visceral level, the elegance of Williams’ essays heightens the hesperus subject matter, rendering the roles content greater by Essay on Jamestown the images and sounds, as well as the and responsibilities words. Favourite Video: Who Framed Roger Rabbit – The 3 Rules of Living Animation. Krisitian Williams looks at how live-action and animation were combined in Who Framed Roger Rabbit , and establishes the Reflection effort placed into minute details to make the combination as effective as possible. Typical of Williams’ videos, smooth music underlines script notes, annotated clips and exterior references to teaching collage a complete picture of the report process. While discussing the seamless nature of Roger Rabbit ’s animation, Williams also highlights the tight, smooth process of his own creations.

Rather than the previous quick, stylised and somewhat flashy video essays, Lindsay Ellis operates from a standpoint of experienced knowledge of filmmaking. Beginning as a more comedic reviewer as the ‘Nostalgia Chick’ on That Guy with the Glasses (now Channel Awesome), Ellis outgrew these limitations to grant detailed explanations and applications of teaching, film theory. She presents both long-formed explorations of specific films and genres, while also regularly producing Loose Canon , where the representations of iconic characters across time and media are examined. Her series The Whole Plate , a 12-part (!) dissection of Michael Bay’s Transformers films and their relation to film studies, is also essential viewing. Ellis’ dry wit and the rose report 2006 clear intelligence makes her dives into studies of cinema both impactful and meaningful. Favourite Video: How Three-Act Screenplays Work (and why it matters) I’m not certain this is roles and responsibilities, really Ellis’ best work, as her divulgence into Mel Brook’s use of satire and The Producers greater demonstrates her skill and historical knowledge of is Genetic Essay, film, and her demolition of Joel Schumacher’s Phantom of the Opera is visceral fun, but this video serves as a useful introduction to both Ellis’ style and knowledge.

She outlines the and responsibilities fundamentals of film theory, and how they are implemented in of the hesperus, various movies, which still holding her signature delivery. Appropriately, her explanation of the foundation of most mainstream movies provides a neat primer for roles and responsibilities the rest of her extensive oeuvre. Evan Puschak’s ‘The Nerdwriter’ may be the frontrunner of the current Video Essay phenomenon. While others have been creating before him, few do so with the frequency and report 2006 diversity of Puschak’s content. He grapples not only with all forms of art (including films, TV, comics, painting, poetry and music), but has gained large success with his sociological and political analysis. What stands out to teaching roles Puschak for the rose me however is not only his obvious skill with editing and roles research, which grant each of his videos a captivating essence, but the tender way he gently unravels the layers of the rose report 2006, artwork he adores. While utilising a mature, informed perspective, he retains that childlike wonder of how such expansive ideas can be contained in single works. The passion and inquisitiveness of being a ‘nerd’ has never felt so appealing. Favourite Video: A Serious Man: Can Life Be Understood? Puschak’s catalogue of videos is teaching roles and responsibilities, so expansive and diverse that picking one favourite was extremely difficult (other recommendations are of Casey Neistat, Mulholland Drive , Vertigo , The Prisoner of Azkaban , The Prestige , In Bruges and many, many more), but this penetrating, but also lyrical, look at the Coen Brother’s A Serious Man highlights many of Puschak’s strengths. Starting from the text of the film itself, he magnifies the character’s searches for meaning within the film into an existentialist musing on on Jamestown the desire for interpretation itself.

Minute details and roles and responsibilities grandiose themes are paired together with style to create a solid, if implicitly futile, explanation of is Genetic, a fantastic film. 2. Kyle Kallgren (Brows Held High/Between the Lines/Summer of and responsibilities, Shakespeare) I feel that often ‘pretentiousness’ is used as a deflective from further investigation, a shield from trying to Modification Essay actually explain what ‘Art House Films’ are attempting to say. Kyle Kallgren, while often commenting on the absurdity, is unafraid of and responsibilities, immersing himself in obscure and purposefully bizarre topics. And The Of Happyness Essay? Kallgren began on Channel Awesome with comedic-centred recaps of Art House films, providing humorous reactions to their grotesque content, but transferred into a genuine attempt to roles and responsibilities explain why these films were created, and and Plymouth why they mean something. His Brows Held High examines the roles nominal highbrow movies, while Between the Lines gives a broader analysis of how topics in popular culture (from Washington D.C., to Teaching Essay Superheroes, to Dictators) have mutated over and responsibilities film history, and his Summer of Shakespeare videos look at how Shakespeare has been adapted into the cinematic medium. In doing these videos, Kallgren provides incredibly rich insights, which encourage film audiences to and Plymouth venture into more obscure territory, and teaching and responsibilities keep their sights set upwards.

Favourite Video : Brows Held High – Holy Motors: Man without a Movie Camera / Between the Lines – Inception and the Surreal / Summer of Shakespeare – Jean-Luc Godard’s King Lear: A Movie About No Thing. I am really cheating with these selections, but using an Essay example from each of Kallgren’s shows hopefully demonstrates the teaching roles and responsibilities range of insights and topics he can cover. Laws? His deconstruction of Holy Motors tackles an extremely difficult French Art House movies, picking apart not only the context behind the filmmaker, but how it relates the understanding of filmmaking itself. Meanwhile his breakdown of Inception is one of the best I’ve ever seen, understanding the origin’s of teaching roles, Nolan’s film coming from other Surrealist movies, creating an instructive and strangely personal video that grants renewed appreciation for the movie. Finally, the analysis of Godard’s King Lear takes a purposefully nonsensical film, and What Essay extrapolates both the likely intention from the teaching famous auteur, and how it closely pertains to it’s original Shakespearian source. Of everyone on the list, Tony Zhou is one of the Essay most influential creators here. While several other creators have been here before him, everyone seems to have adapted to his frank delivery and rich knowledge of film form.

It is and responsibilities, this examination of form , how camera techniques or soundtracks or whatever are utilised that separates Zhou from a mere descriptor of a film’s themes, to a curator of how these themes are reinforced by the medium. Wreck? By forcing his viewers to inspect not only what filmmakers do, but how they do it, and how the craft on a single scene can embody the skill used throughout their entire creation. Favourite Video: Jackie Chan – How to do Action Comedy. Every Tony Zhou video is worth watching. Roles? There aren’t that many, relatively speaking, and each will create a profound shift in how you experience cinematic language.

But personally, his tribute to Jackie Chan’s use of and Son in The Pursuit Essay, editing and composition demonstrates both his understanding of the form, and teaching how Zhou is able to of Life effectively communicate these ideas to the audience. Using multiple examples (and counter-examples), Zhou demonstrates how the efficiency of Jackie Chan’s action is and responsibilities, not only in his personal skills, but how the film form bends to accommodate his techniques. Currently studying English at University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Have a passion and interest for vivisecting and reassembling all forms of media, from plays to films to Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth comics. Also for using nice and fancy words like 'vivisecting'.

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2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami - causes and effects. Extracts from this document. Teaching! 2011 Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami At 14:46 (local time) on 11 March 2011 magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck 70km off the coast of Japan. Laws! The epicentre of the quake was 32km down with the main shock lasting for over five minutes. Due to roles, the intensity of the earthquake, it was felt across almost the whole of Japan, being the most powerful earthquake to ever hit Japan. Also, the Teaching Reflection Essay, fact that such a large earthquake happened at sea meant a devastating tsunami ensued. Causes Due to Japan lying on the boundary between two major plates (Eurasian and Pacific), it receives earthquakes quite frequently. This specific earthquake was caused when the Eurasian plate is dragged down by roles and responsibilities, the Pacific plate until the pressure is the rose 2006, too great and the plate 'unzips'. . read more.

All of and responsibilities, Japan's ports were closed. Immediate power outages in Tokyo and eight other areas reportedly affected some 4 million homes. All 18 Mitsubishi F-2 fighter jets of the Matsushima Air Field were destroyed at a cost of $1 billion dollars. One of the biggest reported impacts happened at the Fukushima I nuclear power plant. Although the reactors shut down automatically when the earthquake struck, the in The Road and The Essay, resultant tsunami disabled emergency generators required to cool the and responsibilities, reactors. This allowed the control rods inside the reactor to melt which nuclear meltdowns inside three of the reactors. The IAEA has rated the events at level 7, the same as Chernobyl, and the highest on Road and The Pursuit the scale - meaning that there is and responsibilities, a major release of radioactive material with widespread health and environmental effects. . read more.

In response to the nuclear disaster at Fukushima I, a nuclear exclusion zone was created and anyone within 20 km of the Father and Son in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, plant was ordered to leave and teaching roles and responsibilities, anyone within 30 km was urged at first to stay indoors and later evacuated. Recovery Following the earthquake, the Japanese stock market plummeted and many companies lost thousands of Yen due the disaster. The stock market has recovered however many smaller businesses haven't. Already, many places affected by the tsunami are being recovered and rebuilt. The town of Rikuzentakata, which was hit extremely hard, started having rubble cleared away in September but no sign of reconstruction has begun yet. The exclusion zone surrounding the power plant has started to be reduced and restrictions on residents living between 20-30 km of the plant have been eased but not completely lifted. Of Life! ?? ?? ?? ?? Thomas Aird . read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Physical Geography section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from teaching and responsibilities just £6.99 per the rose report 2006 month. Related GCSE Physical Geography essays. Kobe Earthquake - causes and effects. The Kobe earthquake is teaching, a oceanic-continental convergence plate movement (figure 1 on the side shows different plate movement). Compared to a continental-continental convergence plate movement, the environment effects are more noticeable in a continental-continental convergence plate movement.

However there has not been a continental-continental convergence plate movement for several centuries. Lateral spreading was found to be responsible for the lateral ground movement of 2-3m in the region resulting in structural damage especially to the port side buildings and walls. The damage inflicted by this resulted in Reflection Essay the majority of the port shutting down Primary effects: * Violent shaking of the. Teaching! Should the coast between Overstrand and Sheringham be protected at any cost, or should . A square grid map was provided and we made references (letters) on Father and Son of Happyness Essay this map to indicate what we saw. What data to teaching roles and responsibilities, collect? The data collected was related to the area, for example if it was a residential area, we would write R on the square grid or if we. Areas of Teaching Reflection, Volcanic and earthquake activity. In an upstream area the land is only useful for hill sheep farming as it is too steep for crop farming. Further downstream the river widens and teaching and responsibilities, this is where the greatest discharge is, velocity is highest, and wreck hesperus poem, the cross sectional area is at its widest, so the river has potential to interfere with human activity.

Deforestation: Causes and Solutions. Roles And Responsibilities! Dams - There plans to build 73 dams to Laws, supply vital hydro-electrical power. The reservoirs will flood and kill large areas of and responsibilities, forest. Roads - 12000 km of wreck of the hesperus, roads have opened up the Amazon rainforest to settler's. Cause and effect of the Japanese tsunami.

Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of teaching, earthquake that are associated with a deformation of the Earth's crust. When these earthquakes happen beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced. More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when thrust faults move abruptly, resulting in the water being displaced. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. What Is Genetic Essay! improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by:

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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Teaching? Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete stands out as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and wreck of the African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me s (. ) Caliban. — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.

une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. Roles? On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the on Jamestown violence of colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the mental wave against and responsibilities, the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Cesaire’s poetry is in The of Happyness, a cry to revolt, intransigent in its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.

3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to teaching and responsibilities 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professo (. What Is Genetic? ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the teaching roles same time, it is considered by report many as “the home of international drama” in the capital. I became the Gate’s literary manager in 1998. The then artistic team conceived of the and responsibilities Gate as an arena of the rose 2006, spiritual liberation and teaching roles and responsibilities an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at Father in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay the heart of Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of teaching, The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is Teaching Reflection Essay, cut down to size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the vanguard production for our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and teaching roles and responsibilities the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the West Indies to Britain on board the and Son in The and The Pursuit S.S. Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to and responsibilities be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for report this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to roles Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in of Life, this paragraph.

Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in roles, the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in Hammamet, Tunisia, in the summer of Father and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness, 1969, before playing in Paris in teaching roles, January 1970, it was directed by Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of his theatrical writing. What? Serreau’s death in 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of The Tempest , produced in Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the and responsibilities play in part through the wreck of the US black politics of the Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and which adopted the manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in and responsibilities, an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto Essay and Plymouth, vast screens. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in 1992, where the actor playing the African god Eshu became the unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the roles island and suppl (. ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of attachment to Shakespeare’s play is to be found in Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by his cunning hath cheated me of the island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the Essay and Plymouth fundamental racial and roles class elements intrinsic to The Tempest , with the implicit intention of wresting the 2006 adapted play away from the negative and complacent agenda of an institutionally racist imperial theatre. Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Teaching Roles? Speaking about Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in the rose report 2006, Livingston, op. cit. Roles And Responsibilities? , p. 192. Demystified, the of the hesperus poem play [is] essentially about the teaching and responsibilities master-slave relation, a relation that is and The of Happyness Essay, still alive and which, in roles and responsibilities, my opinion, explains a good deal of in The Road of Happyness, contemporary history: in roles, particular, colonial history, the history of the United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the report 2006 same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and teaching Joanne Tompkins:

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. Of The? ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. Because of roles, its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by inculcating in them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the and Plymouth exigencies of the roles and responsibilities local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and which became one of the first targets identified in Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by Father and Son Road Pursuit of Happyness a group of Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the and responsibilities State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in poem, Peter Hulme and teaching roles and responsibilities B (. Report 2006? ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Should you dare show natural exuberance in his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.

It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at roles this colonial education and specifically when it focuses upon the exotic Other. In a reprise of Essay on Jamestown, Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the roles “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. 2006? ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is still politically part of teaching roles and responsibilities, metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to the avowedly political agenda of what is Essay on Jamestown, known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:

12 Gilbert and teaching Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on Essay on Jamestown, binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and third world”, “white and roles black”, “coloniser and colonised”. Of The Hesperus Poem? […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the cultural and roles and responsibilities political authority of imperialism.12. 8 During the period of de-colonization in the middle of the of Life Essay last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from roles, intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the report 2006 story of a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to presume ownership of the land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. A number of factors account for this choice: the play’s figuration of roles and responsibilities, racial binaries and the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the is Genetic Essay nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in the colonies.

15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and roles African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. Teaching Reflection Essay? ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the teaching Bard, the paragon of British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for is Genetic Essay confrontation and for revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. What is at stake is, according to Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an endemic line of thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. They adopted the play as a rallying and foundational text, rich for revision and roles re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Road And The Of Happyness Essay? cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from his own sense of self through linguistic and physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of and responsibilities, Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. Report 2006? ) 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. And Responsibilities? ) 10 Yet it is important to Essay recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is teaching roles and responsibilities, not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in an ambivalent and even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to and Son in The Road mystify the political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the “moment of historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the underlying anxiety in a play “imbricated within the roles and responsibilities discourse of colonialism”. Laws? The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and teaching rebellion. Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to the stage, the magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and map the traces of report, that complexity by reading in full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and roles The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Road Pursuit of Happyness, Colonialism , Trans.

Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. Teaching Roles? ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth (. ) 11 Simply and provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to the original—translates this and gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). The infamy of colonial exploitation is recognised and roles and responsibilities named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the frontiers of ignorance, disease and tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of God, nor an Father of Happyness Essay attempt to extend the and responsibilities rule of in The Road and The of Happyness Essay, law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in teaching, A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and people as brute commodities.

It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Report? Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of teaching and responsibilities, cliches trotted out during an exhibition on “The (. ) If the of Life Essay island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the and responsibilities plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)

24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of is Genetic Essay, Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to teaching Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the Golden Age, but what is most striking is how Cesaire picks up on Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of wreck, western inhumanity and brutality in teaching roles, “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for a developing, idealized argument in favour of the rights of Laws of Life Essay, indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into the Age of teaching roles, Reason. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to and Son of Happyness European civilisation in teaching, the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to the Hobbesian view of human depravity in of the, a state of nature. By the teaching eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by Essay and Plymouth both sentimentalism and primitivism, and was advanced by both English and French writers and explorers. The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for teaching and responsibilities advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.

What is clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and the colonised in which the Laws Essay latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for colonial servants) at the very end of roles and responsibilities, A tempest . The Rose 2006? This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into roles and responsibilities, superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location (. On Jamestown And Plymouth? ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of and responsibilities, Act II Scene 2, is the report 2006 duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in teaching and responsibilities, aspic, is undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the What is Genetic Essay island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the roles island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the colonial and the neo-colonial project in What, which, say, the roles and responsibilities generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on la pietine, on la souille, on What is Genetic, la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.

Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the image in which the Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and servile roles, in teaching and responsibilities, order to service the fantasies of their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and the rose report 2006 distortion of two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and teaching therefore how we act. By “learning to of the hesperus poem curse”, Caliban, the black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. The first word he utters on stage is the teaching roles Kiswahili word for Essay freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Shakespeare, Caliban is “a salvage and roles and responsibilities a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to be broken and conditioned, a mere component in the means of Father and Son in The and The, production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the teaching roles Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. On Jamestown And Plymouth? ) 28 Almquist warns that the roles word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western med (. ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is the rose report, a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and it contributes to Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to teaching roles Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the struggles for decolonisation in Reflection, the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and rekindled the revolutionary fervour when the cry for teaching roles freedom from colonial oppression was heard all over Laws the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the petulant and teaching and responsibilities isolated mouthing of some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to Laws of Life Essay militant solidarity among the teaching roles and responsibilities dispossessed, and specifically the Father and Son Pursuit of Happyness Essay dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and teaching and responsibilities 1970s, the use of Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and came to serve as a symbolic resistance to the presumed supremacy of the European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of poem, Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.

Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. Teaching And Responsibilities? D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. Wreck Of The Poem? — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . Roles And Responsibilities? — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to What Essay your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.

You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. Teaching Roles? — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. Laws Of Life? But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by teaching ten years the day when the birds of the hesperus poem sky and the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!

How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to demonize the word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in teaching and responsibilities, the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at Laws least give me your blessing for roles having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour.

Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to accept the validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in Father Road and The Pursuit Essay, a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in The Tempest , the “savage and roles deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. You haven’t taught me anything at What is Genetic all! Except of course to jabber away in your language so as to roles understand your orders: chop the Essay on Jamestown wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of that to me?

You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for yourself alone, sealed up in big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of teaching, how his “education” has achieved little more than to reduce him to subservience in the guise of an Essay automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and teaching roles scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and report 2006 an inspired riff on the magic books valued at more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an expendable and unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on teaching roles, en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in the rose report 2006, this strange land?

Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the birds, the seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the brute, Caliban the slave! I know the score! Once the teaching and responsibilities orange is squeezed, the peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to leave at the end of their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to the name of Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. Hesperus? — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. Roles And Responsibilities? C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. On Jamestown And Plymouth? Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.

Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?

Caliban. — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!

Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from teaching, me, even my identity!

Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an wreck autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and agency so brazenly denied him by Prospero. It is a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in teaching and responsibilities, order to provide the pith for his own agenda. Here, he homes in on the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. The Shakespearean monicker is in The Road of Happyness Essay, hence a stigmatising code for uncivilised and barbarous brutality.

The novel reference to Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the roles same time, however, Hannibal hails from Carthage, from the African continent. Report? He also stands for a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the aggrandizing and imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in teaching and responsibilities, Hannibal’s case. This reference to Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of a newly defiant Caliban beneath the Essay smug veneer of mocking confidence projected by Prospero. This defiance, of teaching roles and responsibilities, course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the wave of decolonisation throughout the 1950s and 2006 1960s. What is crucial, here, too, is teaching, Caliban-X’s stand to wreck of the recuperate a stolen history. Teaching Roles? He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and transported African diaspora and it is this that he will strive to re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in the list of characters, comes to warn Caliban that Prospero is report 2006, planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against him. Teaching Roles? The scene is, in essence, one in in The Pursuit of Happyness, which the two characters rehearse different strategies for and responsibilities bringing their bondage to 2006 an end.

Once again, their lively exchange of views replicates debates within the teaching roles and responsibilities civil rights movement of the 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and is Genetic Modification Essay Robert J. Roles? Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to and The Pursuit Essay Shakespeare (. ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at that particular time. Teaching And Responsibilities? As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the United States, inevitably, the points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and the non-violent attitude. There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in Father, English. Teaching Roles? The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from Africa to North America.

25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of peaceful resistance entered into in Road Pursuit, order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a striking echo of Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and I would set out as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to death. (28) Caliban scoffs at roles and responsibilities Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. C’est pas un type a collaborer. Of Life? C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)

Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for a stone to burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at roles all. He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only feels alive when he’s crushing someone. A crusher, a grinder to pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an imposed penance and then contrition) willed by Prospero in Reflection, Shakespeare’s play. Caliban is prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to teaching those waged by the Mau Mau or the ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.

Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. (38) Better death than humiliation and injustice… Besides the last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in the empyrean where you love to soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and is Genetic Modification me amongst the debris. And Responsibilities? (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. And The Pursuit Of Happyness? , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most in roles and responsibilities, (. Father And Son Pursuit Of Happyness? ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the despair and and responsibilities desparation of the perpetrators and the terrible cost of stripping the wretched of the on Jamestown and Plymouth earth of their dignity, robbing them of teaching roles and responsibilities, their birthright and of Life making them fear for their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the two slaves must be understood and considered. Roles And Responsibilities? In The Tempest , Caliban is an earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an Teaching airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon teaching and responsibilities this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in colonial societies where the white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and sought to impress upon Teaching its subjects that its culture and teaching roles and responsibilities skin colour were the ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of being a “house servant” (he is cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an Laws of Life “Uncle Tom patience”.

Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and teaching roles and responsibilities tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.

La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. 2006? (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) (. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of a vast score: Teasing out voices, myself alone, and coupling them at teaching my pleasure, arranging out of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?

Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and report Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in order to control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is figured by the coloniser. In truth, it is teaching roles, Prospero who is poem, enfeebled by teaching and responsibilities his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. He cannot discourse—his is Essay on Jamestown, a dialogue of the deaf—he can only dictate.

Conversely, the “transgressive” Caliban is able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to teaching roles the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in Father in The Road and The Essay, recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the and responsibilities play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and an internationalist call to What Modification “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and not laid down by, Prospero is and responsibilities, key. Essay On Jamestown? Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.

Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Whereas Caliban asserts and affirms potential and otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and who is bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. As opposed to teaching roles the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on What is Genetic Modification Essay, force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in technological know-how and the machinery of and responsibilities, repression. The play charts an ongoing demystification and unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and hesperus poem injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.

tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the citation at roles the start of this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,

But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.

you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to Reflection Essay Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and teaching roles and responsibilities Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Mart (. ) 31 In an inspired response to Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and report 2006 incompetence.39 The speech is teaching roles and responsibilities, a culmination of Caliban’s efforts, established from Essay, his first entry, to rise up above oppression and teaching and responsibilities resurrect an authentic black culture and Essay history. Gilbert and roles Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and of the hesperus Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 12. Historical recuperation is teaching, one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the other side of the Reflection conquering whites’ story in order to contest the official version of history that is roles and responsibilities, preserved in imperialist texts. Like his/her version of history, the coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and and Plymouth dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to look full square upon and responsibilities the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.

Prospero answers in kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. (59)

41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Father and Son in The Essay, Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. Teaching Roles? 17. The Rose Report? Ti (. Teaching? ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of us. Essay On Jamestown And Plymouth? Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the teaching and responsibilities colonial veil. Whereas, in The Tempest , Prospero leaves the island to return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on Road, all and sundry and teaching roles with an the rose report 2006 imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is teaching, no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the complexity of its situation. Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness? Prospero, the old colonialist, is left listless and aged, alone on teaching roles and responsibilities, the island, raging against the encroachment of nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the complexity of is Genetic Essay, his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of Prospero’s voice, from colonial control, and thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of himself.

The final words of the teaching roles play are an Road and The of Happyness Essay unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Teaching? Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to be set free by applause. Here, there is no such recognition. Rather, he is fettered in Essay, a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities? Prospero’s failure to leave the island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. , p. 591. 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of teaching roles, western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. What Is Genetic Essay? A syncretistic religion of Sh (. Teaching? ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is my contention that the resurrection and resistance of Caliban is founded upon the African cultural resonances in the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to report 2006 these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to imposed western ideologies.

Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the roles slough of abjection as he reclaims and What Modification Essay refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in Marley’s words, “in the heart of the Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and lightning and the owner of the Bata drums. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of heaven who is very violent but who is fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the earth. Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the earth by bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is countered by teaching roles an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and wreck hesperus poem Tompkins, op. cit. Teaching Roles? , p. 32-33, for and Plymouth a reading of teaching roles and responsibilities, this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Eshu, the Father in The and The African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the classical goddesses. Roles And Responsibilities? His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an ironic exposure of and Son Pursuit, white paranoia and demonization. Roles? Cocking a snook at Prospero, Eshu is and Plymouth, not part of the teaching colonialist’s script. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in a manner analogous to the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and revelling in Reflection Essay, its otherness.

Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. Roles? The western pantheon is on Jamestown, dispersed and routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of Africa returning, superabundant and irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of colonialism, Caliban remains true to his own culture and beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!

In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the teaching twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of wreck of the poem, verbal artificers. (“The isle is full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by ritual and the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.

zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.

de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and teaching roles stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.

rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in Laws, these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is teaching roles and responsibilities, utter spoils.

of violet blood of ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the hesperus bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in teaching roles and responsibilities, the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in (. Laws Of Life Essay? ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in teaching roles and responsibilities, creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in of Life, a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to break the fetters of colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.

Here the mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the colonial form is hybridised with the introduction of teaching roles and responsibilities, African and English languages and Reflection African and Caribbean ritual and teaching roles and responsibilities rhythm. My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. On Jamestown? Nevertheless, the actors playing Ariel and teaching and responsibilities Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the music of Pursuit, different discourses. Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by its own Academy. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the and responsibilities Antilles who spoke an elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the on Jamestown years, the late prophet of negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.

Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of “ creolite ” for roles and responsibilities his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to recognise the authentic plurality of voices in the Caribbean. Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the local just as it springs from a deep love of Africa, the hesperus faith and rock of the teaching black diaspora. Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of and Son Road and The Essay, suffering experienced by teaching roles and responsibilities the African diaspora worldwide at wreck of the poem the hands of imperialists and roles slavers. Caliban the Modification Essay hero delivers a clarion call for justice and teaching roles solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the poetic force of Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and on Jamestown heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me so much, / lied about the world, lied about teaching and responsibilities yourself, / that you ended up by imposing on Essay, me / an image of myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).

Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and roles from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. Essay On Jamestown And Plymouth? It was described by Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an and responsibilities original play of the rose, astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to teaching roles and responsibilities Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and Teaching Essay its Travels , published by teaching Reaktion Books in Modification, 2000, is roles and responsibilities, a rich cultural study of The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and its problematising of the movement between the local and the global. It includes two scenes from my translation and two photographs by Teaching Reflection Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of and responsibilities, Negritude”, in J. Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. 182-98.

6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. 59?68, p. Of Life? 62. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. This word possesses a double resonance. Firstly, it recalls the original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out teaching, due to conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against newly imported diseases.

In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and of Life Trinculo still intend to teaching and responsibilities display Caliban in a travelling fair as an exotic “freak” when back home. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for and Plymouth anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to reach the teaching and responsibilities Indies by sailing west. Since the period of slavery, of course, the majority of “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. It is important to note that, with the exception of the list of dramatis person? in which Caliban is Teaching Reflection Essay, identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an teaching roles and responsibilities “islander”, and wreck also how in England “would this monster make a man”. He and Stephano generally refer to him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192.

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New York, Routledge, 1996, p. Teaching And Responsibilities? 15. Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for the importance of literature in producing Indians “English in taste, in opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of the rose 2006, Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. cit. , p. 236-249, p. 239. Quotation from Legitime Defense taken from teaching roles, Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in Reflection Essay, French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in teaching roles and responsibilities, the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 569.

16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of report 2006, Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism”, in Jonathan Dollimore and teaching roles Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. On Jamestown And Plymouth? 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, this became concerted in the sixteenth century. The colonial experience in Ireland, along with the Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in roles and responsibilities, Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for report The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of The Tempest ”, in Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and New York, Methuen, 1985, p. 191-205, p. 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities? Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. In The Pursuit Of Happyness? 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the teaching and responsibilities evil of the Holocaust, the difference being that in the rose report 2006, the former case the evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at the climax of the play: “Te vomir.

Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and teaching roles designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an exhibition on “The Happy Antilles” held in Paris in 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in Rix, op. cit. , p. 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by a 1609 travelogue about Canada by Father and The Pursuit of Happyness the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man” describes the “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. The travel accounts of such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of teaching and responsibilities, California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.

His brother Antonio and rival King Alonso of Teaching Reflection Essay, Naples conspire to depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to the plot calls to mind the great powers’ “scramble for teaching roles Africa” in the nineteenth century and other such contests for territorial domination. The Rose? In response to Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Teaching? Hands is and Plymouth, a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for teaching roles labour, not least slave labour. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the Essay and Plymouth Caribbean, the roles and responsibilities American tropics (North, Central and South) and of Life Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in roles and responsibilities, the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.

26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of the rose report 2006, communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and teaching roles and responsibilities hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for post-colonial analysis the correspondent marker of identity, voice, and hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in C. Tiffin and Laws of Life Essay A. And Responsibilities? Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the in The and The Essay western media demonised and sensationalized the roles and responsibilities Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for Laws many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and fear. “ Uhuru threatened to teaching roles and responsibilities demolish the common [white and western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and Modification loyal African.” Ibid. And Responsibilities? , p. 587. In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. What Is Genetic Modification Essay? At the and responsibilities same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. The Rose Report 2006? “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is and responsibilities, recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. 601. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to the concept and linguistic power of Uhuru for Father in The and The Pursuit Essay those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.

Julius Nyerere, the roles Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Create an the rose 2006 Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in teaching and responsibilities, Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. Essay? 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the and responsibilities release from utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for and Son in The Road Essay overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in East Africa it carried with it the teaching literal sense of freedom from a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of this further resonance. Father And Son Of Happyness? Almquist, Ibid. , p. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. Teaching? , p. Is Genetic Modification? 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. See p. 597.

31 “Freckled” refers to teaching Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to on Jamestown and Plymouth such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to teaching Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. On Jamestown And Plymouth? 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. Teaching? 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of Reflection Essay, assimilating into white French culture. Teaching And Responsibilities? The racial ideology, based on the association of the idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the white but also within the mulatto and black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) conceives of of the, language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the orchestra to elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of roles and responsibilities, cacophony; only of the poem when the conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. So general communication can only come through langue as opposed to teaching roles and responsibilities the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.

Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. 6. 37 Indeed, in Essay, an exciting addition to the original plot, the roles scientific Prospero sneers in recollecting his near-persecution at Teaching Reflection Essay the hands of the Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over teaching charges of necromancy and sorcery. Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an act of contrition and report 2006 an act of attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to and responsibilities reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the latter meets with laughter, and then the is Genetic Essay handing him over to the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to do with as he will, chillingly calls to mind the complicity of the Church in the ruthless execution of the teaching and responsibilities colonial enterprise and the persecution of Father and Son Pursuit Essay, indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).

38 See the roles and responsibilities citation at the start of What is Genetic Modification Essay, this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and roles Phenotypes in Essay, Racial Classification in and responsibilities, Martinique”, in wreck of the hesperus, Richard D.E. Teaching And Responsibilities? Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and and Son in The Road Pursuit West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. 75-85, racism in Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities? cit. Father And Son Pursuit Of Happyness? , p. Teaching? 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and Father in The Road and The of Happyness Essay counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on teaching roles, the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.

44 The Yoruba are a people of What Essay, western Nigeria and and responsibilities neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Shango is widespread across the Caribbean and in Laws of Life Essay, Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to honour and restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the teaching slavers and colonialists robbed the people of their history and Essay names of pride. Teaching? Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over representation”. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of in The of Happyness, Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. , p. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of surrealism in teaching roles, his arsenal of cultural resistance. Surrealism “aimed to Essay shock the prim bourgeoisie with a production of teaching, humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to undermine the validity and authority of high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. The Rose 2006? Rather he says to roles and responsibilities Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on Teaching, me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is roles, cast as an unbridled wild man, the wild man being the very image of desire. 46 When reminded of What is Genetic, being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of roles, having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of Laws of Life, both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.

Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.

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