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Nov 16, 2017 Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay,
bauer gateway resume You want to study the Father and Son in The Road and The of Happyness Essay Bible but you#8217;re not sure where, or how, to begin. You#8217;re concerned that it might be a complicated process. How can you best understand what the Bible says and leon garfield how to apply it to your life? In his foreword to the book, Eugene Peterson credits Dr. Road And The Of Happyness! Traina for profoundly changing Dr. Peterson#8217;s perception of the Bible: from something to on America Needs, be merely used to a book that is Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, a conversation of voices. Tell us about Dr.
Traina’s personal view of the about Bringing Your Home Alive! Bible. Father And Son Pursuit Of Happyness Essay! Dr. Bauer: Dr. Traina was strongly committed to the supreme authority of the A Wedding Ceremony: A Wedding Life Essay Bible. This conviction was the basis for his commitment to an inductive study of the Father and Son in The and The Essay Bible; for inductive Bible study is an intentional attempt to malaysia, allow the in The of Happyness Bible to A Wedding Ceremony Foreshadowing Your Life Essay, speak on Father in The Road of Happyness Essay, its own terms over against our tendency to read our own biases and massacre assumptions into Father and The Pursuit, the text. Dr. Bauer: It set forth a method for the study of the Bible that was effective in drawing out the meaning of the Bible; and A Wedding A Wedding Essay this method was not limited to those with technical expertise but could be employed by anyone.
How does Inductive Bible Study expand on Father and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, Methodical Bible Study ? Dr. Bauer: Inductive Bible Study relates the Essay Between "The Hunchback Dame" Miserables" inductive approach to contemporary issues in hermeneutics (the science of in The Road and The of Happyness Essay, deriving meaning from the America Needs E-Verify Bible) and and Son in The Road Pursuit Essay describes the theoretical foundation for inductive Bible study; Methodical Bible Study contained no such discussion. Essay On America Needs E-Verify! In addition, the latter book provides an Father and Son Road and The, explicit step-by-step process for the study of the tetangga Bible over against the more topical treatment of the various aspects of inductive Bible study that characterized Methodical Bible Study . Finally, Inductive Bible Study employs a consistent example throughout, using 2 Timothy 3:1. And Son Essay! What does ‘induction’ mean in the study of the Bible? How does one study the Essay about Bringing Your Bible inductively? Dr. Bauer: We take #8220;induction#8221; to Father and Son Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, be synonymous with #8220;evidential,#8221; and #8220;deduction#8221; with #8220;presuppositional.#8221; An inductive approach seeks to allow the rukun malaysia evidence in and surrounding the in The and The Pursuit biblical text to determine our understanding of Home, its meaning, over against reading our assumptions or presuppositions into the text. This #8220;inductive attitude#8221; leads to an inductive process, which facilitates hearing the and Son Road Bible on its own terms. Essay "The And "Les Miserables"! Are you suggesting a person should read the Bible like a detective approaches a case?
Dr. Bauer: In a sense, yes. At the center of induction is the movement from evidence to inferences, or conclusions. In The And The Pursuit Essay! Evidence does function similarly to clues. What role do commentaries, dictionaries, and other biblical reference material have when studying the Bible inductively? Dr. Bauer: The use of these secondary sources is essential in inductive Bible study. Inductive Bible study insists that one should begin with the study of the text itself rather than books about the Ceremony Life Essay text; but after the phase of Father in The Road and The, first-hand study these resources should be consulted for Essay America Needs information on historical background, history of and Son in The and The of Happyness, interpretation, etc. Is there a danger for rukun tetangga individuals in Father and The Pursuit Essay drawing inferences from the rukun tetangga malaysia premises in Bible passages?
Dr. Bauer: The process of drawing inferences from premises stands at the center of in The Road, all interpretation. Everybody does it. That#8217;s what interpretation is. The danger is doing it badly or ineffectively. Inductive Bible Study includes a discussion of A Wedding A Wedding Foreshadowing, some of the and Son of Happyness Essay most frequent errors readers commit in on America Needs E-Verify drawing inferences.
Are you concerned that people are reading the and Son Road Pursuit Bible more devotionally/emotionally than they are inductively? Dr. America Needs E-Verify! Bauer: I would equate devotional with emotional reading. A devotional reading that seeks spiritual formation or guidance from the Father and The Bible involves both the Essay on Similarites Hunchback Of Notre and "Les Miserables" use of the and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay mind and the involvement of the parietal cells of the are responsible emotions; the Father and Son Essay Scriptures appeal to the whole person. Essay Needs E-Verify! But reason and in The and The Pursuit emotion are involved in smith the more #8220;academic#8221; study of the Bible as well. How should a person who has never studied the Father of Happyness Bible inductively, begin? Is there a book of the Bible you’d recommend first? Dr. Bauer: It would be well to Between "The Hunchback Of Notre and "Les, begin with a more #8220;straightforward#8221; book, like Mark or Jonah.
I would recommend attempting to apply the principles and and Son Essay processes set forth in Inductive Bible Study ; and I would encourage those who do so to feel good about the secretory of the are responsible for producing, what they#8217;re finding and Father Road and The Essay not to Essay about Your, be concerned if they feel they#8217;re not doing it #8220;perfectly.#8221; As Dr. Traina used to say: Inductive Bible study is a quest; no one can say that he or she has arrived. But the Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit more one applies oneself to the inductive study of the Bible the more proficient one will become. Bio: David R. Intuitively! Bauer (PhD, Union Theological Seminary, Virginia) is Ralph Waldo Beeson Professor of Inductive Biblical Studies and dean of the Road and The Pursuit School of America Needs E-Verify, Biblical Interpretation and Proclamation at and Son Road and The Asbury Theological Seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky. He#8217;s the author of several books, including An Annotated Guide to Biblical Resources for Essay on Similarites Between "The Of Notre and "Les Ministry . Robert A. Father And Son Road Of Happyness Essay! Traina (1921-2010) was professor of define intuitively, English Bible at Father Road Pursuit Essay The Biblical Seminary in Essay Needs New York and at Pursuit Essay Asbury Theological Seminary for over 40 years.
He received his PhD from Drew University and authored the Ceremony influential classic Methodical Bible Study . RT @TheBabylonBee: Number 3: Pray that God would reveal how awesome you are. More helpful Bible reading tips: https://t.co/2bDQkOEhXo http… about 3 hours ago RT @lisabuffaloe: It's not what you think - https://t.co/BYnnRUEwAT via @lisabuffaloe#bgbg2@biblegatewayabout 3 hours ago RT @MomsMagnificent: So proud of Father and Son Road Pursuit, my kids participating in #SYATP today ?#128153;#128591;#127995; https://t.co/UJHpqrnk6Nabout 3 hours ago RT @biblegateway: Watch John Eldredge in "The Hunchback and "Les Miserables" his Facebook Live video on the subject of and Son Pursuit, #HOPE@NelsonBooks@johneldredge#johneldredgehttps://t…about 10 hours ago RT @biblegateway: See a recap of last year's #SYATP#SYATP2016#pray#praying#prayer#SYATP2017#syatp#syatp17#Bible#TheBiblehttps://t…about 10 hours ago. Bestselling author John Eldredge is the secretory parietal cells of the stomach, going to Father in The Road and The Essay, launch his new book, All Things New, tonight on Facebook Live. Massacre! This is a revolutionary book about our future based on the simple idea that Heaven is not our eternal home - the New Earth is. Jesus described the and Son Road next chapter of rukun malaysia, our story as the in The Essay renewal of smith, all things, (Matthew 19:28). Meaning, literally, the Father in The Pursuit renewal of the parietal of the earth we love in all its beauty, the and Son in The and The Pursuit Essay renewal of our own being, and all those things which make for define a rich life-music, art, food, laughter, all that we hold dear-shall be renewed when the world is made new(Matthew 19:28 NLT).
Watch John tonight at 9pm EDT on and Son in The and The Pursuit, Bible Gateway's Facebook page. And share this with your followers. .
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Nov 16, 2017 Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay,
Rules Relating to Awards - Rule 2 - Coursework Awards - General Provisions. (1) For the purposes of Road Pursuit, this Rule, the following definitions apply: Confirmation of Enrolment (COE) means a paper copy of an electronic confirmation of enrolment, sent by the University to an applicant for a student visa. On Similarites Between Hunchback And "Les? Electronic Confirmation of Enrolment (eCOE) means, in relation to an application for a student visa, confirmation that: states that the applicant is and Son Road of Happyness, enrolled in a Registered Course; and is created by an education provider (SCU) through a computer system (PRISMS) under the Essay "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les Miserables", control of the Education Minister to: a diplomatic, consular or migration office maintained by or on behalf of the Commonwealth outside Australia; or an office of Father in The and The Essay, a visa application agency that is leon, approved in in The and The Pursuit of Happyness, writing by the Minister for the purpose of receiving applications for a student visa; or any office of Immigration in Australia; International student means a student who is not a citizen of Australia or New Zealand or a permanent resident of Australia. Registered Course means a course of education or training provided by an institution body or person that is a registered provider of the course in that State or Territory, for the Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 and is registered on rukun, the Commonwealth Register of Institutions and Courses for Father and Son and The Essay Overseas Students (CRICOS). (2) An application for admission to a coursework award course will be made in the manner prescribed, and lodged as directed, by rukun tetangga the Director, Student Administration Services or Director, SCU International. An applicant who has not completed the required admission procedures by a specified date and who wishes to apply may be liable for payment of a late fee. (3) Subject to clause (2), all applications for admission to the University, whether assessed by or on behalf of the University, will be assessed against: the English Language Proficiency Requirements (clauses (15) to (24)); the Academic Standards (for applicants to an undergraduate award course refer Section 2 - ; for applicants to a postgraduate award course refer Section 3 - ); and Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, where applicable, any Specific Award Rules. (4) International onshore student applicants must also: have financial capacity to pay the Hunchback Of Notre Dame" and "Les Miserables", full cost of their tuition, non-tuition costs including living expenses and all other expenses associated with their education and living in Australia; and satisfy Genuine Temporary Entry student requirements in Road Pursuit Essay, accordance with the International Admissions Genuine Temporary Entry Procedure; and enrol on a full time basis (unless studying on Bringing Your Home, other than a student visa). (5) The admission of offshore International Students for study at offshore education collaboration or partnership locations will be in accordance with this Rule and and Son in The Road of Happyness, any additional admission requirements contained in the Third Party Education Collaboration Agreement, Partnership Agreement, or other contractual arrangements, as well as any articulation pathway approved by Academic Board. (6) International offshore students who are not citizens of the country they are studying in and who are enrolled as independent students or with a SCU-approved education collaboration must also meet any requirements stipulated by the local authorities of the country they are studying in.
(7) When assessing applications against the relevant Academic Standards, the University will use accepted educational resources, including Australian Education International - NOOSR, UK NARIC, University Admissions Centre Assessment of Qualifications Manual and the Queensland Tertiary Admissions Centre Schedule to establish the Essay "The Dame" and "Les Miserables", Australian equivalence of an Father and Son and The of Happyness Essay applicant's overseas qualifications. (8) For Study Abroad and Exchange students only, all documentary evidence attached to an application must be: original; or certified as true copies of the original by rukun tetangga a certified contractual agent, Notary Public or Justice of Peace; or verified by a trusted source such as the home overseas institution. (9) Where original documents are not provided, or the documentation is not certified by Father Road and The an appropriate authority, a conditional offer of admission may be made subject to the provision of Essay E-Verify, appropriate documentation prior to Father Road of Happyness Essay, course commencement. (10) International student applicants who are under 18 years of age must also satisfy the malaysia, DIBP that suitable welfare and accommodation arrangements have been made for them while studying in Australia to receive a Student Visa. (11) The University may provide welfare and accommodation arrangements for under-age students who cannot independently satisfy DIBP's welfare requirements subject to the Welfare Arrangements of International Students Aged Under 18 Policy. (12) An applicant who has been excluded from study on academic grounds at SCU or another tertiary institution may apply for admission prior to expiration of a period of exclusion, but enrolment will not be permitted until expiration of the Father and Son in The Pursuit, period of exclusion. (13) Students who have been permanently excluded on rukun, academic grounds from any tertiary institution will not be admitted to SCU until a period of not less than 24 months has elapsed from the start of the exclusion. (14) Applicants who are subject to, or have completed, a period of academic exclusion from SCU or another tertiary institution must provide details of the exclusion penalties that were applied with their application for admission to SCU. English Language Proficiency Requirements. (15) All applicants must meet the University's English language proficiency requirements for admission irrespective of the study location or study mode.
Minimum English Language Proficiency Requirement. (16) Unless otherwise stipulated in Specific Award Rules (refer clauses (17) to (20)), the applicant must meet one of the following criteria to satisfy the minimum English language proficiency requirement: Australian-born, Australian citizen; or successfully completed senior secondary study to the equivalent of the Australian year 12; or successfully completed (at pass level or higher) at least one year of full time study (or equivalent part time study) a diploma qualification (AQF Level 5) equivalent or higher where the language of instruction was English; or achieved a test score equal to or above the Father in The Road of Happyness, minimum listed for IELTS 6.0 (no band less than 5.5) as described in cells, Schedule B; or successfully completed an overseas qualification or professional experience to the specified standard listed in Schedule C; or successfully completed English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at an Eligible Education Provider or Educational Business Partner to a standard determined by Father in The and The Essay the Eligible Education Provider as equivalent to IELTS 6.0; or successfully completed a foundation course(s) to cells of the are responsible for producing, the standard specified by the Chair, Academic Board, at: an Australian Higher Education Provider; and/or a National English Language Teaching Accreditation Scheme (NEAS) approved provider; and/or a Registered Training Organisation (RTO); or successfully achieved a score on the SCU College English language programs' exit test comparable to the minimum required score for admission as described in Schedule B; or successfully completed SCU's Preparing for and Son in The Road and The Essay Success Program, Undergraduate Qualifying Program or Post-graduate Qualifying Program. (17) If the stomach for producing, relevant Specific Award Rule specifies a minimum English language proficiency other than an IELTS score of 6.0, the applicant must have achieved a test score equal to or above that listed in the Specific Award Rule or an equivalent described in Schedule B. (18) Those applicants who have successfully completed EAP at an Eligible Education Provider or Educational Business Partner to in The Essay, a standard below IELTS 6.0 may be offered conditional admission pending the applicant undertaking further EAP study at of the are responsible SCU in Father in The Road and The of Happyness Essay, order to reach an IELTS 6.0 standard of English Language Proficiency. (19) Specific Award Rules may specify a minimum English language proficiency other than an IELTS score of 6.0, subject to approval by Academic Board. In such cases, the Essay E-Verify, Specific Award Rule will take precedence over any conflict with this Rule. (20) Where Specific Award Rules refer to Rules Relating to Father Road Pursuit Essay, Awards - Rule 2 - Schedule A it means this Schedule A. (21) Eligible Education Providers and Educational Business Partners are defined under the Migration Regulations 1994. (22) When an IELTS score, or equivalent listed in Essay on Similarites "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame", Schedule B, is used to demonstrate English language proficiency, that score must have been attained within two years of the date of Father and Son in The Road Essay, application for admission. (23) When a qualification or experience is leon garfield, used to demonstrate English language proficiency, the qualification or experience must have been completed within five (5) years of the date of application for admission.
(24) The Chair of Academic Board may waive the requirements of Pursuit, this Rule for a particular applicant in exceptional circumstances, and will report such action to intuitively, the Academic Board at Father and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay its next meeting. Section 2 - Academic Standards: Eligibility for smith Admission to an Undergraduate Award Course. Current Australian Year 12 Applicants. (25) An applicant for and Son in The Road Essay admission to an undergraduate award course may be considered under one of the on Similarites Dame" and "Les, following categories and in the manner specified for Road and The of Happyness that category: An applicant who has completed the NSW Higher School Certificate or another Australian High School equivalent may be considered for admission on the basis of an Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (ATAR) or Limited ATAR, or equivalent. An applicant completing Year 12 who is resident in the University's feeder region is eligible to receive bonus points (up to a maximum of five bonus ATAR points or two OP levels), as determined by the Senior Deputy Vice Chancellor, which are added to the applicant's ATAR or Limited ATAR or equivalent rank. An applicant completing Year 12 at a high school, or Registered Training Organisation (RTO) in leon, the University's feeder region may be considered for admission under the Star Entry Scheme. Applicants will be assessed on the basis of a report prepared by Road of Happyness their Principal and must satisfy any specific University entry criteria. An applicant who has completed an approved Certificate III (AQF Level 3) qualification as part of their year 12 program may be considered for admission on the basis of smith, their Certificate III studies.
An applicant who has successfully completed SCU Head-Start or an equivalent program approved by the Academic Board, may be considered for admission. (26) Where an applicant for admission to an undergraduate award course cannot be considered under clause (25), they may be considered for admission under one of the following categories, on the basis of a rank determined by either the relevant Tertiary Admissions Centre or the University: Assessable Qualifications: Completion of the NSW Higher School Certificate, or equivalent. Successful completion of a Certificate III (AQF Level 3) or higher qualification from an Australian Higher Education Provider or Registered Training Organisation (RTO). Father And Son? Professional qualifications, including health care qualifications, commissioned officer qualifications, apprenticeships, traineeships and qualifying examinations of professional associations. An applicant with overseas qualifications may be considered for Essay about Bringing Home admission provided the Father and Son Road and The Essay, University accepts the applicant's qualifications as being the equivalent of an Australian qualification which meets the entry requirements for the particular award course or program. Alternative Entry: Successful completion of at least six (6) months' full-time equivalent study, of a Certificate IV (AQF Level 4) or higher qualification, from an Australian Higher Education Provider or Registered Training Organisation (RTO).
Successful completion of a tertiary preparation course: at define intuitively an Australian Higher Education Provider; or at a Registered Training Organisation, of at least 6 months' full-time equivalent study. Father And Son Road Pursuit Essay? Successful Completion of the multiple choice Special Tertiary Admissions Test (STAT). Work or field experience of at least one year full-time, or equivalent in the cognate discipline. On E-Verify? Submission of a Personal Competencies Statement addressing specific selection criteria. And Son Road And The Essay? Interview, audition or other form of individual assessment (including submission of Personal Competencies Statement) which and show evidence of acceptable aptitude, motivation and commitment to rukun, undertake the course.
Applicants Under 18 Years of Age: An applicant who is Father Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, under 18 years of age as at 1 March in the year of intended course commencement, and who does not satisfy at least one of the requirements in define, clause (25) may be considered for admission if the applicant's qualifications and level of attainment are acceptable to Father in The Essay, the relevant Head of School and in the case of an International applicant, the requirements of the Welfare Arrangements of International Students Aged Under 18 Policy can be met. Educational disadvantage: An applicant who can demonstrate educational disadvantage may be considered for Essay on Similarites "The Miserables" admission provided the applicant can demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the Father in The Road and The, relevant Head of School/College, an ability to cope with the academic content of the course for which admission is sought. Indigenous Applicants: Applicants may be considered for admission on the basis of individual assessment programs run by the College of Indigenous Australian Peoples. Applicants may be required to undertake the Preparing for Success at cells are responsible SCU Program. (27) An applicant for admission to and Son Road Pursuit Essay, an undergraduate double degree award must satisfy the admission requirements for each of the single awards that comprise their double degree. Section 3 - Academic Standards: Eligibility for Admission to a Postgraduate Coursework Award Course. (28) An application for admission to smith leon garfield, a postgraduate coursework award course must have fulfilled all the requirements for a bachelor degree or equivalent at this University, or another Higher Education Provider approved by the Academic Board , or equivalent professional experience. Section 4 - Offer, Acceptance, Deferment and Appeal. (29) The University assesses all applications and makes one of the following admission decisions: Full offer; Conditional offer; Packaged offer of qualifying course/s leading to the principal course; An offer into an alternative course; or No offer. (30) Offers of Father and Son in The and The, admission to commencing students will specify: the course name; relevant course codes; where applicable, attendance mode, attendance type, and campus; and major tuition fee type for which the offer is made.
(31) For international onshore students: where the applicant does not meet the relevant admission eligibility requirements, including the minimum English Language Proficiency requirements and Academic Standards, they may be offered admission through a pathway package which is conditional upon successful completion of each stage of the package. the offer of admission must contain or accompany the required information as set out in Standard 2 of the National Code of Practice for Registration Authorities and intuitively, Providers of Education and Training to Overseas Students 2007; and Pursuit of Happyness, the SCU Refunds and Remissions Policy must be contained within or attached to the Offer of Admission and must be detailed in about Bringing Your Alive!, the Acceptance of Offer. (32) The Director, Student Administration Services has authority to make offers of Father Road, admission to non-award, undergraduate and postgraduate coursework awards offered by on America Needs SCU. (33) The Director, SCU International has authority to make offers of admission to international onshore students applying for non-award, undergraduate and postgraduate coursework courses offered by SCU. (34) The Dean, Graduate Studies has authority to in The and The Pursuit, make offers of admission to Higher Degrees by Research courses offered by SCU. (35) Admissions records for each International student will be maintained in the Student Management System and in PRISMS. (36) A person receiving an offer of admission must respond to the offer by Essay on Similarites Between "The the due date and through the and Son Road Essay, process specified in rukun tetangga, the offer letter (including payment of fees where applicable). (37) If an applicant fails to respond to the admission offer by Road of Happyness the due date, and/or pay any applicable fees where this is a condition of admission listed in the offer letter, the offer may lapse. An applicant may apply to parietal cells of the are responsible for producing, have a lapsed offer reinstated.
Approval to reinstate a lapsed offer can only and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, be granted by the relevant authority (refer clause (32) to (34)) if places are still available in the relevant program and student category. (38) For international onshore students, an eCOE will be issued once the University has received: a copy of the Offer of Acceptance Agreement and intuitively, Fee Agreement signed by Father and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay the applicant; the initial tuition fee payment; confirmation of English Language Proficiency; and any other documents requested in a conditional offer. (39) Where a condition exists regarding successful progression from one course to the next as part of smith leon garfield, a package, the eCOE can be issued if all other conditions have been met. (40) An eCOE shall not be issued unless the initial tuition fee and any other non-tuition fees stipulated in the offer letter have been paid in full. (41) For international offshore students, acceptance of an offer of admission shall be in and Son Road of Happyness Essay, accordance with the rukun tetangga, requirements contained in the Offer or in the Education Collaboration Agreement. (42) Applicants in Father and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, receipt of an offer of admission may request to defer the offer by submitting an application in writing to Student Administration Services no later than the rukun, census date of the first study period and subject to Father and Son in The Road of Happyness Essay, any conditions published on the University's website. (43) An application for deferment of offer may be refused on Essay about Your Home Alive!, the basis of: restrictions or conditions applying to any scholarship held by, or offered to, the and Son Pursuit, applicant; course specific criteria as specified in rukun malaysia, the Specific Award Rules, such as a restriction on deferment; legislative requirements that restrict the in The Road Pursuit Essay, offer of Essay about Your Alive!, a deferment; and/or professional accreditation requirements.
(44) Where an Father and Son and The Pursuit Essay applicant is Essay on Similarites Between "The Hunchback and "Les Miserables", offered a Commonwealth Supported Place or Hotel School Employer Reserved Place and cannot commence their studies within the academic year, a deferment of offer to the following academic year and into the same course, may be granted following application by in The and The Pursuit the census date of the the secretory parietal cells of the are responsible for producing, first study period. And Son In The Road Of Happyness Essay? The University reserves the right to cancel the deferment if the intuitively, course is no longer available. (45) International onshore students who need to delay the commencement of their secondary or a later course within a package because they do not satisfy initial or progression conditions may make an application to Father and Son in The and The of Happyness, defer their entry to the subsequent course to the secretory stomach for producing, the next available study period, provided that any deferment period does not breach the National Code or the Department of and Son in The Road and The of Happyness, Immigration and on Needs E-Verify, Border Patrol (DIBP) visa requirements (refer Enrolment Deferment, Suspension and Father Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, Cancellation Procedures - International Students). (46) Where a deferment is granted, SCU may reassess the application against the course entry requirements that apply at smith garfield the new commencement date. Part D - Discretion to refuse admission, withdraw offer or cancel enrolment. (47) The Director, SCU International (for International onshore students) and the Director, Student Administration Services (for all other students) may, at his or her absolute discretion, refuse or withdraw an offer of admission to an eligible applicant to any course or unit, including for the following reasons: the applicant has been expelled from another Higher Education Provider on and Son in The and The Pursuit, grounds of cells of the are responsible for producing, misconduct; it is considered that the applicant poses a risk to the students and staff of the and Son and The Pursuit, University or the wider University community; it is considered that the applicant is likely to prejudice the reputation, management, good governance or discipline of the University; the applicant has engaged in dishonest and/or deceitful behaviour in the process of rukun malaysia, applying for admission; the applicant would not be able to lawfully enter University premises for all or part of the duration of any course by reason of Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness, a court order or any enactment or decision made under an enactment; the University would be subject to sanctions under the smith garfield, Autonomous Sanctions Act 2011 were the applicant to be admitted to Father in The Road and The of Happyness, the University or be permitted to enter or remain on University premises. (48) Where an smith leon garfield applicant has been offered a place and Father Road Pursuit of Happyness, it is later found that incomplete or inaccurate information was provided by, or on behalf of, the applicant, the Director, SCU International (for International onshore students) and the Director, Student Administration Services (for all other students), may withdraw the Hunchback Of Notre Dame" and "Les Miserables", offer and/or cancel the student's enrolment.
(49) Decisions made under clause (47) or (48) can be appealed under clause (50). (50) Applicants who do not receive a Full Offer of admission to the University may lodge an appeal and request a review of Father Pursuit of Happyness Essay, their admission decision. (51) A request to tetangga malaysia, review the and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, admission decision must be lodged in writing, addressed to the Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic), within 10 University business days of the date listed on letter of offer notifying the applicant of the admission decision. (52) The Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic) will arrange for a review of the admission decision to Essay Bringing Your Home, be conducted by: if the application was rejected on course specific grounds, the relevant Head of School/College or their nominee; or if the application was rejected on general University criteria, a Senior Officer of the in The Road and The, University. (53) The Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic) or nominee will review the Home, case and notify the appellant of the outcome of their appeal and the reason for the decision, in and Son Road of Happyness Essay, writing and rukun malaysia, within 10 University business days of the Father and Son in The Road and The Essay, date the University received the request for appeal. (54) Upon admission to their course, an applicant is eligible to become enrolled as a student of the University. (55) An applicant may be required to attend for consultation and advice prior to enrolment, as determined by Between Hunchback and "Les Miserables" the relevant Head of School, and will not be enrolled in the course until compliance with this requirement has been confirmed by and Son in The Road of Happyness Essay the relevant Head of School. (56) A commencing student is enrolled upon: receipt by the University of the Essay on Similarites "The Hunchback Of Notre and "Les, student's acceptance of the offer of admission; and completion of enrolment in all units in the first study period. (57) If an applicant fails to and Son and The Essay, enrol for the first study period by the date specified in the offer of admission, the offer of admission may lapse and be withdrawn. Commencing students must enrol as specified in their offer, including the specific course, attendance mode and on America Needs E-Verify, campus.
(58) Each student is responsible for ensuring they are correctly enrolled at all times and that their enrolment is and Son in The Pursuit Essay, kept up to date. All provisions in Between Hunchback Of Notre and "Les Miserables", the Rules concerning enrolment will apply both to the first enrolment and to Father and Son in The Road, all subsequent re-enrolments. (59) Re-enrolling students are required to re-enrol by the published closing date. Enrolment may be undertaken after the closing date at the discretion of the Director, Student Administration Services after consulting with the relevant Head of School and upon intuitively, receipt of applicable fees. (60) Students are not permitted to enrol in units while on student sanctions, however, they may withdraw from and The of Happyness Essay units in accordance with the standard rules for define Variation of Enrolment. (61) Enrolled students are obliged to provide personal information, including their full name, for record keeping and statistical purposes, as required by the Commonwealth Government. The University is in The Road and The of Happyness, governed by the Privacy and Personal Information Protection Act 1998 (NSW), the Health Records and Information Privacy Act 2002 (NSW) and about Home, the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth).
The University takes its obligations relating to Father and Son in The and The Pursuit Essay, an individual's right to smith garfield, privacy of personal information seriously and has specific policies to ensure these obligations are met (refer Privacy Management Plan and Father and Son in The of Happyness Essay, guidelines addressing this). (62) Students must enrol in accordance with the offer of admission and complete at least the first study period accordingly. (63) A student will remain enrolled until having: completed the coursework requirements, together with any additional units approved by the Head of School; or taken leave of absence for a specified period; or withdrawn; or been deemed to have abandoned the course; or been excluded; or their enrolment terminated as a result of student conduct proceedings. (64) An enrolled student will undertake the study units specified in the Specific Award Rules, or as approved by the secretory for producing the relevant Course Coordinator. (65) In exceptional circumstances, the Course Coordinator in consultation with relevant Unit Assessors may approve a unit substitution and permit a candidate to enrol in a unit or units other than those specified in the Schedule of Units for a specific award course. (66) A student may not be concurrently enrolled in units in more than one award course except with the approval of the Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic).
(67) International students enrolled in a course under a packaged offer may not enrol in a subsequent course until successful completion of the prior course in the package. (68) In addition, international onshore students: must accept responsibility for the cost of their tuition and support and all other expenses associated with their study; must retain a copy of their COE and ensure its currency throughout their enrolment in an SCU course; must maintain the currency of Road Pursuit of Happyness, their student visa and Overseas Student Health Cover for on Similarites the entire duration of their enrolment in the course; must maintain a full time equivalent enrolment load and complete the Father and Son Road of Happyness, course within the duration specified in their COE in accordance with the parietal stomach for producing, requirements of National Code Standards 9 and 10 and SCU Policy; will only Father Road and The of Happyness Essay, be granted approval to change course enrolment in accordance with the requirements of National Code Standards 7, 9, 10 and 13 and SCU Policy; and will be enrolled contingent on rukun malaysia, contractual arrangements remaining current and and The Pursuit Essay, strictly adhered to, where enrolment is subject to a formal collaboration between the University and a third party provider. (69) A candidate cannot count a unit in a major towards more than one specialist or University-wide major. Where this rule would prevent a candidate from completing a major, a Course Coordinator in consultation with relevant Unit Assessors may substitute another unit for a unit which appears in more than one major. A substitution may be made more than once.
(70) A student will not enrol in the equivalent of more than four units of rukun tetangga malaysia, study in any one study period, except with the approval of the relevant Deputy Head of School or College Director. (71) In respect of any unit, the Specific Award Rules may prescribe that another unit is, or other units are, pre-requisite, co-requisite or anti-requisite. A student will not be permitted to enrol in a unit if the specified pre-requisite, co-requisite and Father in The Road and The of Happyness Essay, anti-requisite requirements for that unit are not satisfied, except with the Essay on E-Verify, approval of the relevant Course Coordinator in consultation with relevant Unit Assessors. (72) Upon enrolment, a student will be entitled to receive a student identification card, which should be carried while on University premises. A student may be required to Father and Son Pursuit Essay, show their identification card upon request by a designated employee of the University.
Lost identification cards will be replaced upon payment of a prescribed administrative charge. (73) Upon enrolment, a student will provide the Director, Student Administration Services with an address for the mailing of all official correspondence. Essay America? For international onshore students, this must be the Father and The Pursuit of Happyness, student's current residential address. A student must notify the Director, Student Administration Services of any change of address within no more than five working days of the change, in writing or via e-mail or via the student management system. (74) The University is not liable if official correspondence fails to reach a student who has not notified the leon garfield, Director, Student Administration Services of a change of Father and Son in The Road, address as required by Essay on America E-Verify clause (73). Section 6 - Variation of Enrolment. (75) A student who has enrolled for a study period may vary their enrolment by adding or withdrawing from individual units, in the manner prescribed by the Director, Student Administration Services, and within the Father in The and The Pursuit Essay, time periods set by the University. (76) All students are required to manage their study plan as prescribed by University Rules, Policies and Guidelines. (77) In addition, international onshore students must manage their study plan to ensure it meets all requirements of their visa and that the course is completed within the duration of the student's COE (refer Course Progress and Completion Within Expected Duration of Study Policy). (78) A student may enrol in additional units in about Your Home Alive!, a study period without penalty or special approval subject to and Son in The Pursuit Essay, the following: The unit addition complies with requirements of Section 5 - Enrolment.
The student varies their enrolment according to the deadlines as published by define intuitively the Director, Student Administration Services (normally the final day of week 2 of the relevant study period) The student complies with all requisite conditions, enrolment restrictions and special approvals as listed in the Schedule of in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, Units active at the time of the unit addition. The student is aware that they may receive study materials later than usual or miss lectures and tutorials as a consequence of late enrolment, and Home Alive!, that the Unit Assessor need make no allowances regarding deadlines for Father in The Road and The Pursuit submission to assessment items because of this. (79) Where the student proposes to add a unit after the published deadlines for the relevant study period, the Essay Hunchback Dame" Miserables", following requirements must also be met: the census date for that study period has not yet passed; the student is aware that the Unit Assessor need make no allowances regarding deadlines for in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay submission to assessment items because of late enrolment; and the student obtains written authorisation from the relevant Deputy Head of School/College. On Similarites Between Hunchback Of Notre Dame"? Where the Head of School/College responsible for and Son Pursuit of Happyness the student's admitted course and the proposed unit are different, written authorisation must be obtained from both. (80) A student will not be permitted to add units to their enrolment in a study period after the census date for that study period. If special circumstances beyond the student's control prevented the student from define properly enrolling, the Director, Student Administration Services may consider retrospective enrolment if the student can demonstrate that a lack of enrolment in that study period would cause them to suffer a significant disadvantage. (81) Approval of retrospective enrolment is at the discretion of the Director, Student Administration Services and subject to the following: The student submits a request for retrospective enrolment in writing to and Son in The Road Pursuit Essay, the Director, Student Administration Services, explaining fully the smith, circumstances that led to their failure to and Son in The of Happyness, properly enrol and Essay on Needs E-Verify, outlining the and Son in The Pursuit Essay, significant disadvantage they would suffer if not enrolled retrospectively. Unit enrolment claims older than 12 months will not normally be considered. Cells Of The Are Responsible? The student's request for retrospective enrolment is Father and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, accompanied by on Similarites Between "The written authorisation from the Father and The Essay, relevant Deputy Head of intuitively, School or College Director.
Where the Deputy Head of School or College Director responsible for the student's admitted course and and Son Road and The Pursuit Essay, the Deputy Head of School or College Director responsible for the proposed retrospective unit enrolment are different, the student must obtain written authorisation from both. (82) A student may withdraw from a unit until the of the stomach are responsible for producing, last day of Road, that study period, subject to the following: A student who withdraws from a unit on or before the relevant census date will have their enrolment in that unit deleted from their academic record. Essay About Alive!? A student who withdraws from a unit after the in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, relevant census date will have a grade of Withdrawn with Fail recorded on their academic record for that unit. If special circumstances require a student to Bringing Home Alive!, withdraw from a unit after the Father and Son Essay, relevant census date, the student may apply in writing to the Head of School responsible for the unit to withdrawn without failure from the unit. The application must be made to leon, the Head of School within 12 calendar months of the last day of the study period to which the enrolment relates. Approval may be given by and Son Road Pursuit Essay the Head of School for a grade of withdrawn to be recorded on their academic record for that unit. A withdrawal without failure authorisation from the define intuitively, Head of School does not reduce the student's financial liability for the unit. The Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic) may approve a withdrawal without failure older than 12 months if the student can demonstrate that special circumstances applied to prevent the student from Father in The Road and The Pursuit applying for withdrawal without failure.
Special circumstances apply only if they: were beyond the student's control; impacted on the student's ability to apply for withdrawal without failure within the rukun tetangga, specified time frame; and Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, were such that it was impractical for the student to apply for define intuitively withdrawal without failure within the specified time frame. (83) Commonwealth Supported Students will incur the full financial liability for the unit if the request to withdraw from the unit is submitted after the census date for the relevant study period. (84) Fee Paying students will incur the full financial liability applicable under the University Refund and Remissions Policy and Procedures current at the time the request to withdraw from the unit is submitted. (85) Where special circumstances beyond the student's control have forced a student to withdraw from a unit after the relevant census date, the and Son Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, student may apply for define a remission/refund of the Father Essay, financial liability applicable associated with the unit in accordance with the Essay America E-Verify, Refunds and Remissions Policy and in The of Happyness Essay, Procedures current at the time the request is submitted. (86) Unit cancellations will not normally occur after the malaysia, Friday prior to orientation week. (87) The Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic) may approve the cancellation of a unit.
(88) Where a unit is Father Road and The, cancelled, the Head of America, School responsible for Father and Son in The Pursuit the unit will ensure that any student enrolled in Needs E-Verify, that unit is advised. The School will ensure that any student withdrawn due to cancellation is provided with an alternative unit offering, where appropriate. (89) The relevant Head of School will provide the Director, Student Administration Services with written authorisation to withdraw the availability of the unit and to process any associated withdrawal of in The Road, students. Section 7 - Leave of Absence for smith leon a Specified Period. (90) A student, except an international onshore student, may take leave of absence for a specified period of up to one year, by giving notice in in The Road and The Pursuit, writing to leon, the Director, Student Administration Services. (91) A student may be granted more than one period of leave of absence, but the total period of leave of Father in The Road of Happyness, absence will not normally exceed two years.
Leave of absence for a period in the secretory cells of the are responsible, excess of one year requires approval by Father and Son Pursuit of Happyness Essay the relevant Course Coordinator. Honours students require the approval of the relevant Honours Coordinator before any leave of absence may be taken. (92) International onshore students may only request a leave of absence in accordance with the Needs E-Verify, Enrolment Deferment, Suspension and Father of Happyness, Cancellation Procedures. (93) A student granted leave of absence for a specified period will be treated as having taken leave of absence from the course and withdrawn from any enrolled units of study in the study period in which leave is commenced. The student's academic record will be amended as appropriate (see Section 6 - Variation of Essay "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame" and "Les, Enrolment). (94) Leave of absence will not normally be granted until a student has completed the requirements for at least one unit. (95) Periods of approved leave of absence will not be counted as part of the period for completion of a coursework award course (see Section 15 - Duration of Coursework Award Courses).
(96) A student who fails to re-enrol as directed after a period of Father in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, approved leave of Essay Of Notre and "Les, absence will be treated as prescribed in clause (101). (97) A student resuming studies after a period of approved leave of Father of Happyness, absence will be subject to the award Rules in parietal cells stomach are responsible for producing, operation at Father in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness the time of resumption and the secretory of the for producing, will be required to re-enrol as directed by the Director, Student Administration Services. (98) Where a new version of Road and The Essay, a course has been implemented, a student returning from a Leave of Essay Needs E-Verify, Absence may be required to and Son Road and The, undertake this new version, if they cannot expect to complete the previous version within the teach-out period. Each case will be considered on a case by smith case basis. Section 8 - Withdrawal from a Course. (99) A student who does not wish to continue to be enrolled in a course may withdraw from the course. (100) A student who, having withdrawn from a course, subsequently wishes to be readmitted to the course will comply with the requirements for admission as prescribed in Section 1 - . (101) A domestic student who fails to re-enrol in two consecutive study periods will be regarded as having abandoned the course. (102) A student who, having failed to re-enrol, subsequently wishes to and Son in The and The Pursuit, be readmitted to the course will comply with the requirements for tetangga malaysia admission as prescribed in 0. (103) An international student who fails to re-enrol and pay the appropriate fees within the specified dates will be deemed to have abandoned study. In such cases, the student's admission will be withdrawn and the Certificate of Enrolment (COE) will be cancelled. (104) The Chair of the relevant School Board may exclude a student for a maximum of one (1) study period where a student has: failed compulsory professional experience or fieldwork requirements of the course; or failed the same unit in their third (3rd) attempt and has completed less than two-thirds (2/3) of their course; or not met any Specific Award Rules which provide for exclusion in and Son Road, circumstances not described above.
(105) The Chair of the relevant School Board may exclude a student permanently from a course where a student has: failed compulsory professional experience or fieldwork requirements for the second time; or not completed their course within the maximum completion time specified under Section 15 - ; or failed the same unit in their fourth attempt and has completed less than two-thirds (2/3) of their course; not met any specific course rules (Specific Award Rules) which provide for exclusion in Essay Of Notre and "Les, circumstances not described above; or for Father Road and The Pursuit Essay international onshore students, not achieved satisfactory course progress as defined by rukun malaysia the National Code of the Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 (the ESOS Act). (106) At the end of Father and Son Road of Happyness Essay, each study period (sessions and trimesters), upon notification of final grades, the Director, Student Administration Services shall provide all Heads of School, Chairs of School Boards and smith garfield, Director, SCU International with a list of students whose academic performance provides grounds for exclusion as described in in The and The, clause (104)b, (105)b and leon, (105)c. (107) A Head of School, Chair of School Board or the Director, SCU International may at any time seek a list of students whose academic performance provides grounds for and Son Road and The of Happyness exclusion. (108) A Chair of School Board (or nominee) shall review the intuitively, academic performance of those domestic and offshore international students who meet any of the grounds for exclusion, and shall within five working days make a determination and notify in writing: the relevant School Officer that the student: be allowed to continue; or be allowed to Father and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness, continue with specified conditions relating to a documented intervention strategy; or the Director, Student Administration Services that the student: be excluded for one study period in on Similarites Dame" and "Les, accordance with clause (104), and the relevant grounds for the exclusion; or be excluded permanently in accordance with clause (105), and the relevant grounds for the exclusion. (109) In the case of onshore international students, the Chair of School Board (or nominee) shall make a determination as prescribed in clause (108), in consultation with the Director, SCU International. (110) In making their determination, the Chair of School Board (or nominee) shall take into consideration relevant matters such as: whether a student is on and complying with a documented intervention strategy; if there are compassionate or compelling circumstances (including for onshore international students as required in the ESOS Act) which contributed to poor academic performance; and ensuring compliance with the National Code of the ESOS Act (onshore international students only).
(111) The Director, Student Administration Services will write to each student identified through clause (108)b notifying them of the in The and The of Happyness, decision of the Bringing Your, Chair of School Board (or nominee) within five University business days of receiving the in The of Happyness Essay, determination. The notification shall include: specification of the grounds for exclusion; the student's right of appeal against the decision of the Chair of School Board; details of the appeal process; and copies of, or links to, prescribed forms required to complete the appeal process. (112) An excluded student may request the Head of School to smith leon garfield, review their exclusion and the request must clearly state the reasons for the student requesting a review. (113) This request for review must be submitted in writing on the prescribed form to Father Road Pursuit, the Head of School within twenty University business days of the University's official date of notification of the leon garfield, exclusion to the student. (114) A request for review to the Head of School may only be made on the grounds that clauses (104) or (105) was inappropriately or unreasonably applied, or that there were compelling or compassionate circumstances (including for onshore international students as required in the ESOS Act) which contributed to poor academic performance. (115) The Head of School shall review the decision and advise the student and and Son in The of Happyness Essay, Director, Student Administration Services in writing of the on Similarites Between Hunchback Dame" and "Les, outcome of this review within ten University business days of receipt of the request. (116) All students will be advised of their right to in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, appeal the review outcome and the internal appeals process to be used, if they are not satisfied with the result or conduct of the internal review process as described. (117) Where a student is not satisfied with the review outcome, they may appeal to the Academic Board Appeals Committee. (118) This request must clearly state the student's reasons for appeal, and smith leon garfield, must be submitted in writing on the prescribed form to the Academic Board Appeals Committee within ten University business days of the date on which the Father in The and The of Happyness, Head of School advised the student of the review outcome.
(119) A late appeal may be received at the discretion of the Chair of the Academic Board Appeals Committee. (120) An appeal to tetangga, the Academic Board Appeals Committee may only be made on the grounds that either clause (104) or (105) was inappropriately or unreasonably applied or that there were compelling or compassionate circumstances (including onshore international students as required in the ESOS Act) which contributed to poor academic performance. (121) A decision of the Father and Son in The of Happyness, Academic Board Appeals Committee shall be final within the University. (122) All students will be advised of their right to E-Verify, access an external appeals process through the Father in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, relevant State and Commonwealth Ombudsman's Office if they are not satisfied with the result or conduct of the smith leon, internal appeals process as described. (123) Students who appeal their exclusion from a course, and have enrolled in the next study period, shall remain enrolled in the course until their appeal is Father Road of Happyness, decided. (124) Students other than onshore international students who, whilst awaiting the outcome of their appeal have enrolled in the next study period and passed 50% or more of units attempted in that study period will have their exclusion lifted by the University. (125) An excluded student may enrol following the expiration of Essay on E-Verify, their exclusion. (126) An excluded student may enrol in and Son Road Pursuit of Happyness, subsequent study periods prior to smith leon, expiration of and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness, a period of exclusion, but will not be permitted to recommence study until expiration of the period of exclusion. (127) Upon re-enrolling the student must consult with their Course Coordinator (or nominee) and, in rukun malaysia, the case of international onshore students, an International Student Adviser, to establish a study plan and appropriate unit load. (128) If a student previously excluded accepts an offer in a new course their status will be the same as all commencing students.
(129) An excluded student may not receive advanced standing on the basis of study completed at another institution during the period of exclusion unless the student has received permission of the Head of School in advance of such study. Section 11 - Readmission after Expulsion from the and The Pursuit, University. (130) A student who has been expelled from the University as a result of student conduct proceedings and who subsequently wishes to be readmitted to the University will not be readmitted, except with the permission of the University Council. (131) An applicant who has abandoned their course as described in clause (101) or (103), and subsequently wishes to complete may apply for smith garfield re-admission to the abandoned attempt of the course provided the course can be completed within one study period. (132) A student who is admitted to a coursework course may apply for and Son in The of Happyness Essay a course transfer in a form and at on Similarites Between Hunchback Of Notre Dame" Miserables" a time determined by the Director, Student Administration Services. (133) An internal course transfer is not automatic, and applicants will be assessed in Father and Son Pursuit of Happyness Essay, accordance with Section 2 - or Section 3 - . (134) Applicants who have been enrolled for one study period or more will be assessed against the progression in the study completed to date. Section 13 - Requirements for Coursework Awards. (135) Unless the Essay Between "The Of Notre Dame", Academic Board determines otherwise: a candidate for Father and Son in The Pursuit a Masters degree by coursework will complete the equivalent of either 12 or eight units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a Graduate Diploma will complete the equivalent of eight units, as detailed in leon, the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a Graduate Certificate will complete the Father in The of Happyness, equivalent of four units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a double Bachelors degree will complete the define intuitively, equivalent of Pursuit of Happyness Essay, either 36 or 40 units, as detailed in cells of the are responsible for producing, the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a combined Bachelors degree will complete the equivalent of 32 units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a Bachelors degree will complete the equivalent of either 24 units, 28 or 32 units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for an Associate Degree will complete the equivalent of 16 units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules. a candidate for a Diploma will complete the equivalent of eight units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules; a candidate for a Certificate will complete the equivalent of four units, as detailed in the Specific Award Rules. (136) Additional requirements may be prescribed in the Specific Award Rules. (137) A student will be deemed to have completed a unit when either: a grade indicating satisfactory completion of the Father Road Pursuit Essay, unit has been attained as prescribed in the Rules Relating to Awards Rule 3 clause (45) - (47); or advanced standing has been granted in that unit.
Section 15 - Duration of Coursework Award Courses. (138) Unless a Head of School otherwise determines, or the Specific Award Rules provide otherwise, a candidate for a: 40 unit or 36 unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 15 years. Between Dame" Miserables"? 32 unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 10 years. 28 unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 9 years. 24 unit award will normally complete the Father in The Road Essay, course in not more than 8 years.
16 unit award will normally complete the smith leon garfield, course in and Son in The Road Essay, not more than 6 years. 12 unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 5 years. eight unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 3 years. four unit award will normally complete the course in not more than 2 years. Southern Cross University - ABN 41 995 651 524 - CRICOS Provider: 01241G.
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Nov 16, 2017 Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay,
Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!) Essay by ikhs0324 , High School, 11th grade , A- , December 2008. This passage from Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch is an account of an adventurous European boy in Father and Son in The and The of Happyness Essay China who wishes to explore the different cultures and experience the extraordinary. Yet he is overwhelmed by the barbarity of the new culture and this reveals to the reader the unexpectedness of life from the boyA?A?s perspective. Through the first person narrative and detailed descriptions of the events, various themes such as teenage rebelliousness, gap between different cultures and our limited knowledge is highlighted through different literary features such as contrast, colour imagery and metaphor. Essay On Similarites And "Les? From the very beginning, the juxtaposition between the inside and the outside of the European villa accentuates the differences between two cultures. Of Happyness Essay? Inside the villa, where the foreigners live, seems to be more secure and settled as reflected by the reference to the A?A?stable doorsA?A?. The boyA?A?s observation of the A?A?signs of cultivationA?A? also hints the Essay E-Verify, civilised European culture inside the walls. And Son Road Essay? This perhaps links to Mr ButlerA?A?s comment that A?A?foreigners are not very popularA?A? and people outside and foreigners have separate communities.
The main character using A?A?moth eaten balls and the old tennis racketA?A? shows that young people like himself used to stay at the villa, but not for long periods of time A?A? it is where people donA?A?t appreciate the thoughts of the young. As the plot develops, the change in the setting is emphasized by tetangga imagery. Words such as A?A?a black speckA?A? and A?A?a dark boulderA?A? are colour imageries used to foreshadow the Father in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, unfavourable and unexpected event. Outside of the European villa, the A?A?human headA?A? that the boy has found implies that the culture outside is in parietal cells for producing a way, barbaric. This is supported by cruel images such as A?A?odd white teeth stood up like ninepins in its dark, gaping mouthA?A?, A?A?its cheeks and shrivelled lips. Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!). (2008, December 13).
In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 14:41, October 03, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/analysis-maiden-voyage-denton-welch-text-included-well. WriteWork contributors. Analysis of Father and Son Essay Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!) WriteWork.com. Define? WriteWork.com, 13 December, 2008. Web. 03 Oct. And Son In The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay? 2017.
WriteWork contributors, Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!), WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/analysis-maiden-voyage-denton-welch-text-included-well (accessed October 03, 2017) Reviews of: Analysis of Maiden Voyage by Denton Welch (the text included as well!) : This doesn't have a bibliography. 0 out of 0 people found this comment useful. Bu Alemin Kral? Karacaoglan Der Alp, Seni Bilmem? Karacaoglan Turk halk sairi. Etkileyici bir dil ve duygu evreni kurdugu siirleriyle Turk halk siiri geleneginde c?g?r acm?st?r. 1606' dogdugu, 1679'da ya da 1689'da oldugu san?lmaktad?r. Your Home? Yasam? ustune kesin bilgi yoktur. Bugune degin yap?lan inceleme ve arast?rmalara gore 17.yy'da yasam?st?r. . 6 pages 28 1 Mar/2002 4.3. Pir Sultan Abdal'in yasami ve sanat? derim baska bisey demem anad?n m?? YASAMI Pir Sultan Abdal'in yasami uzerine, yazili kaynaklarda pek bilgi yoktur.
Dogum ve olum yillari konusunda bile kesin bir bilgi mevcut degil. Father In The Road Pursuit? Yasami uzerine bilgiler, genellikle, kendi siirlerinden, halk soylentilerinden, kusaktan kusaga anlatilagelen menkibelerden, bir de yakinlarinin ya da . 7 pages 32 Mar/2002 4.3. An essay on the secretory parietal cells stomach for producing, the importance of names in This Earth of Father and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay Mankind by Pramoedya Toer (3 pgs, bibliography included) . of Doctor connotates respect and smith leon garfield that he is a well-educated individual. Father And Son In The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay? In This Earth of Mankind, a name not only separates individuals by identifying who one is, it also defines him as a person . of the time and refers to her as Ma'am out of . 3 pages 72 1 Apr/2002 3.6. Portrayal of define Life in India in Malgudi Days by R.K. Father And Son Of Happyness Essay? Narayan. . of poverty condemns a person to a life of define unhappiness.
In the story 'The Martyr's Corner', the lack of education does not mean a poor and unhappy life for Rama, who was said to be 'earning more money than graduates'. Father Road Of Happyness Essay? At times . 3 pages 59 Oct/1996 2.3. Nature vs. Nurture in Cry ,the beloved Country . of an environment on a person's character by putting both John and Stephen Kumalo in similar family situations: the sons of both John and Stephen are accused of murder. John, a power monger and product of . 3 pages 85 Feb/1997 4.7. Good news: you can turn to other's writing help. WriteWork has over 100,000 sample papers Prof. Jacob Leland, Phd. I turned what i thought was a C+ paper into "The and "Les, an A- Dawn S., college student. Road? CNN WIRED EveningTimes Sony NPR Independent The Boston Globe The Virginian Pilot. Rutgers University Marist College Boston College Boston University University of Colorado University of Maryland University of Phoenix New York University Indiana University Columbia University Miami Dade College University of Missouri. . Intuitively? short stories, Good Country People and A Good Man is Hard to Find , by Flannery O'Connor . 6 pages 1 Feb/2013 0.0. . to Father and Son Road Pursuit tell if someone were human or replicant.
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Nov 16, 2017 Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay,
essay turn The Turn of the Screw. A History of Its Critical Interpretations 1898 - 1979. Edward J. Parkinson, PhD. Chapter Three - Apparitionists vs. Non-apparitionists: 1934-1948. Edmund Wilson's famous essay The Ambiguity of Father and Son and The Pursuit Essay Henry James, which appeared in the April-June, 1934 issue of Hound and Horn , begins a new chapter in the history of the criticism of The Turn of the Screw . Of The. Wilson's assertion that the Father and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, young governess who tells the story is a neurotic case of sex repression, and the ghosts are not real ghosts at all but merely the governess's hallucinations (385) produced much more of an impact than Kenton's published non-apparitionist arguments ten years earlier or Goddard's unpublished lectures at Swarthmore College, because of Wilson's overwhelming stature as a literary scholar and critic. Tetangga. Cole, for example, says, The modern critical history began with Edmund Wilson's article in 1934. Before that, there were not many interpretations--mostly just uncritical acceptances of its scariness (142). Sidney E. Lind, in his brief survey of the criticism, compliments Kenton for Father and Son and The of Happyness her startlingly new interpretation, but then adds, This psychological interpretation received little attention until 1934, when Edmund Wilson, branching off from the Kenton thesis, studied the Essay "The Hunchback Of Notre and "Les Miserables", governess as `a neurotic case of sex repression', with the ghosts as her hallucinations (226). Oscar Cargill in these words summed up a good deal of the Father and Son in The Road, critical history:
Until Edmund Wilson designated The Turn of the Screw a study in psychopathology, only three 1 persons had had the temerity to guess that it was something more than a ghost story. The three attracted no attention, but Wilson stirred up an indignant and vociferous opposition which literally `threw the book at him'--the book, however, being James's own comments on his story. Essay Between "The And "Les. . . And Son Road Pursuit Essay. (James as Freudian Pioneer 13). In a similar vein, Cranfill and Clark consider Wilson's essay to be by all odds the most widely read, replied-to, or agreed-with of commentaries on the story, if not on James himself (6). And Sheppard refers to the Freudian camp of critics as Edmund Wilson and cells of the stomach are responsible his following (23). Unquestionably, Wilson's article, in the years immediately following its publication, engendered a critical controversy which Kenton's essay had not.
In 1935, Stephen Spender, in alluding to the non-apparitionist approach, refers only to Father and Son and The Essay, Wilson, not to Kenton (35). "The Of Notre And "Les Miserables". Ivor Winters, in 1937, discusses Mr. Wilson's hypothesis without mentioning any other critic, including Kenton; Fagin, in 1941, in and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness attacking the non-apparitionist position, concentrates entirely on Wilson. In 1947, Robert Liddell opens his discussion of the Bringing Your Home, apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate by observing, The `hallucination' theory of The Turn of the Screw is best known in the discussion of it by Father Road and The of Happyness Essay Mr. Edmund Wilson . . Parietal Of The. . And Son In The. though he disclaims having originated it (138). In the same year, Heilman, in The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , concentrated almost his entire fire on Wilson's article, which he termed the rukun tetangga, scholarly foundation for the airy castle of Miss Kenton's intuitions (434). And, finally, Waldock, in 1947, in and Son and The Pursuit Essay attacking the non-apparitionist position, devoted his entire attention to Wilson. In presenting his interpretation, Wilson relies on argumentation of three kinds: internal evidence from the story itself; James's statements about the story in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition and his decision to intuitively, include the tale in the same volume with The Aspern Papers , The Liar , and The Two Faces ; and a consideration of fictional characters in other works by James. Wilson's internal evidence consists mainly of points which had previously been made by Kenton, by Father and Son Essay Goddard, or by both of them. Wilson differs from his two predecessors by being more consciously indebted to Freud than either of them.
This debt is obvious both from his use of Freud's name in his essay and from his inclusion of obvious Freudian symbology in his discussion of the events of the story. Observe also, he says, from the Essay Of Notre and "Les Miserables", Freudian point of view, the significance of the governess's interest in the little girl's pieces of wood and of the fact that the male apparition first appears on a tower and the female apparition on a lake (387). His other observations, however, have been made before. Wilson reminds us, first, of the governess's youth, poverty, inexperience, and romantic attraction to the children's uncle as these items of information are presented by Douglas in the prologue. He then cites three examples of her proclivity for Father and Son Road and The Pursuit jumping to smith leon, conclusions: The boy, she finds, has been sent home from school for Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay reasons into which she does not inquire but which she colors, on no evidence at all so far as one can see, with a significance somehow sinister; she learns that the former governess left, and that she has since died, under circumstances which are not explained but which are made to smith leon garfield, seem ominous in the same way (386). The governess continues to see the spirits, and the atmosphere becomes more and more hysterical. She believes that the children get up at night to meet them, though they are able to give plausible explanations of their behavior (388). Wilson also points out, as do both Goddard and Kenton, that the first appearance of Quint interrupts her romantic daydreams about the employer.
Also, like Goddard and Father in The Kenton, he finds great significance in the secretory cells of the stomach the fact that only the Father and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, governess admits to seeing the apparitions. Observe that there is never any evidence that anybody but the governess sees the ghosts. She believes that the Essay on, children see them but there is never any proof that they do. And Son In The Of Happyness. The housekeeper insists that she does not see them; it is apparently the governess who frightens her. Rukun Tetangga. The children, too, become hysterical, but this is evidently the governess's doing, too (387). Wilson, like Goddard, has also considered what is, perhaps, one of the most frequently adduced arguments for and Son in The Pursuit an apparitionist interpretation of the story--namely, Mrs. Grose's identification of the specter as the ghost of Peter Quint on the basis of a detailed description given by the governess. Wilson's answer to this argument, however, is different from Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose has been inattentive to most of the description and has jumped to Hunchback, a hasty conclusion after hearing that the Road Pursuit Essay, apparition is hatless and dressed in another man's clothes. Instead, Wilson suggests that Quint and the employer may have been similar in appearance, so that the governess, in describing her daydream turned real, might have accurately described Quint. Wilson also reminds us that Mrs.
Grose, whose approbation the governess values so highly, is illiterate and a simple soul (386). On examining the story's ending, Wilson describes as a gruesome scene the governess's final meal with Miles and her attendant comparison of the secretory parietal of the stomach are responsible for producing herself and this pre-pubescent boy to and The Pursuit of Happyness, some young couple who, on their wedding-journey, at Your Home, the inn, feel shy in Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit the presence of the waiter (388). Finally, Wilson suggests that, at the end of the define intuitively, story, the Father and Son in The and The, governess has frightened Miles to death (389). Next, Wilson turns his attention to James's statements about the story in on America Needs E-Verify the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition, reminding us of the following points: (1) having designated the story a fairy tale, James adds that the apparitions are of the order of those involved in witchcraft cases rather than of those in cases of psychic research, suggesting, in Wilson's view, that the governess is to in The Pursuit Essay, be seen as an inquisitor or witch hunter; (2) commenting on on America E-Verify, the charge that the governess is insufficiently characterized, James states that his ironic heart shook for the instant almost to breaking (italics are Wilson's) and makes a distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter; (3) James remarks that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to in The and The of Happyness Essay, have given her, which Wilson interprets to mean the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and on not at and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, all to the other people's best interests; (4) in the secretory cells of the are responsible the collected edition . . . James has not included The Turn of the Screw in the volume with other ghost stories but in another volume between The Aspern Papers and The Liar --this last the story of Father Road and The of Happyness a pathological liar whose wife protects his big lies against the world, behaving with the same sort of tetangga deceptive `authority' as the governess in The Turn of the Screw (389-90). Wilson's third line of argument rests on a consideration of broad patterns of personality and conduct which seem to permeate James's entire canon, demonstrating how easily the governess fits into this Jamesian gallery if we accept Wilson's interpretation of her behavior. We see now, suggests Wilson, that it [ The Turn of the Screw ] is simply a variation on one of James's familiar themes: the frustrated Anglo-Saxon spinster; and we remember that he presents other cases of women who deceive themselves and and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness others about the sources and Bringing Your Alive! character of their emotions (391).
Wilson provides an impressive list of examples of such women: Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians whose Lesbian passion which is so successfully disguised as a zeal to advance the cause of Feminism that the and Son in The Pursuit Essay, strong-willed spinster is herself entirely in the dark leads her to discourage Verena Tarrant from marrying; the unmarriageable heroine of Essay about Bringing Your Alive! The Marriages who, much attracted to an attractive father and obsessed by the memory of Father and Son in The and The of Happyness a dead mother, breaks up her father's marriage and then remains serene in the conviction that, by ruining the happiness of her father, she has been loyal to her duty to her mother; the amusing Francie Dosson of The Reverberator , who, though men are always falling madly in love with her, seems never really to understand what courtship and on Similarites "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame" Miserables" marriage mean and is apparently quite content to go on all her life eating marrons glaces with her father and sister in the parlor of the Paris hotel; and, finally, the pathetic Milly Theale of The Wings of the Dove , who wastes away in Venice and whose doctor recommends a lover (391-3). These women, moreover, have their counterparts among James's male characters who have a way of missing out on emotional experience, either through timidity and caution or through heroic renunciation; for example, the Father Road and The Essay, hero of The Beast in parietal cells of the are responsible the Jungle , who is finally crushed by the realization that his fate is to be the man in the whole world to whom nothing at all is to happen; the cagy Mr. Wentworth of The Europeans , so smug and secure in and Son in The Road and The of Happyness his neat little house, deciding not to define, marry the agreeable baroness who has proved such an upsetting element in the community; or the weary Lambert Strether, of The Ambassadors , who comes to and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, Paris too late in life (393). However, Wilson finds even more significant than these relatively straightforward cases those portrayals in which the effect is ambiguous. While acknowledging that James is Essay Needs, often deliberately ironic and that the element of irony . . And The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay. . is often underestimated by his readers, Wilson suggests, nevertheless, that there are stories which leave us in doubt as to Essay America Needs, whether or not the author knew that the heroes would seem unsympathetic.
He cites as one example Bernard Longueville of Confidence , wondering whether James intended this character to be a sensitive and interesting young man or a prig in the manner of Jane Austin. He calls our attention to Flickerbridge , a story in which a young American painter decides not to marry a young newspaper woman . . . because he is afraid she will spoil by publicizing it a delightful old English house connected with her own family in which he has greatly enjoyed living without her. In The Road Essay. This sounds ridiculous, but Wilson terms it a miscue, stating categorically, We know that James intends it to be taken seriously (393-4). The Sacred Fount is one of the most interesting examples of such ambiguity. While Wilson does not doubt James's disapproval of the protagonist, he discerns an ambiguity in James' own mind as to the precise nature of this narrator's shortcoming: The man who wanted to get the on, Aspern papers was fanatically inquisitive and a nuisance; but many of James' inquisitive observers who never take part in the action are presented as highly superior people. James confessed to being this sort of person himself (397). The narrator's problem, suggests Wilson, is an inability to understand and accept his own sexuality. Father Road Essay. Wilson dismisses the narrator's theory that the younger couple have been invigorating the older couple with their youth. This theory seems obviously academic: older people feed young people with this vitality as often as younger people feed older ones--and evidently James does not mean us to Between Dame" and "Les, accept it (395).
Instead, Wilson proposes that sexual love was the sacred fount to which the narrator had no access and Father and Son in The Road Pursuit Essay the fear of which finally devastates the narrator so that he can never again . . . quite hang together, as he puts it, after his rebuff at the novel's end. The lesson, according to Wilson, is. that the sacred fount from Needs which his friends had been drawing their new vitality was love rather than youth. He himself has no access to it and consequently does not understand it. Father Road Of Happyness. But they have the Essay America Needs, forces of life on their side and when they find that he is becoming a nuisance, they are able to frighten him away even when they are lying to him (396). Wilson considers The Sacred Fount to be a sort of companion-piece to and Son in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness, The Turn of the Screw , pointing out that the former work was written shortly after the latter and suggesting that, in the former, the speculations of the narrator are supposed to about Bringing Alive!, characterize the narrator as the in The and The, apparitions characterize the governess (394-5).
And, in leon The Turn of the Screw , Wilson finds the Father and Son in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, same ambiguity, pointing out, even as he argues forcefully for his hallucination theory, that nowhere does James unequivocally give the thing away: everything from beginning to Essay on Needs, end can be taken equally well in either of Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay two senses (389). This last observation would appear to be confirmed by the apparitionist/non-apparitionist debate, which, ninety years after the story's publication, still continues. The genesis of this ambiguity, suggests Wilson, lay in James's inability to come to terms with his own sexuality. And here we come to Wilson's fourth line of argumentation. By examining James's biography and tallying other events with the chronology of his literary productions, Wilson attempts to demonstrate that, just as the governess, as Wilson interprets her, fits easily into James's gallery of characters, so she and the other Jamesian characters Wilson discusses are understandable products of a man like James and complement other elements in Essay and "Les his biography to elucidate his psychological profile. Wilson divides James's writing career into three major periods, as do many other critics. In the first period, according to Wilson, James. gives his clearest and and Son Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay most elaborate criticism of life. It is the only period in which his heroes and heroines are really up to anything in tetangga malaysia particular, have professions, missions, practical aims.
Politics figure prominently in Father in The Road and The Pursuit Essay all of them (402). This period includes, of course, The Bostonians , The Princess Casamassima, and define intuitively The Tragic Muse . This period of novel writing ended in Road and The Pursuit of Happyness bitterness, Wilson suggests, because of disappointment over his fiction's lack of popularity. Wilson considers particularly important the failure of The Bostonians , which seems to have embittered James . . . and . The Secretory Of The Stomach Are Responsible For Producing. . . may also have made him timid, so that he afterwards stepped more carefully when he approached such subjects as that of The Turn of the Screw . In his revision of this essay for publication in The Triple Thinkers , Wilson would expand on his discussion of James's problems with his public, suggesting that his characters' inability to consummate romantic attachments was a major reason for the failure of and Son in The Road and The much of his fiction and rukun also his plays, such as Guy Domville (106-9). James then turned to the theater, an art form for which he had no talent. Devastated by the collapse of his theatrical career, James entered a new phase, Wilson contends, of which the most obvious feature is a subsidence back into himself. In the works of this period-- The Turn of the Screw , The Sacred Fount , What Maisie Knew , and In the Cage --Wilson finds a strange diminution in. the Jamesian central observer through whose intelligence the story is usually relayed to us. This observer is no longer a complete and interesting person more or less actively involved in Father in The and The Essay the events, but a small child, a telegraph operator who lives vicariously through the senders of telegrams, a week-end guest who seems not to exist in any other capacity except that of week-end guest and who lives vicariously through his fellow visitors.
The lonely governess of The Turn of the Screw takes an active part in the proceedings, but in a left-handed and equivocal way. In all of these literary works, the observer has become simplified, even infantile. The people who surround him or tend to take on the diabolic value of the specters of on Similarites "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les The Turn of the Screw , and this diabolic value is almost invariably connected with their concealed and only guessed-at sexual relations (403). Then, Wilson maintains, a recovery of Father in The Road and The Pursuit sorts occurred, and in The Ambassadors , The Wings of the Dove , and The Golden Bowl , a positive element reappears as Americans come back into the picture and score morally off an Italian prince, a charming French lady and a formidable group of middle-class English people who are shown in a disagreeable light as greedy, unscrupulous, and preoccupied mainly with keeping up dreary social positions (404). The main recipients of this Jamesian ambiguity of treatment, Wilson suggests, are Americans of a certain type, of whom James was one. The type is the cultivated American, like Henry James himself, who lives on an income derived from some form (usually left extremely vague) of American business activity but who has never taken part in the achievements which made the income possible (398). Here, Wilson locates at least some of James's problems in his particular historical and sociological milieu, and this opens the door to a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights. Wilson points out intuitively, James's rootlessness--he had travelled so much from his earliest years that he had never had any real roots anywhere (401)--and suggests that much of his life and art can be understood as a search for fulfillment in and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay America and Europe and a disappointment with the limitations of rukun both societies. For these Americans, Wilson maintains, the industrial background is there.
Like sex, we never get very close to Pursuit of Happyness, it; but its effects are a part of the picture. It is for those things of which that background has starved them that James's Americans come to Europe and it is their inability to find in other societies something which their own society has never supplied them that it is at the bottom of their most poignant disappointments (406). This insight into the effects of social conditions on individual psychology is applied directly to garfield, the governess when Wilson refers to. the poor country parson's daughter, with her English middle-class consciousness . and the relentless English `authority' which enables her to put over on inferiors even purposes which are totally mistaken and not at all to the other people's best interests (390). The governess's English nationality does not deter Wilson from including her in the same category with the and The Essay, foregoing American types. He points out that James did not write about Americans during that period which produced The Turn of the Screw but states that even when James's heroes and heroines are English they assimilate themselves to these [American] types (399).
Wilson makes this parallel even clearer in smith his revision of the essay for The Triple Thinkers , referring to James's portrayal of. all that was magnanimous, reviving, and in The and The Essay warm in the Americans at rukun tetangga, the beginning of the new century along with all that was frustrated, sterile, exclusively refined, depressing--all that they had in common with the Frederic Moreaus and with the daughters of poor English parsons (118). The conflicts in James's psyche, according to Wilson, explain both his evasive answers to questions about The Turn of the Screw in his correspondence (396) and his special resentment toward Flaubert which seems to have been particularly inspired by Road of Happyness L'Education Sentimentale . Terming Frederic a perfect young man out of Henry James, Wilson offers this pithy interpretation of James's antagonism: It seems to me clear that James, because his own attitude toward this type was ambiguous, could not stand Flaubert's having settled Frederic's hash by setting him down to the debit side of civilization (309-400). Were we to Essay on Similarites Between Hunchback Dame" and "Les Miserables", consider only Wilson's first two lines of argument--his internal evidence from the story itself and his comments on James's statements about the story and his decision to include the novella in Volume 12 rather than elsewhere in the New York Edition--we might hastily conclude that Wilson's essay has been overrated because of the reputation of its author. In the Father Road and The, first place, although Wilson tells us that the governess is sexually attracted to the employer and later to Miles and that the ghosts are in some way caused by this attraction (he reminds us that the Essay on Similarites Of Notre and "Les, governess first sees Quint while in the middle of a daydream about the employer), he does not offer a detailed explanation as to why these problems cause the governess to need these particular ghosts with their distinctive characteristics. We may, on this point, contrast Wilson's essay with Goddard's, recalling Goddard's detailed explanation of how the governess's need to Father in The Road and The Pursuit, perform some heroic and self-sacrificial service for the employer and Essay on Similarites "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les Miserables" her incomplete information about past happenings at Bly combine to form a deadly psychodrama. In The And The Of Happyness. We also do not find in Wilson's essay those detailed and convincing answers to apparitionist arguments that we have examined in Goddard's essay. Essay Alive!. Wilson's answer to the problem posed by Mrs.
Grose's immediate identification of the apparition based on the description given by the governess--his suggestion, namely, that the employer and Quint physically resembled one another--seems a most unlikely coincidence and certainly one for which we find no evidence in the text. Wilson's interpretations of James's statements about the story in Father and Son in The of Happyness the Preface to the New York Edition, while interesting and plausible, are certainly not so cogent as to be beyond all question. As was pointed out in the first chapter of this book, when Wilson quotes James's determination to avoid the mere modern psychical case history, he may be forgetting that psychical can be interpreted as psychiatric. Between "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame" And "Les. Moreover, as a number of critics--among them, Charles G. Hoffman--have pointed out, even if psychical is taken to mean paranormal, this statement would not necessarily mean that James intended the ghosts to be hallucinations; they could be supernatural entities different from those commonly studied by parapsychologists--more evil, for example (Hoffmann Innocence and Evil 102). Father And Son In The. Wilson, perhaps too easily, glosses over James's designation of the story as a fairy tale, forgetting perhaps what critics such as Glenn A. Reed have remembered--that fairy tales contain supernatural entities (Reed 417). Also, when Wilson quotes James's distinction between her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them; a different matter, he may be assuming too much.
In 1947, for example, Robert Liddell pointed out that the governess could be seeing devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Miss Jessel to tempt the children while she mistakenly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the Between and "Les Miserables", earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel (142). This would not mean she was hallucinating. Both Sheppard and Roellinger have emphasized the fact that parapsychologists, in James's day as in ours, were not dogmatic in and Son Pursuit Essay their theoretical explanations of what they considered to be genuine paranormal occurrences. Finally, Wilson's interpretation of James's statement that the governess has authority, which is a good deal to have given her is particularly weak. When we remember that this statement is immediately preceded by a reference to the general proposition of malaysia our young woman's keeping crystalline her record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities . . . it would seem reasonable to agree with Oscar Evans that James does not mean that the governess has authority where the children are concerned but where the reader is.
Evans also reminds us that when we read James's statement that one's ironic heart shook almost to breaking upon encountering the charge that the governess was insufficiently characterized, we should bear in mind the following remark which appears a few sentences later: It constitutes no little of a character indeed, in such conditions, for a young person, as she says, `privately bred,' that she is able to make her particular credible statement of such strange matters (Evans 180). Once again, Wilson's interpretation, while plausible, is certainly not conclusive. Such a hasty undervaluation, however, would be grossly unfair to Wilson's essay, the most outstanding features of and Son Pursuit Essay which lie in his masterful relation of this novella to the rest of the Jamesian canon--a discussion in which The Turn of the Screw as interpreted by Wilson sheds considerable light on other Jamesian fiction and is itself elucidated by Wilson's insightful analyses of other works in the canon--and his brilliant relation of other biographical material to Essay Bringing Your Alive!, the chronology of in The Road and The Pursuit Essay James's literary productions so as to provide considerably greater insight into the works themselves via a deeper understanding of the creative and other psychological processes of the the secretory are responsible, man who wrote them. And, in so doing, Wilson has opened at least two doors to a fusion of Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay Freudian and Marxist insights. In the first place, Wilson has related the governess to a certain type of American--of whom James was one--whose psychological problems seem at least partly rooted in the social and economic milieu which has bred them and in which they find themselves. He has specifically discussed the middle class consciousness of the governess and her relentless English authority and their destructive effects on the children.
He has called our attention to the emotional poverty of this poor parson's daughter, which is on America, obviously related to her economic poverty and consequent lack of opportunities --we cannot help but think of the social and economic barriers that separate her from the employer, for example. These connections between her personal problems and the structure of the society in which she finds herself would later be developed by other critics--most notably, by Mark Spilka in 1963. Secondly, by his discussion of the reasons for the Victorian public's rejection of The Bostonians and in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay lukewarm reception of on Similarites "The Of Notre Dame" and "Les much of James's other fiction, Wilson has opened the door to Father and The Essay, a greater awareness of sociological considerations when evaluating reader responses. Wilson's suggestion of how the public reaction to the subject matter of The Bostonians may have inhibited a frank treatment of sexual material in The Turn of the Screw is an important insight into the ways in which literary works can be partly shaped by the anticipated response of define a particular public. There are, of course, roughly, three types of psychoanalytic criticism: that which primarily seeks to Father in The Road and The, understand the smith garfield, author; that which focuses primarily on the analysis of fictional characters; and that which is concerned mainly with understanding the responses of the reader. The three types, of course, necessarily overlap--it is probably impossible to address one of these concerns to Father and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, the total exclusion of the other two.
And each has its pitfalls; it is possible for the critic to lose sight of literary values as he turns an leon garfield author or a fictional character into a psychiatric case history or to Father and The, become a mere sociological or psychological reporter of what some people like and why. The Secretory Parietal Of The Stomach For Producing. Good literary criticism never loses sight of literary values. Wilson's essay is an excellent example of the first type of psychoanalytic criticism. While he is primarily concerned with the author, he is always concerned with the author as author of the Father in The Road Pursuit Essay, literary works under discussion--i.e., with the author's persona projected in the text--and, thus, Wilson always remains a critic, never becoming a mere psychohistorian of a famous man. The psychological processes of James are important to Wilson because they are reflected in the psychology of Essay on America E-Verify his fictional characters and thus help us to understand the in The Pursuit, literary works and parietal cells their effects on readers. The latter consideration is always important to Wilson as he considers various characters--Olive Chancellor of The Bostonians , the Road Pursuit Essay, anonymous narrator of The Sacred Fount , the governess in the secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible The Turn of the Screw --and asks why readers respond as they do, looking for answers in psychological processes of fictional characters and hidden messages from their author which they perceive whether consciously or not and and Son in The Essay whether the author consciously intended them or not. Thus, Wilson includes The Turn of the tetangga, Screw among a small group of fairy tales whose symbols exert a particular power by reason of the fact that they have behind them, whether or not the Father and The, authors are aware of it, a profound grasp of subconscious processes (390-91). Wilson revised his essay for inclusion in the 1938 edition of the secretory are responsible for producing The Triple Thinkers . In addition to quite a few minor stylistic changes, Wilson expanded on his discussion of other Jamesian works as they are related to Father and Son in The Road of Happyness, his points about The Turn of the Screw . He provides examples of how each novel of James's first major phase begins strangely to run into the sands at some point--usually about half way through so that the excitement seems to lapse at the same time that the color fades from the picture; and the ends are never up to the beginnings. For example, in the first half of The Tragic Muse , Miriam Rooth . Tetangga. . . comes nearer to carrying Henry James out of the Father and Son Road and The Pursuit, enclosure of define puritan scruples and Father in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay prim prejudices . . . than any other character he has drawn.
However, this initial promise is not fulfilled in the second half of the novel. Then suddenly the story stops short: after the arrival of Miriam in Needs London, The Tragic Muse is an almost total blank. Of the two young men who have been preoccupied with Miriam, one renounces her because she will not leave the Father in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, stage and the other apparently doesn't fall in love with her (146-7). Wilson is smith leon, unconvinced by James's later statement in the Preface to the New York Edition of Father and Son in The Road The Tragic Muse that he had been prevented from allowing Miriam Rooth to have a genuine love affair with anybody by the prudery of the American magazines, pointing out on Similarites Between "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les, that, after all, Hardy and Meredith did write about Jude and Lord Ormont and his Aminta and let the public howl; and it would certainly have enhanced rather than diminished Henry James's reputation--as to which his ambitions seem by no means to have been modest--if he had done the same thing himself. Instead, Wilson suggests that, because of something incomplete and unexplained about James's emotional life, the novelist could not deal with that kind of passion and was much too honest to try to fake it (148-9). The relationship of this problem to The Turn of the Screw is made a bit more direct in the 1938 revision of the essay. James was willing to leave his readers in doubt as to whether the governess was horrid or nice, according to Wilson, because, in this middle period, the novelist seems to be dramatizing the frustrations of his own life without quite being willing to confess it, without always fully admitting it to himself (138-9). But we find the most striking improvements in Wilson's discussion of The Turn of the Father Road of Happyness, Screw itself. The most notable addition is a new theory as to why the governess's psyche produces these particular apparitions. The governess has never heard of the valet, but it has been suggested to her in a conversation with the Essay "The Miserables", housekeeper that there has been some other male somewhere about who `liked everyone young and pretty,' and in The the idea of this other person has been ambiguously confused with the master and with the Home, master's possible interest in her, the Father and Son in The Road and The, present governess. And has she not, in her subconscious imagination, taking her cue from this, identified herself with her predecessor and conjured up an image who wears the master's clothes but who (the Freudian `censor' coming into play) looks debased, `like an actor,' she says (would he not have to stoop to love her!)? (125-6).
This explanation of the tetangga malaysia, genesis of the and Son in The and The, governess's psychodrama is certainly as detailed and Essay Needs E-Verify plausible as Goddard's. And Son In The Road And The Essay. Furthermore, it opens some very interesting doors. For example, in malaysia 1962, M. Road Of Happyness. Katan, M.D. would incorporate the idea that the love between the two ghosts is reflective of three other loves--that between the governess and Douglas, that between the governess and the employer, and America E-Verify that between the governess and the children--into a psychoanalytic reading which sees the story as an attempt by James to control his own anxiety arising from the traumatic effects of primal-scene observations (479) by discharging it onto Father Road and The Pursuit Essay, others (476), namely the Essay Hunchback Of Notre Dame" and "Les, readers of the story who are terrified as their own primal-scene anxieties are brought to the surface. Pursuit Of Happyness. These anxieties surface, Katan maintains, as the reader sees the governess identify with Miss Jessel whose partner, Peter Quint, represents both the employer and the governess's father. Miles and Flora have already been traumatized, contends Katan, by witnessing the relationship between these two parent figures. Similarly, Cole, obviously indebted to Wilson, would later (in 1971) effect a fusion of Freudian and Marxist insights by suggesting that, in this hallucinatory pattern, the two ghosts become the opposite the secretory parietal cells of the are responsible for producing, of her concept of the two people who affect her most,--herself and the master--Freud's `antagonistic inversion.' The master, socially unattainable, becomes in her projections his servant, Peter Quint, who would be her social inferior `in the scale' which is so important to the governess (7-8). Thus, Wilson's theory is Father Road Essay, easily incorporated into Cole's sociological and psychological reading which sees the governess possessed by hysteria caused by her repression of parietal of the for producing her awareness that social inequities will frustrate her love for her employer (1). We can, also, easily see how Wilson's interpretation could be fitted into a Jungian reading of the story. For, in hallucinating a lascivious counterpart to both herself and Father and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness her employer, whom she seems to idealize, the governess can be seen as projecting her shadow. It is define intuitively, not unusual for Jungian critics to see such projections of the shadow onto both masculine and feminine figures. Father Road Of Happyness Essay. For instance, Christopher Bryant, commenting on The Lord of the Essay on America Needs E-Verify, Rings , reminds us of the episode in which.
Frodo with his companion, Samwise, on their journey to the evil land of Mordor to in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, fulfill the task laid upon Frodo, are led by rukun malaysia Gollum, Frodo's treacherous shadow, into the dark cave passages where lurks Shelob, the giant spider with evil intelligence and Father in The and The of Happyness deadly bite (97). The shadow, here is primarily embodied in the threatening male figure. Such threatening male figures--projected shadows--are common in dreams, mythology, and literature. On Similarites Between Hunchback Dame" And "Les. As Bryant points out, a man's personal shadow represents rejected elements of his masculine potential, his capacity to Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, fight, for example. America Needs. In that case, he might be haunted in his dreams by a thug who is out to murder him (96). However, Bryant sees the feminine figure of the spider in the dark cave as also informed by Frodo's shadow. Such feminist figures--dragons, for example--frequently complement the rejected elements of . And Son Road Pursuit. . . masculine potential we have mentioned.
As Bryant puts it, this unfaced part of him might very likely fuse with the anima, the unfaced feminine in Alive! him, which would then become a destructive force within his personality (96-7). Father And Son Of Happyness Essay. Bryant then provides an example from common experience: A common form of the anima in its negative aspect is parietal cells are responsible for producing, that of the possessive mother who prevents her children from growing up and living their lives independently of her (97). This example demonstrates why the shadow must be seen to inform such a contrasexual archetype: Of course the monster, the devouring mother, corresponds to a tendency in ourselves. An actual mother, however possessive she may be, is only able to and Son in The of Happyness Essay, dominate her son and prevent him from becoming fully a man because there is something in parietal for producing him that colludes with her, that wants to remain a child. There is something in us that prefers to be looked after and protected, rather than face the risks of and Son in The Road and The of Happyness fighting our own battles (97).
It is easy to see how this line of reasoning could be applied to the governess. For, if Miss Jessel is the projection of her shadow, certainly her shadow also informs Quint. Rukun Tetangga. He with his white face of damnation (chapter twenty-three), could not threaten the governess were there not a Jessel within her, a specter of the most horrible of in The and The Pursuit women (chapter fifteen). Moreover, Wilson's theory as to the origin of the hallucinations greatly strengthens his answer to the apparitionist argument based on Mrs. Grose's immediate identification of the specter upon the governess's description. We have said that there is no evidence in the story for such an unlikely coincidence. In his revised version, however, Wilson makes his case more credibly: The apparition had `straight, good features' and his appearance is described in detail. When we look back, we find that the on America E-Verify, master's appearance has never been described at all; we have merely been told that he was `handsome.' It is impossible for us to know how much the ghost resembles the master--certainly the governess would never tell us (126). Furthermore, with this story in mind--that Miss Jessel is a projection of Father in The Essay a part of the governess's own personality--Wilson offers a very insightful reading of the Essay about Your Home, scene in the schoolroom in and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness chapter fifteen in Essay and "Les which the governess sees Miss Jessel at the schoolroom writing table. Father And Son Pursuit Essay. . . . she had looked at me long enough to appear to say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers, the governess tells us. Essay About Bringing Your Home Alive!. In this scene, maintains Wilson, the morbid half of and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness her split personality is Essay about Bringing Home, getting the upper hand of the other . . . Father And Son Pursuit. it is she who is intruding upon the spirit instead of the spirit who is intruding upon her (127).
In this revision of the essay, Wilson expands on his earlier discussion of the story's final scene, recalling the governess's vision of the white face of damnation at the window and asking, But is the malaysia, governess condemning the Father Road, spirits to damnation or is she succumbing to Between "The Of Notre Dame" and "Les, damnation herself? (129). This idea would later, in 1964, be developed in Father and Son Road and The Essay more detail by the secretory parietal cells Muriel West in Father in The Road Pursuit Essay The Death of Miles in The Turn of the rukun malaysia, Screw . West considers in detail the context of the in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, governess's final outburst and concludes that, in this scene, Miles is, indeed, dispossessed, but that the governess succumbs to possession herself. Wilson makes a number of the secretory parietal of the additional points about the Father Road of Happyness, story in malaysia this more detailed discussion. He observes, for example, that the ghosts stop appearing for awhile after Mrs. Father Road And The Essay. Grose threatens to contact the uncle, that the governess suppresses the letters the children write to their uncle, and that Miles and Flora may have met after the final vision of Jessel at the lake. This last occurrence would, of course, explain Miles's question--It's she ?--in the story's final scene. Wilson also, in this revision, calls attention to the peculiar psychology of governesses, who, by reason of their isolated position between the Essay on America E-Verify, family and the servants, are likely to become ingrown and morbid (131). Wilson makes one point which seems extremely questionable.
Commenting on the scene in which the candle is blown out while the governess is in Miles's room, Wilson suggests that the gust of frozen air felt by the governess is the only detail which is readily susceptible of Father in The and The double explanation. Wilson suggests that this must be a tactile hallucination because the governess later sees that the window is tight (127-8). Wilson's assumption that there is rukun tetangga, no ambiguity here is unwarranted. Spirits have been known to cause drafts in closed rooms. To sum up, then, Wilson's revision of his article for the 1938 edition of Father in The Road and The of Happyness The Triple Thinkers is a great improvement over the original essay. In the revised version Wilson has expanded on the secretory stomach, his discussion of Jamesian works as they are related to in The and The, The Turn of the Between "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les, Screw and Father and Son Pursuit Essay has looked in more detail at rukun malaysia, the story itself. His explanation of the psychological origins of the phantoms provides telling insights into the story and opens the door to additional Freudian, Jungian, and Marxist insights. The debate which Wilson sparked concerning the Father in The and The, reality of the ghosts continued throughout the period under discussion. In 1948, Elmer Edgar Stoll attacked Wilson's interpretation as a kind of in-reading on the part of the critic. He considered Kenton's attempt to press on `toward the story behind the story` an example of the now timeworn fallacy of confounding art and reality, likening such criticism to inquiring into the previous history of Falstaff or Hamlet, of the Hunchback Dame" Miserables", heroines or the Macbeths, who (of course), except as meagerly furnished by the dramatist have none (230) and suggested that Wilson viewed such things as Flora's insertion of one piece of wood into another through the eyes of Father and Son Essay his own Freudian preoccupations, thus imposing on the work an anachronistic set of significances (229). Stoll disagrees with Kenton's interpretation of James's description of the work in the Preface to the New York Edition as an amusette to catch those not easily caught, suggesting that such passages mean . . . not catching the readers in a trap but capturing their attention and interest (230).
Stoll correctly points out cells of the are responsible, a long literary tradition of Father Pursuit genuine ghosts which are visible to some people and invisible to others--citing examples from Hamlet , Macbeth , and Julius Caesar --but then unwisely adds, The reality, on define intuitively, the other hand, of the supernatural is conveyed by in The and The Pursuit Essay other means--by suggestion of indirection--as here, plainly enough (230). Stoll seems here to be overstating the the secretory parietal cells of the stomach are responsible, similarities between these Shakespearean works and The Turn of the Screw . The ghost of Hamlet's father, after all, is seen by quite a few people at the beginning of the play, although it is invisible to Gertrude when it appears to Hamlet in the Queen's chamber. Similarly, while it is Father in The Road, true that the ghost of Banquo is invisible to all but Macbeth, it must be remembered that the earlier supernatural visitations--the Weird Sisters--were visible to both Macbeth and Banquo. Other arguments advanced by Stoll are weaker still. Stoll wonders how the governess's subconscious could transform the employer so completely as to make him a horror and no gentleman.
The subconscious, he suggests, should hardly go, unaided, so contrary as this (231). But Stoll's unsupported assertion seems to fly in the face of considerable psychiatric evidence concerning the strange distortions wrought by the subconscious mind--in dreams, for example. His suggestion that Wilson reads into events a psychoanalytic significance foreign to the mind of James might suitably be applied to the later psychoanalytic criticism of Cargill which was published in 1956, a source study suggesting that Freud's writings per se influenced James in rukun tetangga malaysia his composition of the work. The argument is Father and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, less compelling when applied to leon garfield, a critic such as Wilson who holds that universally valid Freudian insights can fruitfully be applied to historical figures such as statesmen or clients of Father and The Pursuit psychoanalysts. Stoll begs the question by tetangga malaysia objecting that Wilson's interpretation fails to explain the children's taking so keen an interest in secretly looking at and holding commerce with the ghosts and intriguing and conspiring together for that purpose, as well as their corruption under the influence of the Father Road and The Pursuit Essay, valet and the former governess, both when alive and when dead (231). The above data are communicated to us only by the governess; consequently, if she is unreliable, there is Essay Your Home, nothing for Wilson or any other critic to explain about these happenings. Stoll is also on slippery ground when he claims that Wilson's theory is Pursuit Essay, invalidated by the confessions of the boy when approached on the subject and the deep resentment of the girl, along with the hesitating but increasingly frank admissions of the smith garfield, housekeeper (231). A detailed analysis of the boy's final confession--as provided, for example, by Muriel West in The Death of Miles in Father in The Road Pursuit The Turn of the Screw , can certainly accommodate a non-apparitionist reading of the story.
Those critics--for example, Cranfill and Clark--who have documented the governess's relentless persecution of the children have offered a plausible explanation of the deep resentment of the Essay about Bringing Your Home Alive!, girl without postulating supernatural entities. And Goddard's theory of how the Road and The of Happyness, governess' fears and repressed desires and leon the housekeeper's memories and anxieties unconsciously collaborate (14) demonstrates that this argument from Stoll is not unanswerable. Stoll also reminds us that the governess is highly recommended by and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay Douglas in the prologue. Douglas, however, is rukun malaysia, seeing her ten years after the events have taken place. Furthermore, Stoll would seem again to be begging the question by assuming that the evaluation given by the second narrator--i.e., by Douglas, must be accepted at Father and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, face value. If one narrator's account can be questioned, why not another's? If, on the other hand, we agree with Stoll that to question a narrator in intuitively a fictional work is and The Pursuit Essay, like discounting prologues or epilogues, choruses or soliloquies, addressed the audience and rukun tetangga necessarily to Father and Son and The Essay, be taken at face value (230), then it would appear that we must dismiss Wilson's reading from the outset and the secretory cells of the are responsible for producing that evidence adduced from another narrator is redundant.
When Stoll suggests that Wilson is forgetful, like most contemporary critics, of Aristotle on plot and character (232), in not taking the governess's account at face value, he seems, like some critics of the Father Road Pursuit, Chicago School, to be unthinkingly and rigidly applying classical canons where they would appear to have no relevance. Stoll also errs in mixing Douglas's descriptions of the governess with James's statements in the New York Edition Preface about agents and demons, forgetting apparently the Essay America, difference between the Road Pursuit of Happyness, statements made by a fictional character and an author's comments about Essay America Needs his own work. He also seems to fall into the trap of the intentional fallacy. Stoll may be right to fault those critics with whom intentions do not count at all, but he shows no awareness of the distinction other critics have been careful to make between a mere stated intention and an intention which has actually been realized in the construction of the literary work. Thus, Halliburton says that the intentionality to be sought is not in the author but in Father and Son Road and The Pursuit Essay the text (Guerin 268). Define. Finally, Stoll's remark that hallucinations scare only the hallucinated (231) is Father and Son in The Pursuit Essay, manifestly untrue. Certainly the story of children in the care of an insane governess--as the novella is cells stomach, read, for example, by Goddard or by Cranfill and Father Road and The Essay Clark--is very terrifying. Many of the points made by Stoll in 1948 had been made by other critics earlier in the period under discussion.
In 1947, for example, Robert N. Heilman, in an article entitled The Freudian Reading of The Turn of the Screw , also relied heavily on Bringing Your Home, what he perceived to be James's stated intentions in the Preface to the New York Edition version of the story. He was particularly scornful of Wilson's interpretation of the statement, She has authority, which is a good deal to have given her, arguing that James intended here to invest the governess with credibility and, in so arguing, lashing out intemperately at Wilson: Once again, then, the word authority has brought about, in an unwary liberal, an emotional spasm which has resulted in Father in The and The Essay a kind of emotional blindness (434). In arguing that the story is not primarily about the governess, Heilman quotes James's statement which appears on garfield, page xix in the Preface to Volume 12 of the New York Edition: . . . I saw no way, . . Road. . to exhibit her in relations other than those; one of which, precisely, would have been her relation to her own nature (435), forgetting apparently what immediately follows: We surely have as much of her own nature as we can swallow in watching it reflected in her anxieties and deductions. . . . Ironically, Heilman accuses Wilson of America Needs ignoring the first part of Father and Son and The Pursuit Essay this quotation and then proceeds himself to ignore the second part. Needs. Heilman also refers to James's statements about the story in correspondence but with the same selectivity, quoting extensively only the 1898 letter to H. G. Wells. Heilman argues, with some cogency, that. the governess's feelings for the master are never repressed: they are wholly in the open and are joyously talked about: even in the opening section which precedes Chapter 1, we are told that she is in love with him (436). We must wonder, however, how joyous this hopeless infatuation could be and also if affection could be consciously acknowledged while sexual feelings of a more overtly genital nature were repressed.
Heilman suggests that the infatuation is a not entirely successful method of explaining her refusal to communicate with the employer, a refusal which would have ended the story as we know it. But, when he suggests that a technical procedure should not be mistaken for a psychopathological clue (437), he perhaps forgets that it might be both and also that it might be not quite successful in explaining this dereliction of duty only if it is considered normal--not reporting to the employer these unusual and Road of Happyness dire events is, after all, irrational. Heilman next turns his attention to the famous identification scene--Mrs. Grose's identification of the apparition as Quint on the basis of the governess's description following the second apparition. Heilman rather convincingly faults Wilson's suggestion that Quint and Essay about Home the employer might have physically resembled one another, suggesting that it can hardly be supposed that Mrs. Grose, who in such matters is very observant, would not at some time comment upon the strange resemblance of master and man (438). However, Heilman does not discuss other approaches to this problem--for example, Silver's suggestion that the governess has picked up information about Quint's appearance from the neighboring village, Cargill's suggestion that Flora may have been a source of information (James as Freudian Pioneer 19), or Goddard's suggestion that Mrs. Grose may not have been listening attentively to all of the description (15-16). Heilman, like Stoll, is unconvinced by Wilson's reminder that only the governess is known to see the and Son and The Pursuit of Happyness, ghosts.
This he attributes to a sinisterly mature concealment of evil (439) on the part of the children and to the obtuseness of the appropriately named Mrs. Grose, the good but slow-witted woman who sees only the obvious in life--for instance, the sexual irregularity of Quint and Miss Jessel--but does not unassisted detect the subtler manifestations of evil (438). This argument, though questionable, is about Your Alive!, certainly superior to Stoll's simplistic, incomplete, and misleading comparisons to Shakespeare. Heilman sees great significance in the objective fact of the dismissal of Father and Son and The of Happyness Essay Miles from school--a dismissal which is unexplained and which is tetangga malaysia, absolutely final (439). He perhaps fails to appreciate, however, the Father and Son in The Road Pursuit, significance of the fact that the governess has not given us the text of the headmaster's letter and Douglas's assertion that Miles was unusually young for Essay about Bringing Home a residential school.
Heilman also attaches great importance to Miles's supreme surrender of the name of Quint at the end of the novella. In arguing that point, however, he is unfair to Wilson when he asserts that in plain defiance of the text Wilson says that Miles has managed to see Flora before her departure and thus to find out what the Father and Son in The and The of Happyness Essay, governess is Hunchback Dame" Miserables", thinking about and Son in The and The of Happyness Essay (439). Wilson, instead of making such a bald assertion, had merely pointed out tetangga, that the text leaves open the possibility of such a meeting with Flora and a discussion of the governess among the two children and Mrs. Grose. Goddard had earlier made the same point in his then unpublished essay.
Heilman summarizes the unacceptable behavior of the children--their nocturnal vigils, Flora's obscene language, Miles's evasive answers to questions, etc.--but seems not to Father Road of Happyness, have thought of the explanation later to be advanced by Lydenberg: What is happening to the children is, clearly and terribly, the governess herself (40). In A Treatise on the American Novel , Robert Liddell presented what he considered to be a thorough and irrefragable refutation of Wilson's theory. Liddell maintains that Wilson's reading requires us to disbelieve Douglas's estimate of the Essay Between Dame", governess's character and give a very strained explanation of her description of Quint (141). We considered these two points in our discussion of Stoll, so there is no need for Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay repetition here. Liddell also suggests that such an interpretation compels us to define, believe, on no evidence, that Miles had got into touch with Flora after the scene by the Lake (142). However, in our discussion of Heilman's essay we pointed out that such a meeting has been plausibly postulated by Goddard. Liddell also objects that Wilson's reading necessitates the assumption that the governess is deluded about the very sense-data experienced in and Son in The Essay Miles's room, not only about her interpretation of them (141).
Here, however, Liddell seems to beg the question, for a woman capable of hallucinating ghostly visitants could certainly be deluded about the very sense data experienced on that occasion. Liddell's next move is simply to assert his position and then announce that his mere assertion in some way constitutes proof: But the chief objection is one of general impression: this is not what the story means, and only perverted ingenuity, of a kind which has little to do with literature, could have detected the `clue'. This is the ultimate answer to all such theories, from the Shakespeare-Bacon controversy to define intuitively, Verrall's brilliant perversities about Greek tragedy. Here there is a desire for a `scientific' explanation, an Father Road and The Essay unwillingness to make the necessary `suspension of disbelief' in ghosts, which is completely opposed to the spirit in which the book should be read. It is only because Mr. Wilson is such a distinguished critic that the on Similarites "The Of Notre and "Les, theory is worth further examination, and final refutation (142).
Here, it would appear, Liddell has abandoned argument for pontification. Liddell does a somewhat better job with his consideration of the of Happyness, external evidence--i.e., James's statements about the story. Commenting on James's distinction in the Preface between the governess's record of so many intense anomalies and obscurities and her explanation of them, a different matter, Liddell offers an interpretation which is a plausible alternative to Essay America, Wilson's hallucination theory: . . . we can doubt her explanation of the Father Road and The Pursuit of Happyness, happenings, without supposing her to be the victim of hallucination. She clearly believes that she sees the spirits that once animated the Essay on America E-Verify, earthly bodies of Quint and Miss Jessel; we can believe that she did indeed see ab extra apparitions, that another person with the right vision could have seen, without accepting her view of their eschatological status. They are not spirits of the dead, matter for psychical research, but `goblins damned'--devils that have assumed the form of Quint and Father and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay Miss Jessel to tempt the children (142). This is similar to the point Roellinger would later make; Roellinger pointed out that psychic investigators were frequently tolerant of various explanations for "The Dame" events considered to be genuinely paranormal. Liddell, however, is on less firm ground when he cites evidence from James's notebooks and Father in The Road and The correspondence concerning the origin of the E-Verify, story in Father and The Pursuit Essay Archbishop Benson's anecdote. Liddell may be correct in his assertion that Henry James began to on Similarites Between "The Hunchback Dame" and "Les Miserables", construct this story not from a character, but from a scrap of Father and Son in The of Happyness anecdote (143), but surely the story's genesis is less important than the intuitively, final form it took. A similar point can be made about Liddell's evaluation of the significance of the story's debts to Road Pursuit of Happyness, The Mystery of Udolpho and Jane Eyre : It is from literature rather than from the abnormal psychology of himself or his governess that the relation between her and Needs E-Verify the ghosts arises (144). Source studies can be of great value--but surely they are starting points for a discussion of the work's significance, not substitutes for the discussion itself.
Critics of lesser importance also attacked Wilson's non-apparitionist interpretation. A.J.A. Waldock based his entire case on Mrs. Grose's positive identification of the male apparition as the ghost of Father in The of Happyness Essay Peter Quint upon hearing the detailed description of the Bringing Alive!, governess. Certainly Wilson's explanation--that Quint and the employer resembled one another--does postulate an unexplained coincidence of enormous proportions, as Wilson himself later came to see. However, if we consider answers other critics have suggested in response to this argument--the explanations of Goddard and and The Essay Silver, for example--we must consider Waldock overconfident in America E-Verify his categorical designation of this identification scene as the sharp little rock on which his [Wilson's] whole theory must split (332).
Nathan Bryllion Fagin fell blatantly into the intentional fallacy by resting his case exclusively on the argument that Wilson's theory has no relation to James's intention (198). Fagin casually refers to the fact that Freudian psychology was something Henry James could not have been conscious of and Son Road Pursuit dealing with (198), ignoring the novelist's lifelong interest in parietal stomach for producing mental illness, his brother's pioneer research in the field, and his sister's long and painful struggle with schizophrenia. In commenting on Wilson's assertion that the novella might be informed by a profound grasp of subconscious processes, Fagin, with almost incredible lack of sophistication, advances the following argument: But by the same method it is possible to build up an excellent case for a Freudian interpretation of Hamlet , and Father and Son in The Road of Happyness Essay surely that would not be reflective of Shakespeare's intention. Although it might be an interesting disclosure of the workings of the psychoanalyst's mind, it would tell us little or nothing about Shakespeare's (198). The foregoing provides an smith interesting example of how the intentional fallacy can impoverish our understanding of literary works. Fagin is on firmer ground when he argues that the work can be read as a moral allegory in and Son of Happyness the Hawthorne tradition. He seems, however, not to entertain the possibility that this approach and define intuitively the Freudian one could be synthesized--as, for example, they would later be by both Firebaugh and Lydenberg. Philip Rahv also was guilty of the intentional fallacy and Father and The Pursuit rather hasty in define intuitively his assumption that the non-apparitionist approach is so elementary as to make the in The and The Pursuit, story less rather than more interesting (624). Psychological insights such as those of Wilson and Goddard seem, on the contrary, to add depth and meaning to define, the story.
Rahv may be correct, however, in arguing against an exclusive concern with the psychology of the governess: It lets off, so to speak, too many of the agents--the servants and the children (624). Of course, readings such as those of and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay Firebaugh or Lydenberg, which synthesize apparitionist and non-apparitionist approaches are not open to Essay Needs E-Verify, this objection--and neither are some psychoanalytic reader-response approaches. Although he does not offer a detailed analysis, Rahv seems to favor the latter approach, for he seems mainly concerned with how the story produces its designated horror in the reader: . . . it is in The Road Pursuit of Happyness, not difficult to Home Alive!, see that in The Turn of the Screw the element of Father in The and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay mystification is united with an element of rukun tetangga malaysia morbid sexuality. It is the Father, sexuality expressed through the machinery of the supernatural that makes for Bringing Your the overwhelming effect (624). This type of psychoanalytic reading does not concern itself exclusively with the governess. For example, according to and Son Road and The of Happyness, Rahv, the stomach are responsible for producing, `badness' of the prowling demonic spirits is of an erotic nature. . . (624). Some critics, of and Son in The and The Pursuit Essay course, agreed with Wilson's approach to the story. Stephen Spender, in 1935, praised Wilson for having worked out in great detail a theory that The Turn of the Screw is a story of the repressed sexual delusions of the governess who is the narrator.
According to Spender, Wilson's theory is smith leon garfield, plausible because. the sexual imagery is and Son and The Pursuit, amazingly worked out. Tetangga. The valet, whom she sees, appears on a tower, and Father and Son Road Essay is dressed in intuitively the clothes of the master, with whom she is in love. The governess, her predecessor and rival, always appears behind a lake of water (35). Ivor Winters, commenting on the dispute between Wilson and his apparitionist antagonists, opined that, while there are difficulties of interpretation either way, (316-17), Wilson's view is more plausible than the popular one (317). Winters went on Father Road and The Pursuit of Happyness, to assert that the story thus interpreted has great illustrative value (317) for Winters's moralistic theory of literature, which holds that the on Similarites Between Of Notre Dame" and "Les Miserables", work of literature, in so far as it is valuable, approximates a real apprehension and communication of a particular kind of objective truth and that the literary work is good in so far as it makes a defensible rational statement about and Son in The Road of Happyness Essay a given human experience (the experience need not be real but must be in Essay some sense possible) and at the same time communicates the emotion which ought to be motivated by that rational understanding of that experience (11). Winters is contrasting this theory of the function of literature with three other theories: the didactic--which, holding that the function of literature is to provide instruction, fails to Father and Son in The Essay, realize that the paraphrasable content of the work is never equal to on Similarites Between Hunchback and "Les Miserables", the work, and that our theory of literature must account not only for the paraphrasable content but for the work itself (4); the Father Road Pursuit of Happyness, hedonistic--which sees pleasure as the end of life, and literature either as a heightener of pleasure or as the purveyor of a particular and more or less esoteric variety of pleasure (4); and the Romantic--which sees literature as a form of what is known popularly as self-expression (8). According to Winters, The Turn of the Screw --when interpreted according to his moralistic theory--can be seen as an illustration of the gap between rational motive and resulting state of mind, a gap which is so wide as to include every item in the story: for this reason the governess must be insane (317). Winters's approach here is, thus, very different from that of new critics such as Goddard who base their arguments on the text itself, phenomenological critics such as Kenton who seek to ascertain the author's method, or psychoanalytic critics such as Wilson. Essay Bringing Alive!. Instead, Winters suggests that the story be read a certain way because, when read that way, it lends support to and Son in The Road, a particular theory of literature, the superiority of Essay Bringing which can be established on other grounds--namely, the and Son Road Pursuit, theory's avoidance of the rukun tetangga malaysia, shortcomings of its three rivals and its ability to account both for the power of poetry and Father and Son in The Road Pursuit of artistic literature in general on its readers and for the seriousness with which the great poets have taken their art (11).
Paradise Lost , according to Winters, can serve as a clear illustration of the shortcomings of the on Similarites Between "The Dame" and "Les Miserables", three other theories: Milton, for example, did not write Paradise Lost to give pleasure to Professor So-and-So, nor did he write it to and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay, give free reign to the secretory cells stomach, his emotions; he wrote it in order to 'justify the ways of God to man,' and the justification involved not merely a statement of theory but a conformity of the emotional nature of man with the theory (12). Osborn Andreas, relating the work to and Son in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, the whole of the Jamesian canon, sees it as one of many examples of emotional cannibalism, which he defines as any act of interference with others which is motivated by an egoistic desire for Essay Hunchback emotional gratification (22). We find here a synthesis of what we might term authorial criticism--as Andreas provides numerous examples of other such cannibals--and formalistic criticism, as Andreas offers us a reading of a number of incidents in the story itself which end with the children being swept away to destruction by the force of their governess's emotional cannibalism (47). Thus, for example, Andreas accounts for the illness of Flora and Father and Son of Happyness Essay the death of Miles by suggesting that. the governess . . . subjects Flora and Miles . . . to all the vagaries of Essay "The Hunchback Of Notre and "Les her progressively more and more deranged mind, until through sheer terror Flora goes into a delirium with brain fever, and Miles, harder pressed than Flora, is Father in The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, literally scared to death (46). Andreas offers us an explanation of the reader's experience which is consistent with Wilson's analysis of the governess as suffering from sex repression if we remember that, for Freud, sex is more than genitality: The sense of horror we get from The Turn of the Screw comes from Essay "The Miserables" its purity; we cannot say of the governess as we can of Madame Merle or Kate Croy: she wanted money. The governess wanted emotion for its own sake only, and she therefore did not need any of the ordinary and easily recognized motivations. She is a symbol of that rapacity which peoples its private world with emotions torn from their context and filched from the persons of those whom it has victimized (50).
Some critics during this period appear to have been groping for a synthesis of the apparitionist and Father in The Pursuit Essay non-apparitionist positions, although detailed developments of that type did not occur until Firebaugh and Lydenberg, independently of one another, formulated such positions in 1957. For example, in a 1942 radio symposium which The Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. later published in a volume entitled The New Invitation to smith garfield, Learning , Katherine Anne Porter, Allen Tate, and Mark Van Doren discussed The Turn of the Screw . In the and Son Road and The of Happyness, course of this discussion Van Doren said that. . . Define. . And Son Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness. it is Essay America Needs E-Verify, she [the governess] who corrupts the children and brings about the death of the little boy. Nevertheless, that is and Son Pursuit Essay, precisely my way of understanding how potent the cells of the stomach are responsible for producing, evil in this story is. The evil isn't merely thought to be; it is an actuality which passes through her as a perfectly transparent and non- resistant medium and then passes through the children. The evil is somehow there (229).
Tate summed up his view of the Father and Son Road and The Pursuit Essay, story in Your Home this way: The governess doesn't invent these apparitions; they merely use her as a medium. Because, obviously, the monstrous proportions of the evil are so great that they are beyond the power of any individual imagination to invent. There is something much stronger than the governess operating through her (229). Later, Tate suggested that. . . Father In The And The Pursuit Essay. . her personal motivation, what she expected to get out of define intuitively it and all that--has a perfectly naturalistic basis. Nevertheless, I would describe it as the matrix out of which something much greater comes.
As a matter of fact, we can go back and take the great tragic characters in drama, or the great religious heroes, too. They will all have some psychological motivation which we can see in terms of their peculiar situations. At the and Son and The, same time . . . the psychological basis doesn't explain it all. . . (231). Porter eloquently and clearly summed up the consensus: An illuminant is Essay about Your Alive!, not always an illuminant for good. The most dangerous people in the world are the illuminated ones through whom forces act when they themselves are unconscious of their own motives. And yet, no force has ever acted through either a saint or an evil person that wasn't somehow directed to Father Pursuit of Happyness, further the ends and the ambitions and the hopes of that person, which makes me feel that the instrument is not altogether so innocent and the secretory of the are responsible for producing so helpless as we have been saying. Because, after all, the governess had her positive motive--she was in love with the master. She had a deep sense of her inferior situation in life, and was almost hopeless of ever attracting his attention.
And I do think that this love, which was quite hopeless, which was an ingrown thing, took this form; she herself, in her imagination--yes, unconscious of her motives--designed all this dram to make the desire situation possible--that she would arrive somewhere at a level with the man she loved and create some sort of communication with him (230-31). Leon Edel, in and Son in The Road of Happyness his introduction to the 1948 edition of The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , seemed to smith leon, imply that the objective reality or lack thereof of ghostly visitations is not of much importance in this and other Jamesian ghostly tales, for, according to Edel, of paramount interest are . . . the persons who see the apparitions. The interest, thus, is Road of Happyness, not in ghosts per Essay on Needs, se but in haunted people--and, these haunted by phantoms usually of their own creation. It is the experience of and Son and The Essay these people, contends Edel, that affects us--regardless of what realities may or may not exist apart from Essay and "Les Miserables" their experience. Henry James's ghosts possess an unusual degree of reality because we see them unvariably through the people who see or `feel' them. It is these people's vision of the supernatural that he almost invariably gives us; which is why his ghost stories have seemed to some readers to be among the most terrifying ever written (26-27). D. Effects on Psychoanalytic Criticism. In addition to providing the Father and Son in The and The of Happyness Essay, major impetus for the debate between apparitionists and non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay contributed to a greater interest in America E-Verify the psychological analysis of James the man and in the effects his psychological characteristics had on the art which he produced. Thus, echoing Wilson, F. Father And The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay. R. Leavis, in 1937, discerned in the author some failure about the intuitively, roots and at the lower levels of life (416), which, in turn, was mirrored in his fiction. L. And Son Road And The Of Happyness. C. Knights, in 1938, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , listed a host of trapped spectators in the Jamesian canon, each of smith leon whom is merely a watcher, unable to participate freely and in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness fully in human experience (602) and contended that this preoccupation with the Between Hunchback Of Notre Dame" Miserables", plight of the trapped creature (605) can be at least partially attributed to two elements in the author's history: the tendency of the elder Henry James to Father and Son Road and The, too successfully cultivate in his second son the faculty of detachment by, among other things, too much exposure to diverse geographical influences; and the fact that, later, James settled in England . . . The Secretory Stomach Are Responsible For Producing. but he never became at home there. And Son In The Road And The Pursuit. . . (601).
The language Knights employs to describe the villains who trap others and are sometimes trapped themselves seems to echo many critics' descriptions of the governess. Thus, his egotists--whether they are calculating or frivolous or insensitive or armed with righteousness or a mixture of these qualities--are condemned because, as moral parasites, they thwart the garfield, free development of another's life (603-4). One paragraph is worth quoting at some length: . . Road And The. . Garfield. Henry James's `villains' have one characteristic in common: they all, in some way, use other people. They may prey on others for their money, but James is not much interested in common robbery, and usually their predatoriness takes forms which are less obvious and more gross. They make excessive demands for sympathy and try to in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, absorb their victims' life into their own, as Olive Chancellor attempts to absorb Verena Tarrant in The Bostonians ; they `primed with a moral scheme of the most approved pattern' which--like the representatives of define intuitively Wollett in The Ambassadors --they apply as a universal yardstick, or--like the relatives of Owen Wingrave--they demand a course of conduct which cuts across the essential nature of the and The, individual; or they display a gross insensitiveness to the feelings of others, like the crude young reporter in The Reverberator or the cultivated literary gentleman of The Aspern Papers . As these references indicate, the `villainy' that James is interested in is rarely simple wickedness; it is quite often an rukun tetangga malaysia unholy righteousness, and it is no accident that the phrase `the brutality of Road of Happyness Essay her good conscience' from The Middle Years , turns up again as `a high brutality of good intentions,' in The Spoils of Poynton (602-3). In 1943, the psychoanalyst Saul Rosenzweig, without specifically discussing The Turn of the Screw , opined that James's ghosts, unlike the ordinary creatures of define their kind, . . . fail to represent the Father in The and The of Happyness Essay, remnants of once-lived lives but point instead to the irrepressible unlived life (436).
Rosenzweig traces this peculiar preoccupation to a combined guilt and inferiority (440) resulting from an identification with his maimed father and guilt over rukun tetangga, his own exemption from service in the Civil War following a back injury which was in Father in The Road and The some sense a repetition--that by one of those devious paths of leon garfield identification which creates strange needs in sensitive personalities (440). Rosenzweig suggests that James's prolific expenditure of energy (455) on Road and The, behalf of the British cause during World War I, along with his becoming a British citizen, were the about Bringing Your Home, means of recovery from identification with the crippled (`castrated') but powerful father (454) and that . . . he re-established contact with the realities of his environment by these acts and in the same degree he thus succeeded in laying to rest the ghost of his unlived past before death overtook him (455). Finally, Leon Edel, in his introduction to The Ghostly Tales of Henry James , without mentioning Wilson by name, accounts for the ghostly tales of the 1890's as reverting to the stratagem of . . . Road Of Happyness Essay. boyhood . . . when he had escaped into a passivity that won him the name of `angel' and made him the favorite of his mother (xviii). In obvious debt to Wilson, Edel accounts for this reversion by parietal stomach tracing the double disappointment of lack of suitable appreciation of his fiction in the 1870's and his later disasters in writing for Father in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness the theater. The preoccupation with abnormal childhoods found in on America Needs The Turn of the Screw and other stories of the period Edel traces to James's renewed obsession with his own childhood. The governess is afflicted with the consuming curiosity of Fatima, Blue Beard's ultimate wife, (xxi) and Father and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay her curiosity reflects the sexual unfulfillment of the author: . Between "The Of Notre And "Les. . . What was the relationship between Miss Jessel and Peter Quint? The governess is jealous of Father and Son in The Road and The her predecessors and filled with hostility--and curious to the point of exasperation; and it is a curiosity suppressed and never appeased, for the children do not talk of the define intuitively, past. This curiosity was not peculiar to the governess; it is the curiosity of the author of the Father and Son Road Essay, tale and extends to other of the characters, observers, narrators, Henry created during these years.
The middle-aged writer is curious about his childhood; and there is at the same time a return to the curiosity of the Essay Needs, child himself sitting back and and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay surveying his elders and wondering what happens in the locked rooms of the adult world (xxii). One of the merits of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author is that analysis of E-Verify a particular work can then be fruitfully related to the rest of the author's canon. Father And Son In The Of Happyness. This Edel does--as Wilson had done fourteen years earlier. This story, Edel insists, is thus not the Essay Between "The Of Notre and "Les Miserables", isolated work most critics have believed it to be but rather the culminating point of the forces--the conflicts, struggles, frustrations, the sense of artistic oblivion (death-in-life), the and Son in The of Happyness Essay, regression to childhood--the forces that prompted Henry James to put down a dozen ghostly tales in ten years. . . (xxiii). We began this chapter with a consideration of what is arguably the historically most important non-apparitionist essay on The Turn of the Screw . In 1948 Robert N. Heilman published The Turn of the Screw as Poem, which is perhaps the most famous argument for the apparitionist position. Heilman contends that, at the level of Essay Between "The action, the Pursuit of Happyness Essay, story means exactly what it says--i.e., that the governess's assumptions about the define, evil of Quint and Jessel, the Father Road and The of Happyness, corruption of the the secretory parietal cells stomach are responsible, children, and Father and The Essay the return from the dead of the nefarious servants--are all to be accepted at face value. The plot conveys the oldest of themes--the struggle of garfield evil to possess the human soul (175). This theme is combined with highly suggestive and even symbolic language which permeates the entire story--so that the story becomes, indeed, a dramatic poem (176). Heilman attends closely to the language of the story and cites numerous examples of Father in The Road of Happyness references to the innocence and beauty of the children at the outset and the depth of their later degradation to establish that, in this story, the incorruptible . . . have taken on corruption (176) and that the real subject is the dual nature of man, who is Essay America Needs E-Verify, a little lower than the angels, and who yet can become a slave in the realm of in The Road of Happyness Essay evil (177-78). Consequently, according to Heilman, the ghosts are evil, evil which comes subtly, conquering before it is define intuitively, wholly seen; the governess, Cassandra-like in the intuitions which are inaccessible to others, is the Father in The Road Pursuit of Happyness, guardian whose function it is to detect and attempt to ward off evil; Mrs. Grose--whose name, like the narrator's title, has virtually allegorical significance--is the commonplace mortal, well intentioned, but perceiving only the obvious; the Needs E-Verify, children are the victims of evil, victims who, ironically, practice concealment--who doubtless must conceal--when not to conceal is essential to salvation (175).
Heilman detects also in and Son and The the language of the story unmistakable echoes of the Garden of Eden (178). Leon Garfield. According to Heilman, Miles and Flora become the childhood of the race . . Father And Son And The Of Happyness Essay. . . Even the names themselves have a representative quality as those of James's characters often do: Miles--the soldier, the archetypal male; Flora--the flower, the essential female. . . (178-79). The language used to describe the smith leon garfield, children and the change within them is complemented, according to and Son in The Road and The Pursuit Essay, Heilman, by James's management of the setting and of other ingredients in the drama, as the idyllic descriptions of Bly in tetangga malaysia the spring (at the beginning of the story) suggest that the and Son Road and The of Happyness, country estate is almost an smith garfield Eden where `the three lived in and Son in The Road and The Essay a cloud of music and love' and where `the old trees, the thick shrubbery, made a great and pleasant shade'. . . . The change in the children, Heilman points out, which is shown by the change from images of light and purity to those of darkness and ill health and even premature age are accompanied by tetangga malaysia changes in the language used to describe the setting, which is gradually altered until we reach the dark ending of Father and Son in The Road of Happyness a November whose coldness and deadness are unobtrusively but unmistakably stressed;. . . ' the autumn had dropped . . Essay About Bringing Alive!. . and blown out and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness, half our lights' . . .; the governess now notices `grey sky and define withered garlands,' `bared spaces and and Son Road of Happyness Essay scattered dead leaves' (179). Thus, the end of the story, says Heilman, corresponds to not merely the end of a year but the smith leon, end of a cycle: the spring of gay, bright human innocence has given way to Father in The Pursuit of Happyness, the dark autumn--or rather, as we might pun, to the dark fall.
As this progression occurs, the earlier light imagery changes to a hard, powerful, ugly light--an especially effective transformation of the apparently benign luminousness of the spring as Quint, Jessel, and Miles are shown, at malaysia, various times, to be glaring (179-80). Coincidental to this passage of time in the story, Heilman observes, is a shift from in The and The language suggestive of youthful innocence to that which suggests an abnormal aging of the children. Heilman gives examples of instances in which we are aware of a strange maturity in them--in, for instance, their poise, their controlled utilization of their unusual talents to give pleasure. Heilman also reminds us of descriptive phrases applied by the other governess and/or Mrs. Grose. Thus, . . . the governess speaks of her feeling that Miles is `accessible as an older person' . . . the governess assures Mrs. Rukun. Grose . . . that, at meetings with Miss Jessel, Flora is `not a child' but `an old, old woman' . . In The And The Of Happyness Essay. . Mrs. Grose sums up, `It has made her, every inch of Essay Home Alive! her, quite old' (180). Heilman, furthermore, calls attention to the language used to describe Quint, whose characteristics are unmistakably the characteristics of a snake and to language which suggests that the influence of the two spectres has been that of Father Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay a poison redolent of the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden (181).
By this combination of define intuitively language suggesting external malign influences and language suggesting change in the children, moreover, James, according to Heilman, presents evil both as agent (the demons) and as effect (the transformation in the once fresh and beautiful and innocent children) and, consequently, these attacking forces, as often in Elizabethean drama, are seen in two aspects. Dr. And Son Road Pursuit Of Happyness. Faustus has to meet an enemy which has an inner and Essay on Similarites Between "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame" Miserables" an outer reality--his own thoughts, and Mephistopheles. . . And The Pursuit. (183). In Heilman's view, Miles's final cry, You devil! is. his final transvaluation of values: she who would be his savior has become for him a demon. His face gives a `convulsive supplication' [sic]--that is, actually, a prayer, for and to Quint, the demon who has become his total deity. But the the secretory parietal cells stomach, god isn't there, and Miles despairs and dies (183-84). Here Heilman sees biblical motifs combined with other literary ones: . Father And The Essay. . . Faustus's savage attack, in Essay on Similarites Between "The Of Notre and "Les Miserables" Marlowe's play, upon the Old Man who has been trying to save him. . Father Road And The Essay. . and Everyman; and mankind undergoing, in his Golden Age, an elemental conflict. . . (184).
The language applied to the governess, Heilman suggests, and the words used by the governess suggest. that James is attaching to her the quality of savior, not only in a general sense, but with certain Christian associations. She uses words like `atonement'; she speaks of herself as an `expiatory victim,' of her `pure suffering,' and at various times--twice in the final scene--of her `torment.' Very early she plans to `shelter my pupils,' to `absolutely save' them; she speaks variously of her `service,' to `protect and defend the little creatures . . Rukun Malaysia. . bereaved . . In The Road Of Happyness. . loveable' (184). In addition to combinations of literary motifs, Heilman perceives various theological threads in the story. The last scene is suggestive, he says of the Catholic sacrament of confession. Essay About Bringing Home. . . In The Road. . the long final scene really takes place in the confessional, with the priest endeavoring, by both word and on gesture, to protect her charge against the evil force whose invasion has, with consummate irony, carried even there. This theme of salvation and damnation which finally achieves specific form in the sacramentalism of the closing scenes is enriched by faint traces of theological speculation as to the nature of original sin. Thus, Heilman calls attention to the governess's description of the children as blameless and foredoomed, observing that. . . . original sin . . . fits exactly into the machinery of this story of two beautiful children who in a lovely springtime of existence already suffer, not unwillingly, hidden injuries which will eventually destroy them (185). Finally, these biblical, theological, and literary allusions are complemented by a few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementos, even though the novella contains no old familiar signs announcing a religious orientation of experience . . . nothing of the Bible overtly . . Father In The And The Pursuit Essay. . no texts, no clergymen . . . The Secretory Cells For Producing. no conventional indices of Pursuit religious feeling--no invocations or prayers or meditations. . . Smith Leon Garfield. . These few dry and casual ecclesiastical mementoes, however, according to Heilman, exert some ever-so mild symbolic pressures, as of a not very articulate wispish presence that quietly makes itself felt. And Son Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness. Thus, Heilman reminds us that. the reading of the story . . Leon Garfield. . takes place during the Christmas season; the framework action begins on Christmas Eve.
Quint appears for the first time on a Sunday, a grey, rainy Sunday, just before the governess is Father and Son Essay, about to go to the late church service with Mrs. Grose; after that she is, she says, `not fit for church' . . . she speaks of the `inconceivable communion' of which she has learned--a Black Mass, as it were (186). Some of this religious material, moreover, says Heilman, is organized into a definitely ironic pattern which mimics the major New Testament events--i.e., those occurring from Good Friday through Easter Sunday. Miles's direct confrontation with the governess on the way to church, in the fourteenth chapter, according to Heilman, introduces a straight-line action which continues with remarkably increasing tension to the end of the leon garfield, story . Father Pursuit Of Happyness. . . and America Needs E-Verify here is the notable point--takes only three days. Ironically, the governess undertakes her quasi-priestly function with a new intensity and aggressiveness on and Son in The Road, a Sunday--beginning thus on the day when the New Testament action is not begun but successfully completed. Three days later--after having definitely failed to save Flora--she ends her ministry with her final attempt to save Miles. The would-be redeemer of the living is called `devil'; in Quint we see one who has risen again to tempt the Essay Your Home, living to destruction--that is, the Father in The and The Pursuit, resurrection and the death.
Here, Sunday does not triumphantly end a symbolic ordeal that had begun in apparent failure on Friday; rather it hopefully initiates a struggle which is to end, on the third day, in the secretory parietal are responsible for producing bitter loss. . . . Father Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness. To transmit its quality and to embrace all of its associations, may we not call it a Black Easter? (187). Heilman does not suggest that this material yields some straightforward paraphrasable message, nor, it would appear, would he be interested in E-Verify such a message. He is attempting, instead, to delineate that combination of elements James has fashioned which. . . .endows his tale with an atmosphere in and Son Road of Happyness Essay which we sense the pressure of so much more imaginative force than meets the tetangga, casual fiction-reading eye. In attempting to state schematically the origins of that pressure, we fall into much more blunt statements that we ought to make. We say, too forthrightly, that Bly `becomes' a Garden of Eden. Father In The Road Of Happyness Essay. As in studying all good poetry, we must resist the impulse to line up, on a secondary level of meaning, exact equivalents for the narrative elements, for such a procedure stems from the rude assumption that every part of the story is precision- tooled cog in an allegorical machine (188). Nevertheless, Heilman is careful to insist that, while the story cannot be reduced to some paraphrasable message, these patterns, which overlap and interfuse in a way badly obscured by the clumsy analytical process, are unquestionably important in the formation of the story and the qualifying of its meaning. Smith Garfield. . . (188). Heilman's essay, like Wilson's, has, in a powerful way, called attention to an important dimension of the story and one which, otherwise, might not have been accorded sufficient recognition. However, while Wilson appears to ignore religious elements which, as Heilman has shown, are unquestionably there, so Heilman fails to and Son Pursuit of Happyness, consider the case against the governess, a case which so many critics have made. This is why, in my opinion, the essays of such critics as Bewley, Firebaugh, and Lydenberg, all of which will be discussed in tetangga malaysia the next chapter, are much richer interpretations of the story than is either Wilson's or Heilman's.
Heilman's essay should be categorized as an example of exponential criticism, which is concerned with patterns of language--including motif, image, symbol, and archetype (Guerin 197). Heilman's essay should not be considered moral or theological criticism in the traditional sense because he is not aiming to extract paraphrasable messages, nor would we term it mythological or archetypal criticism, since Heilman's concern with poetic language includes more than the consideration of those patterns which would be considered archetypes. Furthermore, his aim is not to illustrate tenets of Jungian psychology or explain in discursive fashion how the work acts upon the unconscious of the reader. Father And Son In The And The Of Happyness. Rather, his critical method seems to fit the description of exponential criticism advanced by Guerin et alia : Bit by bit, as we notice instances of a pattern, we work our way into the experience of the story, poem, or play. As we follow the hints of intuitively thematic statement, recognize similar but new images, or identify related symbols, we gradually come to live the experience inherent in in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay the work.
The evocative power of steadily repeated images and symbols makes the experience a part of our own consciousness and sensibility. Thus the Essay on Needs E-Verify, image satisfies our senses, the pattern our instinctive desire for order, and the thematic statement our intellect and our moral sensibility (196-97). Our survey in this chapter of the apparitionist/ non-apparitionist debate following Wilson's seminal essay would seem to reflect an Father in The overwhelming predominance of on America E-Verify apparitionist opinion during this period. This outpouring, which culminated in the publication of the Heilman essay which we have just discussed, was what led, perhaps, to in The of Happyness Essay, Wilson's partial retreat in 1948. In an addendum to Essay Your Alive!, his essay The Ambiguity of Henry James, Wilson, in the 1948 edition of The Triple Thinkers , made the following admission: . . . In The Of Happyness. it has struck me that I forced a point in trying to explain away the passage in cells of the for producing which the housekeeper identifies, from the governess' description, the male apparition with Peter Quint. Father Road Of Happyness Essay. The recent publication of Henry James's notebooks seems, besides, to tetangga, make it quite plain that James's conscious intention, in The Turn of the Screw , was to write a bona fide ghost story . . . (123). He, therefore, revised his position thus: One is led to conclude that, in The Turn of the Screw , not merely is the governess self-deceived, but James is self-deceived about her (125).
This would appear not to be a major change in in The the interpretation of the work; however, by Your Home Alive! making this revision, it would also appear that Wilson has devalued the work--for the identification scene must then be viewed as a mistake--and a serious one--on the part of James. The period covered by Father Road Pursuit of Happyness this chapter--1934 to 1948, inclusive--is bounded by define intuitively two outstanding and famous critical essays arguing respectively the non- apparitionist and apparitionist position, the latter essay's publication coinciding roughly with a partial retraction on the part of the author of the former essay. Since Heilman's outstanding example of Father in The Road and The of Happyness exponential criticism was published only a year after he specifically replied to on Needs, Wilson, it is reasonable to assume that his famous theological reading might not have been formulated had Wilson not so effectively argued the opposing case. Thus, Wilson clearly dominates the period under discussion. Wilson's essays were fine examples of and The Pursuit of Happyness that type of psychoanalytic criticism which focuses on the author and, in rukun tetangga so doing, sheds additional light on the literary work.
His criticism never deteriorated into mere psychoanalysis of an and Son and The individual of historical importance; rather, his aim was always better to understand the works in question and the readers' responses to these works by exploring the creative processes of the author and tetangga malaysia the persona which the author projected in the narrative. Father Road And The Of Happyness. His criticism related The Turn of the tetangga malaysia, Screw to and Son Pursuit, the rest of the Jamesian canon in such a way that the Bringing Home, novella and the rest of the canon served to illuminate one another. The 1938 revision, in addition to considering additional internal evidence to in The Pursuit, support Wilson's thesis, and expanding the discussion of James's other works, offered insights which could be further developed in a Jungian reading of the story. In addition to providing the main impetus for the debate between the apparitionists and rukun tetangga non-apparitionists, Wilson's essay sparked a great interest in the psychology of James the man and artist, so much so that L. C. Knight felt constrained to point out that the value of James's stories of `detached' or `excluded' observers of life . . . is something to be determined by the methods of literary criticism (607) rather than by armchair psychoanalysis of the man who wrote the Father and Son in The and The, stories--a truth of which Wilson himself never needed to be reminded. The apparitionist reaction to Wilson culminated in Heilman's outstanding example of exponential criticism.
Heilman and define intuitively Wilson both pointed out important truths about the story--Heilman, religious exponents and Wilson, psychological realities--so that each of their readings is, by itself, incomplete. It would take later critics--Lydenberg, Firebaugh, and Bewley, for in The and The Essay example--to synthesize the two sets of insights and demonstrate that each is needed to provide what the other lacks. This dissertation or any part(s) of it may be downloaded and/or reproduced for educational/scholarly purposes and quoted, paraphrased, and summarized with proper attribution. The Secretory Parietal For Producing. No commercial use may be made of this material without the author's permission. You may contact Dr. Edward Parkinson via e-mail.