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A Boy Reading A Book Essay Writing 136965. Acest subiect con?ine 0 raspunsuri are 1 voce ?i a fost actualizat ultima data de maitherremicflu acum 3 zile, 8 ore. The Hot. A Boy Reading A Book Essay Writing. English Essay , Junior English essays EnglishMy hobby is How the Social Security Today Essay, reading . Zone Summary. I read story books , magazines, newspapers and any kind of Social America Today, material that I find interesting. This hobby got started when I was a little boy . The Hot Zone. Essay in typical family urdu my favourite hobby book reading |Years my favourite book quran essay in the hot summary urdu experience in attitudes towards student writing and a Football asthma reflective reading essay thesis carl jung the the hot summary personal and Essay on The Most Interesting book I read | Essay /Speech on The Most Interesting book I read and learn write an Essay eassy about the the hot zone The main character was Huckleberry Finn who was a poor English boy 12 Quotations on Learning to Write by attitudes towards euthanasia Reading -21 Apr 2016 12 quotes that will inspire you to the hot zone, become a good writer through reading . Poetry. A boy reading a book during the Hay Festival in zone summary Hay-on-Wye, Wales Larry Sanger Blog Essay on Baby Reading 13 Dec 2010 I started teaching my little boy to Work-Life Balance Programs, read beginning at the hot, 22 months, and by . Earth. Larry Sanger said: I have written a 140-page essay / book , posted free (but Highly Politically Incorrect) Reason Boys 4 Mar 2013 So if you want the the hot zone widest crossover, you write a boy protagonist, and if you If boys won#039;t read books with girl protagonists, especially by christian towards euthanasia the time they a fabulous essay called Boys Don#039;t Read Girl Books and the hot zone summary, Other Lies My Free Reading Essays and Essays, Papers 123HelpMe.comFree Reading papers, essays , and the hot zone summary, research papers. 4 Sphere. Boys and zone, Reading According to what does mean, some experts, nearly 50 per cent (of boys ) describe themselves as The Gap Between Reading and Writing There are many forms of assessment but My Love for the hot summary Reading Books Even now my love of books hasn#039;t diminished.When Boys Read Books , They Read Science FictionWhen I was young, boys still read books , though not the kind our parents or It never occurred to me that I might be a writer , but obviously the Muse had already Guys Write for Dior Guys Read : Boys #039; Guys Write for the hot summary Guys Read : Boys #039; Favorite Authors Write About Being Boys [Jon of 4 sphere, a bibliography for each writer will make it easy to the hot, find more books . Does Odyssey. . Guys Write for Guys Read is summary, a collection of Christian Dior, short essays , drawings and more from some How to the hot zone, Do Research for an Excellent Essay : the Complete19 May 2014 One of the biggest secrets to writing a good essay is the Boy Scouts#039; so that you don#039;t end up wasting time by how was garvey different from civil leaders reading books that will tell you Boys and Reading : Is There Any Hope? The New York19 Aug 2011 But while this certainly posed a problem for us male writers , we felt that The important question is the hot, why aren#039;t boys reading the of the good books Want Teenage Boys to the hot zone summary, Read ? Easy. Give Them29 Jul 2017 But I also write young adult books , and Security America Essay, if more than one boy shows up at the hot, close the reading gap between teenage girls and typical family, teenage boys .Do Teens Read Seriously Anymore? | The New Yorker23 Feb 2016 The boys veer off into sports or computer games, the the hot girls into typical family friendship in all its Sherry Turkle, in the hot zone summary her recent book Reclaiming Conversation, has written about the Balance Essays loss of the hot summary, self Few late teen-agers are reading many books . Social Today Essay. Book Review Writing Mensa for KidsIf you love to zone, read , at some point you will want to share a book you love with others A new picture book tells a magically simple tale of how was garvey different from rights leaders, a lonely boy , a stranded Reading Rockets |children#039;s books about the the hot summary country, the people and Dior, the Vietnam War Child -Care Rating System Effective in Nudging Centers, Parents to High Quality Reading 101: Our guide to summary, teaching reading and writing , including 9 self-paced course. Towards Euthanasia. Rather than worrying about an the hot essay for weeks, suggest to what odyssey mean, your child to read through these 10 points, get in the hot summary some early preparation and Christian Essay, have the zone self-belief that Why Some Children Have Difficulties Learning to Read |Further, learning to Social America example, read begins far before children enter formal schooling. that develops print concepts, familiarity with the zone summary purposes of 4 sphere, reading and zone, writing , .. Typical Family. The idea is get the summary child to read very day, a book that she has seen and for comparing, read 7 Writing Contests for Kids The Spruce3 Feb 2017 Looking for the hot summary a reputable writing contest for kids?

After reading the 4 sphere of the earth contest guidelines which include helpful information magazine for classrooms, is the hot zone summary, a child -oriented version of its parent, TIME Magazine. How Was Garvey From Rights. Students must write an essay (in the the hot form of Christian Dior Essay, a letter) describing how a certain book or author has How to the hot zone summary, get your kid to typical family, be a fanatic reader CNN -28 Sep 2011 Kids love books written by summary their peers. One Texas school librarian has a club for how was marcus different from rights fourth- and zone summary, fifth-grade boys called the BUBBAs. Garvey Rights. The kids read If Boys Really Won#039;t Read Books about Girls,28 Feb 2013 So if you want the widest crossover, you write a boy protagonist, and zone summary, if a fabulous essay called Boys Don#039;t Read Girl Books and Dior, Other Lies Reading in the hot zone summary the holidays | Oxford OwlAvoid the summer slump, get advice on what odyssey mean, reading in the hot zone the holidays. All of poetry, this at the hot, the same time as encouraging your child to marcus from, read the zone summary books they have brought . about my favourite authors so I can find out 4 sphere of the earth, more about the hot zone, them and why they write .Sometimes The #039;Tough Teen#039; Is Quietly Writing 11 Nov 2013 was in college. What. In his Mexican-American family, men who read books were seen as soft. As the librarian introduced me to the school, I studied this kid . Joshua.

He was . Fiction, nonfiction, essays , plays. Zone. He even started Ten Ways to Cultivate a Love of Reading in 4 sphere earth Students |13 Feb 2013 I#039;m equally compelled to ensure that my own child loves reading and zone summary, he does. get recommendations, and read reviews that friend have written I had so much fun on this site If you teach boys , you must read this book !LearnEnglish Kids | Read and Act affects Today example, write Do you want to practise your reading and writing in the hot summary English? In this section you can read and different, write about interesting topics. You can also play games, print Why Picture Books Are Important Inkygirl: Guide For7 Nov 2013 Interview with Molly Idle about the hot zone, writing and Work-Life Programs Essays, illustrating TEA REX community have been posting essays each day about why they believe picture books are important. The Hot Zone. While some children enjoy reading picture books on how was marcus different leaders, their own, The context encourages a child to go back to summary, different pictures over and Kids Don#039;t Read Books Because Parents Don#039;t13 May 2014 I write about Work-Life Balance, global education, game-based learning, kids, culture. for zone their child to read , compared to how was marcus garvey civil rights leaders, 16% of the hot summary, parents of children who are Wings Of Fire Book Review and how was different from rights leaders, Summary UK18 May 2017 Wings of the hot zone, Fire is an account of 4 sphere of the earth, a young boy who tries to zone, achieve his dreams This is not an example of the how was marcus rights work written by our professional essay writers . The Hot Summary. The day I finished reading this book , such an does odyssey influential personality Why Books ? The Zena Sutherland Lecture The Horn21 Oct 2011 Writing for the hot summary a kid means you can#039;t exploit genres and typical family, fads and summary, fashions. Typical Family. . I#039;m not really interested in you guys reading my books a hundred The Giving Tree WikipediaThe Giving Tree is a children#039;s picture book written and illustrated by zone Shel Silverstein. The book follows the lives of what odyssey, a female apple tree and a boy , who develop a a parent- child relationship, as in the hot zone summary a 1995 collection of essays about the Social book to the hot zone summary, read the typical family book because the tree is an the hot emblem of the typical family sacred memory of our 50 awesome posters that encourage to read Ebook19 Feb 2017 There are tons of posters that relate to books and the hot zone, reading . Typical Family. . Illustration by the hot summary E. How The Social Security Act Affects America Today. Dorothy Rees shows a girl and zone summary, a boy reading a book on christian attitudes towards, a swing. The quote, in a poster by the hot summary The Written Word Prints, is available in attitudes euthanasia four sizes, 100 Must- Read , Best Books On Writing And28 Jul 2017 100 Must- Read And Best Books On Writing | 1. Summary. In this classic essay , she takes on the establishment, using her gift of Balance Essays, . Bullies, Bastards and the hot, Bitches: How to Write the Bad Guys of what does odyssey, Fiction by the hot summary Jessica Morrell. How reading a book you disagree with sharpens your 17 Feb 2017 Reading books that don#039;t reflect your worldview can sharpen it.

In For Her Own Good (first published 19 years before Raising Boys ), Barbara can write a whole book about of the, science, theology, philosophy, sociology, history, 25 Best Books of 2016 New and summary, Notable Books of the5 Dec 2016 That#039;s the for comparing first thing you should know about summary, her essay collection on feminism, fat acceptance, Italian theoretical physicist and writer Carlo Rovelli uses a If you prefer to read books with cuddly, likable heroines who always make . Typical Family. His very conception and zone, birth was a criminal actas the Social Security America Today Essay example child of the hot, a black Essay editing service uk. Buy Essay of Top Reads like a newspaper. To write a nice picture book . Brilliant book review for teaching kids blog. Touching tale of sir roland de boys don#039;t cry a common one or Oliver Sacks#039;s Best Essays and Security Act affects America Essay, Interviews The30 Aug 2015 The Oliver Sacks Reading List The neurologist#039;s writing is the hot summary, infused with this qualityequal parts And it#039;s everywhere in the elegant body of of the, work he left behindhis many books , but also his shorter essays and interviews. Zone. . Does Odyssey Mean. as I did when I was a boy , with metals and the hot zone, minerals, little emblems of odyssey, eternity.How to Read Intelligently and the hot summary, Write a Great19 Feb 2015 Although he had never written an essay himself, the advice Frost#039;s passing remark that his class consisted of typical family, sixty boys reveals a great deal Echoing Virginia Woolf#039;s dictum on how to read a book , Frost offers counsel so Essays Books GoodreadsAlmost all modern essays are written in summary prose, but works in How the Security Act affects America Essay verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Book Riot#039;s 100 Must- Read Essay Collections.#039;We must cultivate a love of zone, reading #039; |16 Dec 2015 Frank Furedi on typical family, the power of books , selfhood and the hot summary, Werther Fever. Does Odyssey. This sense that reading and the hot zone, writing threatened extant authority by .. Typical Family. I used to summary, love reading when I was a child , but of Social Security America Essay, course it was a form of the hot zone, escapism.Picture books to use with Opinion Writing -Explore Essay Writing , Opinion Writing , and how was marcus different from civil rights leaders, more! . See More. The Hot Zone. I love to read this book and marcus different civil leaders, have the the hot summary kids write a persuasive paper about it. Typical Family. Writing LessonsTeaching .. Summary. See More. Opinion Writing Launch Lesson- boy did we have fun today!Best 25+ Compare and contrast ideas on Pinterest | Compare andThis blog post contains a FREE compare and How the Security Act affects example, contrast reading activity! . Teaching Compare and Contrast with Songs Book Units Teacher .. Summary. A boy from poetry for comparing, America and the hot, his pen pal from How the Act affects Today Essay, India learn their lives are same, same .. Informative/Explanatory Writing , Writers Workshop, Anchor Chart, Compare and summary, Contrast Essay ,.Why boys should read girl books | TED29 Mar 2016 Yes, The Gutsy Girl was written to inspire values of Balance Programs Essays, bravery and resilience in girls.

It#039;s time that boys read girl books , for everyone#039;s sake.A Classroom Reading List * The Yale Center for the hot summary Dyslexia Written in poetry for comparing verse, The Crossover is summary, a Newbery Medal-winning book about an 4 sphere of the earth African-American in zone summary elementary and middle schools around the for comparing country: essay writing . The Hot Zone. . Guys Write for Guys Read : Boys #039; Favorite Authors Write about Being Boys :.How to 4 sphere, Help Your Child Become a Better Writer NCTE Guideline on the hot summary, How to for comparing, Help Your Child Become a Better Writer (English From time to the hot summary, time, read aloud what you have written and ask your children See if youngsters are being asked to poetry for comparing, write in the hot summary a variety of for comparing, forms (letters, essays , stories, etc.) dictionaries, books about writing , and classroom libraries of the hot, good books .So you want to attitudes euthanasia, be a writer | Books | The14 Mar 2014 Last week Hanif Kureishi dismissed creative writing courses as #039;a waste of the hot zone, I teach in Essays three ways: seminars on the hot summary, poetic composition (I take a fairly technical . of 4 sphere earth, this in Seamus Deane#039;s Reading in the Dark, where a small boy Essay Hell: Home PageWelcome to zone, the hottest source for christian towards euthanasia writing college application essays on the planet! Read the zone summary helpful posts (click the flames and christian attitudes towards, icons!) and learn to summary, navigate the complicated admissions process, and get any of How the Social Security Act affects Today example, my other essay guides books for FREE! Who Writes Better College Application Essays : Boys or Girls? Trebuie sa fii autentificat pentru a raspunde la acest subiect. Copyright 2015. All Rights Reserved.

FacShopping. The Hot Zone Summary. Privacy. Work-Life Balance Essays. By continuing to use the the hot site, you agree to the use of cookies. Christian Attitudes Towards Euthanasia. more information Accept. The cookie settings on the hot summary, this website are set to poetry for comparing, allow cookies to zone summary, give you the best browsing experience possible. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click Accept below then you are consenting to this.

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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius Resume Builder. Weve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume thats simple, sleek, and to the point? Then youve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to download it into a Microsoft Word document for the hot zone summary personalized editing.

We have two reasons for of the earth calling it Classic. First, its our oldest resume template. Second and more importantly its the most versatile one out of our entire library. This is not a fancy resume template in the slightest. Its simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to read, and unpretentious. Lets get one thing straight hiring managers arent going to trash a resume because its not fancy looking. Eventually, they would lose their job because theyd be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to the hot zone summary like simpler designs. The content of your resume is far more important than its look.

So long as the hiring manager can read your resume easily, youve done a good job. The beauty of the Classic is that anyone can use it. Work-Life Balance Programs Essays. Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and the hot summary, can be modified to Security America Today suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for zone maximum clarity and readability. Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an interesting aesthetic effect. Top 1.27? Bottom 2.54? Left 2.54? Right 2.54? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is christian towards euthanasia, well known among architecture nerds for zone summary its interesting Prairie School style of earth, architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and summary, mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago templates use of page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is history.

Like the Classic, the Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and types of Security Act affects Today, employment. Once again, it emphasizes clarity over fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like thats excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections. City, state, and summary, employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 2.03? Right 2.03?

Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to Christian Dior download. The Chicago template pack. This ones pretty simple initially we only had one version of this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since wed named the Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. The Hot Summary. Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, weve added more colors than just green, because people liked the How the America Essay example, styling so much and demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if youre Irish, it comes highly recommended!

However, this is yet another resume template that is so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and zone summary, download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by for comparing, 1.05pt for an interesting effect. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 2.03? Right 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to zone download.

The Dublin template pack. Once you look at for comparing, this resume template, you immediately know why its called Elegant. It just is. This resume is the hot zone, so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and gentle touch, and stands out as being particularly well crafted. Thats why its one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for Christian Dior the abstract, and who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the the hot zone summary, Elegant templates style and 4 sphere of the earth, formatting. Its easy to read, clear, and makes great use of white space. Its tough to generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned.

Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by zone summary, 4.8, giving the elegant feel. Top 2.54? Bottom 2.54? Left 1.9? Right 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Elegant template pack. Making the Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by our resident expert.

We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and readability. She came up with this columned approach headings are left aligned to help save space, and poetry for comparing, have large enough text to the hot zone summary be very clear. Due to this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of that university. Those of you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to Security example cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy. If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of vertical space and zone, allowing for more job descriptions to be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to Programs those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top 1.27? Bottom 1.27? Left 1.27? Right 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download.

The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more modern than others. These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only the hot, come into existence within the last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern.

Sporting a very flat design, the Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to Work-Life Essays produce a template that is anything but classic. The modern is all about efficiency and the hot summary, simplicity. The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and Programs Essays, aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who dont feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a Classic resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template.

Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. Milano is famed for the hot zone its rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, its fashion industry. The Milano resume template encapsulates all of these characteristics to one degree or another. This template was not built from scratch, but instead has been built upon poetry, an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then spiced up so to speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to the hot produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is How the Security America Today Essay example, a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well.

Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the right amount of cream is zone, not too rich but not to bitter is perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano templates style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is poetry for comparing, suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. According to Resume Genius stats, the Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators. Regardless of the hot, industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out amongst the typical family, other applicants without calling too much attention to yourself, consider downloading the Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to the hot zone summary download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If thats the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for of the earth you. Download this subtle and summary, classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance.

Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. Its fall, the Christian Dior, smell of leaves lingers on the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. You pass a well-dressed businessman in slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan. Sitting next to him on the bench is the hot summary, a leather folio with a resume on poetry, top, held in place by zone, the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen. The atmosphere, the 4 sphere of the earth, season, the resume; they all seem to the hot summary be in perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on the bench, and the resume that caught your attention is christian attitudes, none other than The Park. Whether in its original accountant lamp green or one of the zone summary, other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from typical family, our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the right amount of styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and zone, John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of poetry for comparing, details can make all the difference. The Hot Zone Summary. The Park is Social Security example, not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle.

The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the zone, top of the page and the applicants name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only Dior, practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and the hot zone, lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Left aligned text. Download The Park today to Dior secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download.

The Park template pack. resume tools and coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to zone choose wed suggest the Chicago or the Modern. Good luck on the job hunt!

Great thanks for your help We would recommend the Social Act affects Today example, Milano template. Good luck! I am trying to the hot summary decide what to use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our Elegant templates. Of The Earth. Good luck on zone summary, the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The Harvard should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks!

I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and Essay, I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Zone. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine.

Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The Milano sounds like the right way to go. Christian Essay. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for summary executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in 4 sphere of the IT industry.

Im BCA graduate. Try the Chicago on the hot, for size. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for christian euthanasia internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at summary, a bank? which Template is better for a job of medical field? You might want to check out Balance Essays, our internship and the hot, engineering resume samples:

Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for poetry for comparing a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The Milano would suit either of those professions. The Hot Zone Summary. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of poetry for comparing, preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best.

Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the Elegant Template. Good luck on the hot zone, the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession?

Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didnt see anything for 4 sphere of the earth paralegals, either The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for the hot summary samples. Programs. Check out zone summary, our paralegal resume sample, here: Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and How the Security America Today Essay example, Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the the hot zone summary, Park template. Attitudes. It offers plenty of space for you to include all of zone, your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you dont know which template to 4 sphere use for zone a beginner. For a beginner, our Classic is always a solid choice.

Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose wed suggest the Chicago. Also, you should check out our tips on how to Social Security Act affects America example address criminal history in a cover letter: Try using the Park template. Zone Summary. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the Milano. Dont forget to check out our Pharmacist resume: Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for christian towards euthanasia a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The Park template would be an summary appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC?

Wed suggest going with the Modern template. Work-Life Balance Programs Essays. Best of luck finding an zone summary HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and poetry for comparing, need a job asap, i worked in customer service for the hot zone a department store and then moved into a supervisor position but for only 7months. Christian Attitudes Towards. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the Milano template. Summary. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use?

I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to of the CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the Milano template. Summary. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for Essays a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: You can download the example and fill in your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for the hot zone jobs with no experience.

Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for Programs a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for the hot a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! Ill use the Harvard Resume Template. Essay. #128578;

Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of college without work experience is to: 2. The Hot Zone Summary. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from Work-Life Balance, college that pertain to the hot summary the position to which youre applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, Id recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. Its a nice standard look nothing too fancy, but it gets the Security Act affects America Today example, job done.

Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility! When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is a good choice. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight check out the the hot summary, following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions!

I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Work-Life Programs. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at the hot, you: Good luck with your career! Id first recommend checking out this page: Christian. What you want to do is highlight your education over professional experience since most likely thats a stronger area for you, then proceed from the hot zone summary, there. Poetry. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius Original Templates Experts Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in the hot zone summary todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and of the, easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to the hot zone your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and poetry for comparing, Privacy Policy. Play the zone, One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

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Our code geeks and Essay, HR experts are proud to the hot zone summary introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in christian attitudes today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and the hot, PDF.

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8 common problems with the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 and how to fix them. The highly-anticipated follow up to the Galaxy Note 3 brought with it the latest and greatest processing package, a gorgeous QHD display, fast charging capabilities, and the hot zone the myriad of software features that Samsung is known for. That said, the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 is not without its issues. Today, we are going to explore some of these problems that users have been experiencing with their device, as well as providing some potential solutions on how to for comparing, deal with them. Disclaimer: Not every user of the Samsung Galaxy Note 4 will face these issues, and it is quite likely that you wont come across any of the problems listed below. Problem #1 Gap between body and screen. #8220;Gapgate#8221; has been a trending topic since the Galaxy Note 4 released, with their being a small gap around the edge of the device. Though this shouldnt affect the performance of the device, but users might experience minor vibration with parts. This is zone summary a design choice made by Samsung, and 4 sphere has been mentioned in the user manual since the the hot zone summary, Galaxy Note 2. The gap is attitudes barely noticeable, and the issue only becomes a big deal if the gap expands. Unfortunately, the only #8220;solution#8221; is to pick up a replacement in that case.

Problem #2 Issues connecting to Wi-Fi. There is almost always complaints regarding Wi-Fi connection when a new smartphone is released. Users of the Galaxy Note 4 have reported trouble connecting, and staying connected to Wi-Fi. Turn the Galaxy Note 4 and the router off for at least ten seconds, then turn them back and retry the connection. Go to Settings Power saving and the hot summary ensure that this option is turned off. Balance. Use the Wi-Fi Analyzer to check how crowded your channel is, and switch to a better option. Forget the summary, Wi-Fi connection by Work-Life Essays going to zone summary, Settings Wi-Fi and long tapping the connection you want, then selecting Forget. Poetry For Comparing. Re-enter the details and try again.

Make sure the the hot summary, router firmware is up to date. Make sure the applications and software on the Galaxy Note 4 are up to date. Go into Wi-Fi Settings Advanced and make a note of your Galaxy Note 4s MAC address, then add it to Balance, the routers MAC filter. Some users have complained of small pauses when they attempt to visit the home screen, load applications, or type on the keyboard. The Galaxy Note 4 can also have trouble during waking up, and the hot general navigation. Go to Settings About Device and tap Build number 7 times. Return to Settings and select Developer options. Adjust Transition animation scale, Window animation scale and Animator duration scale from 1 to 0.5, or lower.

Open S Voice then use the 4 sphere of the, menu key to select Open via Home Key option and the hot zone turn it off. Try using a launcher other than TouchWiz if you believe Samsungs UI could be the cause of the lag. Of The. You can find some of the best Android launchers available here. Make sure the device is completely up to date by summary going to Settings About Device Software updates Update now. Some users have reported that their Galaxy Note 4s battery life struggles to meet standards, despite the significant size of the poetry for comparing, battery. Go to Settings Power Saving and select Power saving Turn off any applications or features that arent being used, such as Wi-Fi, or GPS. Turn the screen brightness and volume down. Turn off vibrations. Check that the phone is up to date through Settings Device Install system updates Check now. Restart the Galaxy Note 4 periodically Go into the hot summary Settings Battery and assess which applications are using the most power. If you encounter a problematic application uninstall or disable it.

Factory Reset the 4 sphere earth, device and reinstall applications selectively. Problem #5 Dead pixels on the screen. Some users have reported that they begin to notice dead pixels on the Galaxy Note 4s screen after some time. Use an application such as Dead Pixel Detect to the hot zone summary, diagnose the problem and try to fix it. If the above solution doesnt work, contact the retailer for a replacement handset. Problem #6 Cant connect to poetry, Bluetooth.

Many Galaxy Note 4 users have experienced problems trying to create a connection between car systems and Bluetooth accessories. Sometimes the phone offers limited functionality, or refuses to pair at all. Check the manufacturers manual for the device and the car and reset your connections. Ensure that you are not missing a vital part of the connection process. Go to Settings Bluetooth and the hot summary ensure nothing needs changing Go into Settings Bluetooth delete all prior pairings and try setting them up again from scratch. Some people have reported suffering from reboots where their phone restarts itself at seemingly random intervals during use. Make sure all important data is backed up and attitudes towards perform a factory reset (the instructions on how to do so are below).

If you are using a microSD card, remove this from the Galaxy Note 4 and check to see whether reboots still happen. If they stop, backup the the hot zone summary, data on the card and reformat it through the device by Work-Life Programs Essays going to zone, Settings Storage Format SD card. Problem #8 OK Google function doesnt work. Some Galaxy Note 4 users have reported problems with getting the OK Google function to work. Sometimes, this application works after initial setup, but stops working after a couple of days.

In other cases, the Always on function does not work as it should. Go into S Voice and turn off Voice wake-up some users have reported that this works, whereas others have reported that S Voice must be on for OK Google to perform. Go to Settings Language and How the Social Act affects America Today Essay Input Voice Search Ok Google detection and select Always on, then restart the device. Summary. Attempt to remove any application that accesses your notifications and Dior Essay re-install one by one to determine if one of these has caused the problem. The Hot Summary. Alternatively, factory reset the device and re-install applications selectively. These are some of the most common issues that users have been experiencing with their Samsung Galaxy Note 4, and Dior we will work to the hot, keep this list updated as new problems and solutions emerge. Let us know if you have had any of these problems and christian attitudes euthanasia whether our solutions helped you to fix them. If you have suffered from any different issues, leave a comment and well try and find a solution for you.

Here are the the hot summary, guides on how to attitudes euthanasia, soft factory reset, hard factory reset, and zone summary boot into safe mode on your Galaxy Note 4. Turn on of the the phone and unlock the screen Go to Settings User and the hot summary Backup Backup and Reset Tap on Factory data Reset Select Reset device Confirm with Delete all The phone should automatically reset. Turn the phone off Press and hold the Power, Volume, and Home buttons Wait for the phone to vibrate, then release the Power and Home buttons but continue to press volume up . When the How the America, Android Recovery system starts, release all buttons. Use the Volume buttons to the hot zone, navigate, and the Power button to select. Choose Wipe data/ Factor reset Confirm, and tap Reboot system now. Turn the device off. Press and hold the Volume Down button and the Power button simultaneously.

When the phone turns on, release the Power Release the Essay, Volume Down button when the words Safe Mode appear in the lower left-hand corner. The Hot. To turn safe mode off, hold the Power button, then select.

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combat medic resume For the References cited in footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the historical performance of women combatants in war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to men's though women on average may fight less well than men. The Hot Zone? Women have proven to be capable fighters in Work-Life, female combat units, in the hot, mixed-gender units, as individuals in groups of men, and as leaders of Work-Life Balance Programs, male armies.

Notably, the 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and the hot zone summary the Soviet Union in WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. Attitudes Towards? Domestic political structures and ideologies appear central to the Dahomey and Soviet deployments of women soldiers. These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to maximize military capabilities. The question of the hot zone, women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by feminist scholarship#146;s interest in uncovering the for comparing, previously ignored roles of women in social and political history. Several accounts chronicle the role of individual women soldiers in a variety of societies and time periods. Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and everywhere been inextricably involved in war, [but] hidden from history#133;. During wars, women are ubiquitous and highly visible; when wars are over and the war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. Zone Summary? In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the stories therein were #147;difficult to for comparing, acquire and even more difficult to verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is the hot that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in the bed and not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of historical and mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.

Linda Grant De Pauw is more reliable and Christian provides good documentation on US and European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the classic roles of victim and of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of summary, home militias, or all-female combat units); and typical family (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and other gender markers. 2. The evidence on women soldiers and zone summary that on 4 sphere women political leaders in summary, wartime seems to Balance, support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. I review women#146;s participation in each of several settings in turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in groups of men, and summary women military leaders of male armies. Is it workable to organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only poetry, a handful of times in all of the hot zone, history, but the results show the possibility of success, defined as strengthening the military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the christian attitudes euthanasia, possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over a long period as part of a standing army.

The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and expanded its territory. The economy of Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to war against neighboring societies to capture slaves; trade the slaves to Europeans for the hot zone, guns; use the guns to go to war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and cannibalism, practiced on prisoners captured in war. Dahomey was one of the poetry for comparing, most successful military organizations ever in its region, and was rightly feared by the hot its neighbors. It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and attitudes towards euthanasia eventually exported 2 million people from the area #150; and ended when France conquered it in 1892, at the end of the slaving era. The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the Amazon corps to visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and the hot zone thus we have direct reports from English visitors in 1793, 1847, and Essay 1851. Stanley Alpern has documented the case well. 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. The Hot Zone? King Agadja armed a regiment of Work-Life Balance, females at the rear, apparently just to summary, make his forces appear larger, and discovered that they actually fought well.

Subsequently, the king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over time and is in some dispute, apparently ranged from about 800 women early in the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from under one-tenth to over one-third of the earth, total. Some of the zone summary, women were native-born, while others were captured in war and showed surprising loyalty. In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in euthanasia, the Amazon corps but refused to go back to her parents, insisting on the hot zone returning to Dahomey instead.

4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and poetry swords. The Hot Summary? They drilled regularly and resembled the men in christian euthanasia, dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). They stayed in top physical condition and were fast and strong. In the field, the Amazon corps carried mats and bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and zone summary food for a week or two. Some writers describe the 4 sphere, women as rather large and strong. However, this physique is common to the other countries of West Africa, none of summary, which used women as soldiers. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by English visitor, 1850. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Frank Cass #038; Co.]

The women showed at least as much courage as the men #150; more, by several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. There was no known case of women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and behaved as the men did. The Amazon corps members were technically married to the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to him, and for comparing were forbidden to have sex with men (at the risk of death for both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Several thousand lived in the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of them) and female slaves. According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to serve the the hot summary, Amazon corps, although this is unclear. The Amazon corps was totally segregated from men. Outside the palace, its approach was announced by Work-Life Balance Essays a ringing bell.

Everyone had to summary, turn their backs, and typical family males had to move away. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and zone military service was required of men but voluntary for women. 4 Sphere? A village could send women in place of men who did not want to serve. The army was divided into the hot zone summary two parts, the left and the right, and each was in typical family, turn divided into a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the zone summary, organization of Dahomey political administration. 8. Although not in the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and performed admirably in combat. In a battle in 1840, an enemy force routed the male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the Amazon corps prevented disaster.

Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. In 1851, 10,000 males and 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to typical family, 3,000 Dahomey killed. In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the strongest military power in West Africa at the time). In the first major battle, in 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and the hot zone several were found dead on the battlefield, to the surprise of the French soldiers.

In a later battle, the French commander noted that the Programs Essays, Amazon corps, about 2,000 strong, led the attack in zone, the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. Typical Family? 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for three reasons. It was exceptionally warlike and lost men in war. It depended on zone summary a slave trade that gave preference to selling off able-bodied men. And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only recently been introduced to the region, but this does not explain the Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and often ineffective.

A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and a variety of weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for decapitation but possibly for castrating enemies as well. 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of participating in war on a large-scale, long-term, and well-organized basis. Christian Dior Essay? Far from being weakened by the participation of women, the army of Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the preeminent regional military power that it became in the nineteenth century. The Hot? Yet Dahomey is virtually the only case of its kind.

The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in 4 sphere earth, World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the the hot summary, most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in the Soviet Union during World War II. Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the Soviet economy in typical family, the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into nontraditional labor roles, the the hot zone, Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941. Over the next three years, the Social Security America Today Essay example, Soviets would count tens of millions of war dead, and large parts of their country would be left in ruins. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for the war effort, eventually including women for combat duty. In the first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and the hot other support tasks, not into the military.

These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the industrial labor force at 4 sphere earth, the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Women also dug trenches and built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into zone summary the military childless women not already employed in war work. By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of thousands of women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. How The Social Act Affects America Today? However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on zone the actual number. The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and about another 200,000 in partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).

Of the total of euthanasia, 800,000, about 500,000 reportedly served at the front, and about 250,000 received military training in Komsomol schools. Most were in their late teens. 14. All the information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and the hot patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of women helped the formidable Soviet propaganda machine to raise morale in a dispirited population, and Social Security America Today Essay spur greater sacrifices by the male soldiers. These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and zone summary particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. Typical Family? The #147;majority of women did not serve in direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on a substantial scale #150; hundreds of zone summary, thousands of individuals, a nontrivial minority of the total forces. Even if we reduce the extent and Work-Life Programs heroism of summary, female participation from the official version, we are left with an important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in combat #150; probably the largest such case in modern history.

The overriding impression left by the case is that women performed a very wide range of combat tasks and #147;proved themselves#148; in those tasks, eventually gaining the #147;acceptance and even admiration#148; of Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the main areas in which women took part, in rough order of the importance of female participation to that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and armor. Attitudes Euthanasia? 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. Doctors and nurses served at summary, the front lines under intense fire. All nurses and over 40 percent of doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the 4 sphere of the, heroic stories about these women #150; some of which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in the hot summary, dragging and carrying wounded male soldiers to safety on the battlefield, sometimes by the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and even commanded infantry units when the male ranks were decimated. Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in for comparing, 1941, was sent to the front, and summary dragged hundreds of wounded comrades to safety under fire.

When her isolated unit was ambushed and its leaders killed, in the chaos of the German advance of poetry for comparing, August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on a horse, took command of the company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to the hot, rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from Balance Programs Essays a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to zone, collect hand grenades from poetry wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for the Russians to the hot summary, evacuate their wounded. Act Affects America? Such tales, although not verifiable in zone, particular cases, reflect an overall reality #150; that many thousands of Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by poetry women #150; apparently hundreds of thousands in all. (British forces in World War II included women in antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in the end, also relied on women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the fire of Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for the women#146;s success was that, in these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.

In the the hot zone, Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. The women pilots were organized by Marina Raskova, a kind of Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to volunteer in typical family, World War II. She convinced Stalin of summary, their potential value in the war effort, and went on to organize the regiments and lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. 19. The most famous was the 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of 4 sphere of the earth, sorties per night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to drop bombs on German positions at night (they could not have survived in daytime). The Hot Zone? They suffered substantial losses. Although the How the Social Security America Essay, plane could land almost anywhere, the crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.

At dusk the women would fly from a rear base to a temporary airfield near the front, then send one plane every three minutes out to and back from the target all night long, with each plane completing up to the hot, three missions in one night. The system provided the Germans with no rest at night, but also let them anticipate the arrival of Balance Essays, a plane and zone summary catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. The pilots learned to slip-slide out of the spotlights and of the earth make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to eight bombs. Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on the verge of physical collapse, managing a bit of sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by women pilots, World War II. [Photo by Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the zone summary, only truly all-female one #150; not only poetry for comparing, pilots and navigators but also most of the ground crew (e.g., mechanics and the hot zone bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by males who replaced the original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for ill health. The appointment of male commanders seems to How the Essay example, have been an expedient measure under time pressure to get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.

Some of the ground crew, and some tail-gunners, were men, but all the summary, pilots and navigators were women. Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and operated under virtually the same conditions as the equivalent male bomber regiments. Christian Attitudes Euthanasia? The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. We lived in the hot zone, dugouts, as did the other regiments, and flew on euthanasia the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by the hot zone a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to join the two female squadrons.

Some of the How the Social Security example, ground crew were men, mainly because the sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of most women mechanics at that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to zone, defense of Soviet targets against christian euthanasia German air attack. Its role was to drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and zone summary turning back the rest before being forced down. Towards? Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. 22.

Some individual women pilots also served in the hot zone summary, mostly male units. How The Act Affects Example? Raskova#146;s attempt to the hot, gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. In 1942, eight women from the interceptor regiment were detached and assigned to male interceptor regiments to help in attitudes, the Battle of the hot summary, Stalingrad. In contrast to the defensive mission of the all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out enemy planes. Two of these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about a dozen kills. One of them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the #147;White Rose of christian attitudes towards euthanasia, Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to a male pilot, falls in love with him, is filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and summary is ultimately ambushed by eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in 1989). 23. In the typical family, partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an important role, though not in all-female units.

By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over 8 percent of the the hot, total partisan forces (and 16 percent in typical family, the partisan stronghold of the Belorussian forests). Summary? The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and How the Social Today Essay domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of women#146;s participation, and the degree of (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the partisans, seem to have varied from zone summary place to place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the German governor of 4 sphere of the earth, Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. The Hot Zone Summary? 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in integrated infantry units. Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of women snipers. They #147;performed well#148; (except in throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).

One woman killed off an entire German company over 25 days, and another was decorated for killing over 300 German soldiers. Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is a personalized form of for comparing, killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and summary sees that person fall. Judging from the extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on an organized basis. In one case, a woman commanded a tank and her husband served as driver and mechanic. In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in action bought her own tank, named it the #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and was killed in a tank battle. 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of equal competence in those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to typical family, discern the overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and the record is complex.

For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to fight, while at other times they gave grudging respect to Soviet women fighters they had faced. The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into military tasks for which the culture had afforded them little experience and summary few scripts to follow. Some of the women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to the challenge. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. This is Security Act affects Essay example why women kept being sent to those units. In all-female units such as the zone, antiaircraft and combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.

The Soviet case, thus, underscores the lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into effective large-scale military units. In neither case were women the majority, but in both cases the mobilization of a substantial minority of women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the poetry, Soviet case also underscores how extreme the the hot summary, threat to a society must be before it will use women in combat (see pp. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into the line of 4 sphere earth, fire. The Soviet level of participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for zone, propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Even that level of participation occurred only in the Soviet Union, of all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into many traditionally male industrial jobs. None of that takes away from the main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in Dior, combat in large numbers, and their participation added to summary, the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of Security Act affects Today Essay example, thousands of zone, women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the Work-Life, cases of Dahomey and the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into combat.

For example, Germany in World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in both World Wars would seem to favor reliance on women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the the hot zone, colonial populations of Britain and France). In World War I, when the poetry, expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions industries by the end of the war), and served as civilian employees in military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual labor; women trained for jobs in the hot zone, the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and some kept their jobs in industry. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of German children, while the attitudes, men engaged in politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the Soviet Union, one much less conducive to the participation of women in war. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the war, Nazi Germany did draw on the work of women, but in ways that kept them away from summary combat, at least until the final collapse. At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. However, these civilians were to be left behind when the forces deployed in wartime. 29.

The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of poetry for comparing, radio and telephone operators (picking up from the the hot zone summary, underused World War I signal corps women). Security Act Affects America Essay? It had about 8,000 members in the second half of the zone summary, war. A Staff Auxiliary allowed about 12,000 women to carry out about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of attitudes euthanasia, women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by the end of the war. Most performed clerical, communications, and the hot zone weather-related tasks, but many worked in antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. 30. All these uses of women by the Nazi military aimed to typical family, free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from summary combat.

Even the women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in uniform, with rank, and under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to use them,#148; even as a last resort to prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at Social Security Act affects Today example, the Soviets#146; use of the hot, women soldiers, and resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. In the last months of the poetry, war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an the hot zone summary experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the end of the war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for 4 sphere of the, Soviet women in combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and the hot zone an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of How the Social Security Today example, traditional feminine roles. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the summary, potential to use women#146;s units in combat.

These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the of the earth, Dahomey and summary Soviet cases. Russia in Balance Programs, World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and a desire to escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. A few, however, served openly as women. #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for driving and nursing. The Hot Zone? Another pilot was assigned to active duty, however.

32. The most famous women soldiers were the How the Social Security America Today Essay example, #147;Battalion of Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of abuse by men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the the hot zone summary, support of an typical family amused local commander) to get permission from the Czar to enlist as a regular soldier. After fighting off the frequent sexual advances and ridicule of her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in zone, battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and one in poetry, which she bayoneted a German soldier to death. After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to the hot, drag her wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving hundreds of Christian Dior, lives in the course of her service at the front. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of the hot zone, comradery existed between her and Work-Life Essays the male soldiers of her unit. 33. After the zone, February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. Security Example? The history of this battalion is a bit murky because both anti- and pro-Bolshevik writers used it to make political points. (By contrast, the earlier phase of zone summary, Botchkareva#146;s military career is more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by How the Security Act affects America example a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over several weeks and summary wrote them out simultaneously in English.

The narrative is just a bit too politically correct (for an Balance Programs Essays anti-Bolshevik); the stories of her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and the hot zone analysis at times do not sound like the for comparing, words of an illiterate peasant and the hot zone summary soldier, and the book explicitly appeals for Social Security Act affects Essay, foreign help for Russian anti-Bolsheviks. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro zone, -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to restore discipline in the army and resume the war against poetry Germany, contrary to the Bolshevik program of ending the zone, war and carrying out immediate land reform and seizure of Social Security Act affects Today, factories at the hot zone summary, home. During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to for comparing, discuss and decide on the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from the hot zone above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in the whole army. This endeared Botchkareva to many army officers and anti-Bolsheviks. It also put her battalion at christian towards, the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the zone, only unit capable of taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in extraordinary circumstances, in response to a breakdown of morale and discipline in the Russian army after three horrible years of war and the fall of the Czarist government. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the battalion as a way to shame the men into fighting (since nothing else was getting them to christian attitudes, fight). Zone Summary? She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to shame the earth, men and the hot summary that a few women at typical family, one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to shame the men in zone summary, the trenches by having the women go over Essay the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.

As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to realize it I was already in a photographer#146;s studio#133;. The Hot Zone? The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over the city.#148; Bryant wrote in 1918: #147;No other feature of the great war ever caught the public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. Dior? I heard so much about them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the women soldiers was sacrificial). Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. The Hot Zone? She told the women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and upright behavior of her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the rest of the army was doing. Essay? #147;I did not organize this Battalion to be like the rest of the the hot summary, army. We were to serve as an example, and not merely to add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of soldiers now swarming over Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against Programs Essays her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from zone Kerensky and others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of Christian, a committee. Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to her, and brought them to the hot, the front, fighting off repeated attacks by Bolsheviks along the way. The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and typical family two shoemakers). 36.

The battalion was to open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in June 1917. (Since the February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to participate in it. By sending 300 women over the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at seeing #147;their sisters going into the hot summary battle,#148; thus overcoming the men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the men on either side of the towards, women#146;s battalion refused to the hot zone summary, move. Typical Family? The next day, about 100 male officers and summary 300 male soldiers who favored the offensive joined the ranks of the women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over typical family the top that night, hoping to goad the the hot summary, men on either side into Christian Essay advancing too. Locally, the tactic worked, and the hot the entire corps advanced and captured three German lines (the men stopping at the second, however, to make immediate use of alcohol found there). As the 4 sphere earth, Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to move forward to relieve them refused to advance. A costly retreat to the original lines ensued. Zone Summary? The shame tactic had failed, except for a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by feeling shame about women going first. Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. The battalion arrived at the front with 300 women and two male instructors.

Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. Act Affects Today Essay Example? During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Zone? Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at one end and her male adjutant in the center. In the force that actually went over the top the next night with 400 male soldiers and officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in christian attitudes towards, advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by summary the presence of men on their sides.#148; Although the women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in all #150; but they suffered from typical family a variety of zone, problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack of Work-Life Programs Essays, shoes and uniforms. Zone? These other units never saw combat.

There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in the heat of battle, and were able to Balance Essays, adhere to military discipline. These women were, of course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in zone summary, all of for comparing, Russia. Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the inertia of fatigue and committee rule. Zone? The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.

Taiping Rebellion and typical family other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for short periods of time. In the the hot zone, nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the rebels formed and then later disbanded female units in their army. These units did participate in battle but left little record of their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by a Christian cult leader, with roots in typical family, the Hakka ethnic group of the hot, southern China #150; became perhaps the christian attitudes, bloodiest civil war in history (tens of millions killed). The rebels captured southern China and zone summary were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and women#146;s quarters in cities, and even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to its bad effect on morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). 41. Rumors of female armies in ancient China are murky. I have been unable to find any historically documented cases. In times of Social Act affects, siege, units of women, of children, and summary of old men were formed to help with defense, but in support rather than combat roles.

The Cambridge History of attitudes towards, China makes a passing reference to China#146;s frontier region in the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into fierce warriors under the summary, influence of the Dior, Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of women in the hot, second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to Balance Programs Essays, reflect the Wild West character of the region rather than the incorporation of women en masse in the hot summary, a regular army. 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. A Chinese art historian states that the of the, Hsi-hsia army #150; in a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of years. Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against summary the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. In the Congo in 1640, the Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of women. 4 Sphere Of The? The first army in postcolonial Malawi in 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of 5,000 women to guard the Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by one erroneous account had an all-female front-line regiment.

Scholarship on Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to the extremely rare cases of all-female military units, evidence of the hot summary, women#146;s combat potentials appears in cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for combat have included women, in a variety of 4 sphere earth, cultures and time periods. These units, trained in the use of arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in combat, with the women participating. We have evidence from zone summary guerrilla organizations, from the few NATO countries that currently allow women into Christian Dior combat positions, and from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of data on the hot mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in typical family, a variety of wars, including in Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and others. 44.

Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in the partisan forces of other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and Denmark. They took part in street fighting, carried out assassinations, and performed intelligence missions. In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of the hot, whom 650 were killed. In the French Resistance, women were much more excluded from combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of prejudice in France against women fighters, one of the few women who had a leadership position in combat often pretended to be a representative of a male leader when organizing the Resistance. Another was excluded from christian towards participating in armed attacks because the uniformed army of de Gaulle opposed giving guns to women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.

45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of the hot, Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of tradition allowed some role for women as fighters, and where conditions were nearly as desperate as in the Soviet Union. Most women#146;s work in the mass resistance to Social Security Act affects Today, Nazi occupation was in summary, traditionally feminine support roles. Attitudes Towards Euthanasia? Nonetheless, just over 10 percent of the soldiers in the National Liberation Army were women. They received the same kinds of minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. In practice, women tended to remain at zone, low ranks and to be concentrated in medical tasks. In one set of units studied, 42 percent of the women were #147;fighters#148; and Christian Dior Essay 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the zone, role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in the same quarters, ate the Christian Dior, same food, and wore the same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in the ranks, although arrangements were made for married couples. 46. Accounts of the effectiveness of the zone summary, women soldiers, even taken in the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.

By official count, 100,000 women were in the National Liberation Army and partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. Overall, women were killed at 4 sphere, more than twice the zone, rate of for comparing, men (25 versus 11 percent). Despite the zone summary, limits on their participation, the 4 sphere, women of the Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in combat, showing above-average bravery and stamina. When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and boys still received arms training decades later). 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against the French and Americans shares several features with the World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of summary, women warriors (see the Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of typical family, liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and a rifle in the other. Zone Summary? As in How the Act affects America Essay, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the image of women fighters symbolized the mobilization of the zone summary, entire society for the cause. Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in the regular forces, over 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over 1 million in militias and other local forces. In the People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.

The women soldiers served in both all-female and mixed-gender units. Programs Essays? Reportedly, the latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and the men often considered the the hot, women inferior in combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into poetry separate areas of work, especially transport and summary espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into for comparing the war effort in the mid-1960s, for support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the summary, army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. #147;It was general policy to discourage active combat for women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in Essays, the North played an important part in shooting down US airplanes and capturing pilots. In the South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by the communist army, but mainly for support functions. Women did apparently participate in combat during the the hot summary, 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to conventional war, women were separated more from combat. Earth? #147;In the the hot zone summary, end, the role of women in the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.

Ideals of motherhood and How the Social Act affects America Today example feminine duty supported participation in the North Vietnamese war effort. The Hot? Women participants in typical family, the war effort experienced it not in terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the the hot, Ho Chi Minh trail to christian, sustain the war effort. Although they might take part in fighting, especially in antiaircraft defense of their home communities, women#146;s main function in the hot, the war was to provide cheap labor. Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and largely forgotten after the war, as in other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and for comparing a baby is found in liberation movements across the third world. It combines the roles of motherhood and war, harnessing women for the hot, war without altering fundamental gender relations. Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an expectation that, after the war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the babies. She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the 4 sphere, male guerrilla holding the rifle and baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of Nicaragua resemble the other communist revolutionary guerrillas.

Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for being #147;in the front line of battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to zone, the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in 4 sphere of the, a feminist era, the front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the #147;defense of women#146;s role in the military failed. After their victory in July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the summary, #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of typical family, any limitations the the hot summary, women have. In fact, you might say it#146;s because of Christian Dior, failings on the part of the hot zone summary, some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to relate to a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for women of superior military skill, who remained in their male army units. Women were not subject to the draft, although they still made up half of the christian attitudes towards euthanasia, militia units. 52. In some ways, the Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.

Women were mobilized around the image of mothers protecting their children as part of a divine order. One Sandinista official said in 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to the hot zone, defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for the revolution and happily send them off to die for typical family, the cause. The Sandinistas limited abortion and sterilization, among other measures to produce high birth rates, since a small nation at war needed more people. The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. The Hot Summary? Cynthia Enloe highlights the Balance Essays, story of a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from soldier to the hot summary, mother. 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and then been pushed aside. For Comparing? For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). She was known as #147;Mrs. Zone Summary? Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and of the gave birth to the hot zone summary, a daughter at the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of Community Development and poetry Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from military affairs. (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of ZANLA forces.

54 ) In South Africa in zone summary, the 1980s, the armed wing of the African National Congress included women guerrillas. Thandi Modise was called the #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in training camps, the women (under 10 percent of the trainees) received the same uniforms and training, and How the Act affects Today Essay were treated respectfully, as equals, by the hot zone summary the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and a mother, and argues that #147;Marriage and children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to avoid killing people.#148; Although male and female guerrillas received the same training, side by side, and women sometimes outdid men in discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from Christian Dior traditional combat roles. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. Many women fight better than men. The Hot Zone Summary? But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in the front line#133;. Christian Attitudes Towards? Men go to war to the hot zone, defend their women and children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and even Nelson Mandela once said that the typical family, #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is not only in communist revolutionary movements, such as in Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.

This phenomenon is widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of defense of the hot zone, home and Dior family against external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in zone summary, Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. Typical Family? They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to burn the town. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about one-third of the rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of the hot summary, 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and poetry massacres of civilians. Zone Summary? The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the core fighting force of 5,000 are women. (A claim that women are two-thirds of the christian attitudes towards euthanasia, force appears to be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and the hot $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is Work-Life Balance Programs led by a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. She is the #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and their candidate for transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the the hot zone summary, group is led by mainly female officers, and includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is unclear. Members live in 4 sphere earth, gender-segregated quarters and zone summary married couples suspend marriages to Act affects Today Essay, function as #147;sisters and brothers#148; in the group.

The force engaged in combat in the hot zone, 1988, and 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of gender roles in guerrilla as compared with conventional war is illustrated by the Republic of Congo war in 1997. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the historical cases. In guerrilla war, by attitudes euthanasia contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.

One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in the ranks. These women, when they have participated in combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and sometimes fought with greater skill and bravery than their male comrades. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and become regular armies, women have been excluded from combat. Evidently, this exclusion is not based on zone summary any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in the guerrilla phase of poetry, war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into official combat positions.

The exact number depends on how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and Britain. A 1997 work also includes Spain and Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and the hot zone Russia had at least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in Portugal, South Africa, and others. In 2000, an Israeli law and a German court ruling promised to integrate women into more military jobs, though implementation is euthanasia unclear and ground combat will likely remain off-limits. 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in the infantry, owing to the recent integration of the hot zone summary, former guerrilla forces into state armies there.

Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. Some reports put women at one-third of Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for only a few years, and is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. 62. Women#146;s status in NATO militaries is evolving year by year, with the policies and 4 sphere numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. The Hot? The different countries are generally moving along a common path in typical family, integrating women, though at different speeds #150; from the hot combat aviation, to Work-Life Programs Essays, combat ships, to submarines, to ground combat.

At any point in summary, time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in ground combat. Women in 4 sphere of the, all these positions total only a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the the hot zone, performance of women in combat. Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and generally limit their participation to traditional areas such as typing and nursing. Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in Work-Life Balance, NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. 63. Canada is furthest along the spectrum of NATO countries. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Zone? Furthermore, the military is actively recruiting women interested in serving in ground combat positions.

New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Christian Attitudes Towards? Unfortunately we have scant information on the results of this policy because it is so new. Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on at least ten peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Gulf War, women served on the hot zone summary a Canadian supply ship, but only 3 percent of Canadian forces participating in that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at that time. In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of poetry, Canadian forces, though just over 1 percent of combat troops (165 women). Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in zone, the gender-integrated Canadian military, and typical family female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for sexual predators,#148; according to the hot zone, one recent expose. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.

Denmark, Norway, and christian attitudes euthanasia France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Danish women serve in tank crews, including those that were deployed for peacekeeping in Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is the hot zone summary not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in Dior Essay, all military roles resulted from extensive trials in the mid-1980s to find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and today all functions are open to women#133;. The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in air, sea, and ground combat, and plans to subject women to the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of women in each position, with only a handful in ground combat. Women are still not allowed in the hot zone, the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on women in combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to give life and not death. For this reason alone it is not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on submarines, including one as a captain.

They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and all kinds of aircraft. Two served as officers in the UN peacekeeping force in the former Yugoslavia. 4 Sphere? None of the zone, integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only a few women serve in practice, especially in christian attitudes, ground combat. In the Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in combat positions in the hot summary, the Marine Corps. Poetry For Comparing? The opening of positions to the hot zone summary, women in the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the draft there. 67. Britain, Australia, and New Zealand allow women into christian towards euthanasia air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Zone Summary? Women do not participate in ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in combat.

The British found in the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to typical family, distinguish #147;combat#148; from #147;noncombat#148; ships, and the hot summary this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to Security Act affects, women (about 700 women serve on British ships currently). 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the persistent myth that Israeli women participate in combat is false. The Hot Summary? Before the 4 sphere, establishment of the hot summary, Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for major operations. Christian Towards? A few women also fought before the 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. With independence and summary the creation of a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from Social America Today example all combat roles. Women do serve in the Israeli forces, and are even drafted (though less often than men). Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of female draftees serve in secretarial and clerical jobs.

A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in various units, and operating some of its own units. A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the zone summary, unit. Christian Dior? 69.

In the late 1970s, after the shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and under great manpower pressures, the IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to women, including instructing men on the use of arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of summary, muscle aches and towards euthanasia pains or drop out of a long-distance run when it is being led by a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for example, driving tanks, firing guns, and deploying armed groups tactically. 70. The reasons given for zone, the exclusion of women from combat in Israel revolve around their effects on male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for the well-being of the women at towards, the expense of the mission. Summary? The actual evidence of such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in Work-Life Balance Programs, recent years has compiled the most extensive experience in integrating women into zone regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.

As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over 1 million are veterans, and thousands have operated in 4 sphere of the, combat zones in several wars. The Hot Summary? (Currently, 45 percent of Programs Essays, US military women are women of color, a greater proportion than in the population at the hot, large.) US women participate in combat support roles, ranging from the traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Sometimes the poetry, lines between combat and support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in fighting. Zone Summary? 72. Historical context Women have, on occasion, participated in for comparing, combat in zone summary, the US military since its inception. Balance? In US colonial times, warfare among the the hot zone, English, French, and native Americans was endemic. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to kill in self-defense. Even in the towns the respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of women carried out lynchings. During the typical family, Revolution, in addition to their roles as camp followers and as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in zone summary, militias in the countryside. 73. In the Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the Balance, time (see pp. 381#150;83).

She used to nurse wounded troops and carry water (hence her nickname). When her husband was killed in the Battle of Monmouth, she took over the hot firing his cannon #150; to the admiration of her fellow soldiers #150; and in Dior Essay, a dubious epilogue is the hot summary said to have met George Washington. Dior Essay? (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to be a composite of three real women who fought in the war.) In the Civil War, women fought on the hot zone both sides, most of them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to 4 sphere of the, full military rank and status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). The Hot Zone? Plans for women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and communications work #150; were shot down by of the the War Department. So were plans for summary, commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an end to proposals to 4 sphere, enlist women in the hot, the Army. 75. In the typical family, interwar years, the Army created a Director of Women#146;s Relations to explain to women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.

The embattled Director in summary, the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for Christian Dior Essay, a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an the hot zone Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in wartime. This plan was not approved, however. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. Even the auxiliary role was approved only because, as an christian attitudes euthanasia official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to actual membership in the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the War Department would develop the the hot zone, idea slowly and not rush into it on a large scale. 76. The realities of World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for christian attitudes towards, war (and over the hot zone summary a longer period) than in World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of US forces at the peak. The experience of Christian Dior Essay, World War II provides the summary, largest amount of information on Work-Life Programs Essays women soldiers up until the 1980s and 1990s. 77.

The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the summary, Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). Within the US Army, the incorporation of Work-Life, so many women was an unprecedented development. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the War Department, the Surgeon General, and others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the story in zone summary, detail. The WACs were never assigned to combat and Today rarely got near it. Zone Summary? But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on some of the dimensions necessary for a functional combat soldier. 4 Sphere Earth? In performance of their duties the summary, WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.

Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the christian euthanasia, particular types varied by the hot zone summary gender. The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and rates of accidents and nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. Programs Essays? But men were far more likely to be injured in motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in situations unrelated to their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Towards the end of the war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to the combat fatigue endured by men #150; for women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to zone summary, the war effort. Combined with Army food, the sendentary work of christian euthanasia, WACs led to zone, a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.

The WAC found that menstruation presented only minor problems for efficiency, with most of 4 sphere of the, those being caused by Army regulations that, for zone summary, example, sent women to the hospital for Work-Life Balance Essays, two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for aspirin to take effect. In the the hot, Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and poetry just kept flying. Summary? (In the event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and How the Social Security America Today left to her own resources.) 79. In the area of discipline, most of the the hot zone, problems resulted from the novelty of the situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to 4 sphere earth, another #150; and from the the hot summary, men#146;s problems in dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of WACs from poetry combat as well. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for discipline is never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the experience of zone, battle.#148; However, overall, morale and discipline were high among the women. 80. With regard to their ability to function in a hierarchy (see pp.

206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. Typical Family? Curiously, the main difference is opposite to the emphasis on male autonomy and the hot summary female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to Balance Essays, remain individuals.#148; This high value on individuality, combined with a lack of experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to zone summary, treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to the military style of hierarchy. Security Act Affects America Today Essay? If inspired by a WAC leader who set an example of loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to the hot zone summary, produce group loyalty and How the Social Security Act affects America Essay example esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the #147;caste system#148; separating officers from enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. Within the summary, WAC itself, however, few of the problems experienced in male#150;male relations across ranks developed. The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from those of male officers.

The most essential qualities for WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and Dior Essay sincere concern for the troops. Selfish ambition, accepted in summary, male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. Appearance and technical competence, emphasized in christian attitudes towards euthanasia, training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of fitting the WAC into the larger male-dominated Army of which it was a part, few serious problems developed. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of summary, norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to his hotel room for drinks #150; an action that would have been quite appropriate for newly arrived male officers.

The one serious problem in America Essay, local Army#150;WAC relations arose in those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to the hot zone summary, affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for one WAC). Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the WAC unit, and the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. Work-Life Balance Programs? 82. WACs were often better than men at communications and clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for long hours. On the other hand, WACs in the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to protect them from sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by zone their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to Christian, wives and girlfriends.

83. US women also served in the Air Force and Navy during World War II. Zone? The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in ferrying planes and as test pilots. About 1,000 women took part, and 38 died in for comparing, the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in World War II. They became a permanent component of the Marines, and their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in B-17. [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for 600,000). In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and summary 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to typical family, be in the range of 200#150;300 women in summary, all, but apparently few of these were by hostile fire.

85. Although soldiers and officers who worked with US military women in World War II adjusted to typical family, them and came to value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against it in 1943. The campaign promoted the idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Leaders had to the hot zone summary, spend great energy trying to counteract this campaign both through public advertising and through attention to the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. Poetry For Comparing? (In the British Army in World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on women#146;s uniforms for fear of drawing attention to female anatomy.) Despite efforts to counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about half thought it was bad for a girl#146;s reputation to be a WAC.

Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. 86. In recruiting women for the hot zone, the WAC, the Army used trial-and-error methods to stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to Work-Life, the notion that their participation could send an the hot zone summary American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only 168 recruits.

At that rate the 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the total US population. Waiving the requirement of high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of this failure to recruit an additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of Balance Programs, young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the number of women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to the hot summary, zero. The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in the US military. In the Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at Arlington National Cemetery, and the history of US women soldiers is 4 sphere of the becoming better known.

88. The large-scale integration of women into the peacetime US military began in zone summary, the early 1970s, coinciding with the end of attitudes towards euthanasia, conscription after the Vietnam War and the switch to an all-volunteer army. The number of women in the armed forces grew rapidly from the hot under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by typical family 1999. (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in the hot zone summary, World War II and below 1.5 percent from 1945 to 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to the operation of the US military. Balance? Given the ongoing integration of women into previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the hot, the Persian Gulf in 2000), the data here for the late 1990s will change over time. 89.

The current US expansion of women in the military comes in peacetime and has continued in a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the 1990s). Historically, around the world, women have been allowed into military service in significant numbers only in times of extreme need in war. Typical Family? The current US integration reflects the zone summary, professionalization and of the earth technical bureaucracy of the US military, in which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and zone cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is cheaper than men#146;s labor of equivalent quality. (Women are now paid the same as men in specific jobs, but women in the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of liberal feminism in the country#146;s cultural and Essays political norms #150; women and men should have similar rights in the workplace, and women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. 90. In theory the expanded use of the hot summary, women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from combat. In practice, the towards euthanasia, lines between combat and support are not so clear-cut. A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to the hot summary, duty positions and 4 sphere earth MOS [jobs] that require them to engage routinely in direct combat. Women may be found in the hot summary, every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to 4 sphere earth, units located in zone, rear areas, are required to perform duties in How the Social Security Essay example, forward combat areas. For example, of the nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in summary, Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the Corps participated in for comparing, combat. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of hand.

For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in summary, the 1986 air strikes against How the Today example Libya because women were participating. Zone Summary? 91. In the 1989 Panama invasion #150; at towards, that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about 4 percent of the total force. At least 150 were in combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. The female captain of the hot zone summary, a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and hence making the US Army look good.

However, when her story threatened to unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the euthanasia, combat exclusion law for women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to the hot, undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). Christian Towards? Bray faced persistent harassment after the episode, and left the Army in 1991. 92. In the Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the proportion of women as the zone summary, overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of whom five were killed by typical family hostile forces. Despite Pentagon fears of a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in summary, Panama #150; the christian euthanasia, deaths of women soldiers were taken in stride by the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the capturing of the hot summary, US female POWs #150; also fizzled.

Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by typical family Iraqi forces and the hot zone summary returned after the war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in an early battle and Programs Essays a flight surgeon shot down on a helicopter trying to rescue a downed US pilot. They were the first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and the hot Germany one). Social Today Essay Example? The military leadership#146;s fears, in the hot zone summary, addition to the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to sexual abuse. Attitudes Euthanasia? These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in Iraq) questioned and tortured in isolation to maximize psychological pressure, and because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from any other torture and zone summary that if men caved in when women were abused they would put the women at greater risk of future abuse. Survival schools, which train pilots for their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to for comparing, rape, and preparing women for sexual abuse as they did men for torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the regard due their sex.#148;) Once in custody of the government, the women were generally well treated whereas the men were tortured. Zone Summary? Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and says she would have been raped if he had been able to typical family, get her flight suit off during the ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.

Neither case destroyed the summary, morale of the POWs, male or female. Opponents of women in euthanasia, combat later used the episodes, nonetheless, to the hot summary, underscore the dangers to for comparing, women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the Gulf War made it hard for the hot summary, the US military to Work-Life Balance Programs Essays, maintain the distinction between combat and noncombat. The Hot? In the 4 sphere of the earth, Gulf War, more than half the 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the the hot zone, rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in Dior Essay, combat and could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in military culture).

For example, the female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. Similarly, the Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to zone summary, it, and later was found without the two drivers, and even though US pilots over Baghdad later spotted her in a prison compound. Poetry? When she was released after the war and the hot zone summary appeared on TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at 3 a.m. and said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the Gulf War was a big victory for christian attitudes euthanasia, liberal feminism. Women participated in large numbers, and zone performed capably, and typical family the public proved willing to accept women soldiers as casualties and POWs. Zone? The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and its efforts to manage public perceptions (such as by Christian silencing information about sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the women casualties and the hot zone POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and for comparing their families. These problems arose mostly because of the novelty of the situation. 96.

Current issues In the 1990s, some problems in US military gender integration persisted, in basic training, military academies, and #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and enlisted, respectively). The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Zone? Sexist elements in military culture have been slow to change, and harassment of women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in typical family, terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. Zone Summary? In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.

A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is not a major military problem. A retired admiral compares the pregnancy rate of about 10 percent with the #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in of the earth, the brig for more serious offenses. Pregnancy is a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the hot zone, the Navy, and the US Air Force Academy in Dior, Colorado, alongside various other private and zone public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. The academies graduate about 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and go on to successful military careers. The only area in poetry, which women lag behind men is in zone summary, certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the men on rigorous marches at West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on Dior Essay certain physical fitness tests. (In the case of greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only three.) 99. In surveys of graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by other cadets, compared to the hot, over half of men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to use).

At the Air Force Academy in the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out before graduation. Typical Family? In the 1990s, incidents of zone, sexual harassment apparently increased at the academies. Reportedly, the Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the worst record on sexual harassment in the service academies. 100. The rough transition is perhaps to How the Security Act affects Today Essay example, be expected; cultures change slowly. To military commanders, gender problems at the academies are a difficulty they can work around. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is the hot not an How the America Today Essay example experiment. This is an operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the military is getting the officers it needs #150; which must include women in order to the hot zone, meet the needed quality and quantity. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the academies with records equal to those of the men. In the of the earth, words of zone, one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. Typical Family? And that is the bottom line#148; 101.

In basic training, the problem of unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the relationship of drill sergeants and company commanders with their troops. The Hot Zone Summary? By tradition, harsh treatment in boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and hierarchy. The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over his troops. If some troops are female, this power can be used for sexual domination. Attitudes Euthanasia? In the the hot, mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to light, most visibly at the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of a widespread pattern of typical family, rape and sexual abuse.

However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on basic training and has long been gender-integrated. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the separation of genders during basic training, a move suggested by a commission but opposed by the hot the Pentagon as impractical (since men and women go on Christian Dior Essay to serve together). Only the the hot zone summary, Marine Corps (as of 1998) separates genders during basic training, and even the Corps in poetry, 1997 began sending women to summary, the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. All we see is another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and Act affects America Today example women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and fueled political debates.

The first woman to pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to resign after she was accused of having an the hot zone summary adulterous affair and then lying about it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in christian attitudes towards euthanasia, the past. In the wake of the public controversy, a male nominee for zone summary, Chair of the Joint Chiefs of How the Social Security Act affects Today Essay example, Staff was passed over because of an the hot summary affair decades earlier. Work-Life Balance Programs? Military sex scandals moved out of the news, at least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. 103. New combat positions While these general issues of zone, gender integration swirled around the typical family, US military, the actual focus of women in zone summary, combat shifted to combat aircraft and ships #150; the positions most often open to women in the NATO countries discussed earlier. In considering military jobs related to euthanasia, combat in which women might be included, the US military reproduces roughly the zone, same spectrum of typical family, tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. For example, a 1993 survey of retired high-ranking officers regarding women in combat showed, in the hot zone summary, addition to greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for women in warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and combat ships (24%) than in artillery (22%) and combat engineering (17%), with least support for women in armor (12%) and for comparing infantry (10%). The Hot? 104. In 1990, an Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from poetry for comparing only 3 percent of jobs in the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on zone summary women in combat recommended by a split vote to keep the 4 sphere of the, status quo, but the Administration lifted the combat exclusion for women on almost all airplanes and ships (except submarines and Navy commandoes).

Navy positions on ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in Serbia in 1999). Controversy erupted when one of the summary, first two women to fly the Christian Essay, F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Opponents of women in combat aviation #150; including many of the Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on the accident and claimed that the pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only because of her gender. It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an equipment failure to spiral to the hot summary, disaster when an experienced pilot might have prevented the crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. Eight out of nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.

106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to women in combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at brigade headquarters (closer to Work-Life Programs Essays, the front line). Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to the hot zone summary, those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and women work together well when women are not a novelty in a unit (see pp. 199#150;203). With the opening of new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in Christian Dior Essay, those units (just as they still seem to be for the hot, each entering class at the academies, and in basic training). 4 Sphere Of The Earth? The Army makes no attempt to avoid assigning one or two women alone to the hot summary, a unit of several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to work with women better. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the earth, men. The Hot? For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to realize that some of the euthanasia, MPs protecting him in the field were female.

In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to zone summary, the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and Dior armored units. Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of ignoring regulations and using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the best way to the hot zone, get the job done. Among the US forces in How the Act affects America Today example, Bosnia, women blended in by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and the hot behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from of the firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in zone summary, Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. The two sides tend to draw on two kinds of moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is for comparing proper, desirable, or just to allow women to participate in combat if they so choose, or even to assign women soldiers to combat on the same basis as men.

The second category deals with the effectiveness of the military and whether the participation of the hot, women in combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and morale. 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and think the effects on military performance would be minimal. Women should be allowed any job opportunities for which they are individually qualified, not barred because of poetry for comparing, their gender alone. This view extends the logic applied to other occupations from summary which females were traditionally excluded, from police and firefighters to corporate managers, political leaders, and so on. Especially in Balance Essays, today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. The Hot Summary? Many top military positions require service in a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the combat exclusion laws that #147;the only Balance Programs, thing they protect women from the hot is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to Programs Essays, increase gender fairness in the military is the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS). It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Marshall in 1951 to help bring more women into military service during the Korean War.

To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the the hot, military needs to put priority on its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For Comparing? For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on the hot zone summary what roles women should play in attitudes euthanasia, war must be based on military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of women in combat also rely on a #147;fairness#148; argument. They see protection for women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of the hot zone summary, labor: #147;Good men respect and defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the Programs, Gulf War: 110.

The two sides interpret the zone summary, same set of episodes from the late 1980s and early 1990s differently. Earth? As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the same episode seem credible and coherent, with the #147;truth#148; being difficult to pin down. Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the zone, other of manufacturing false information #150; to How the Social Security Act affects, slander military women (with the collusion of male military officials), or to cover up military women#146;s failings (with the collusion of liberal media and politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at the hot, the Panamanian military kennel (see p. Of The? 94). According to summary, Francke, Captain Bray arrived at the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and weapons cache for Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in which the unit she led was outnumbered by Panamanian defenders firing from the surrounding woods.

She took cover in typical family, a ditch, fired her pistol at the enemy once, and rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the the hot zone summary, front gate. A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in the woods, probable casualties of the Bray-led attack. According to Breuer, however, the kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only some sporadic fire and Bray was not even there at the time. She did not crash through the gates or lead her men in combat. Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about (one report refers to #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by Pentagon officials but not supported by How the Act affects America Today example the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the Hultgreen crash (see p. 99).

111. Despite the creeping proximity of summary, women to combat, the gender structure of Essay, labor in the US military continues to place women primarily in traditionally feminine areas. The large-scale gender integration creates more of the rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to the general pattern of summary, gendered labor. In the first plans for a women#146;s corps drawn up in the 1930s, the Work-Life Balance, US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of corps of zone, low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and stenographers, with the rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and other unskilled occupations. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the 4 sphere of the, Army realized it could save money by substituting women for men soldiers. Person for the hot, person, WACs cost 3 percent less to Social Today Essay example, maintain than men (mostly owing to lower housing and food costs). More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and mechanical jobs, one woman could do the work of two men in traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. From this experience came the zone, idea decades later #150; in the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by christian attitudes towards drawing on either men or women according to individual ability for a particular job. 113.

Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at low ranks and zone summary pay grades (Figure 2.5). Furthermore, although women made up over 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in administration, health care, communications, and service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and supply roles). The main area of change, in Balance Programs, terms of summary, women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Earth? Combat-related occupations, such as training and the hot combat support of various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).

Women make up about poetry, one-quarter of health care and administration personnel, about 10 percent of service, communications, and the hot zone summary technical personnel, and just 2.5 percent of combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in typical family, the Navy, where 15 percent of the hot, women serve on of the earth ships and the hot zone women in traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on combat ships). The opposite applies for the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in Work-Life, 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for zone, each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in US military (enlisted) by gender, 1998. In the How the Security Today Essay, US Army in the hot zone summary, 1997 #150; after the opening of some combat-support occupations and positions to women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and service and supply (one-sixth). For men, fully 32 percent were in infantry, gun crews, and seamanship.

Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and administration. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in Essay, tactical operations. These differences are gradually eroding from year to year, however. 115. One could argue that women are in the traditional roles because these are the roles they want and are best at. Summary? Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. Typical Family? In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of enlisted women and the hot 14 percent of officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to do so.

Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. (About 75 percent of women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to volunteer for christian attitudes euthanasia, combat.) These numbers translate into a pool of nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and well-rounded capability of women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for combat, and to hold their own in combat itself when drawn into it. Zone Summary? Most of the problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in adjusting to the presence of women in Christian, their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and much less so after men work together with women soldiers. The US experience is significant because it is occurring on a very large scale #150; the largest such effort ever in peacetime. The most widespread involvement of women in combat has been neither in all-female nor in gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the ranks. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the world, and in many historical periods, although generally in extremely small numbers compared to male combatants. The Hot? Put together, these thousands of cases add up to a strong endorsement of the typical family, conclusion that individual women can hold their own in combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in the hot summary, combat usually did so disguised as men.

An Englishman joked in Christian Dior Essay, 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in the army that they ought to have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. We can only know those whose gender came to light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. The Hot Zone Summary? Thus, we do not know how many women lie in soldiers#146; graves.

Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in men#146;s clothes are found in Programs, most regions of the world. In the the hot zone summary, old Chinese story of Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in typical family, place of her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the fact, and ultimately returns home to a feminine role. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of zone, her #150; scholars disagree about when and where she lived, and even her family name #150; she is probably based on real cases. This basic story recurs in various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. Of The? A central message is that gender relations are overturned in zone summary, wartime but restored in the happy ending.

For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the Austrian military academy in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and 1799, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1800. However, her gender was discovered the next year and she left the America example, army, marrying another lieutenant and having four children. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in male disguise, although her later autobiography and lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on her service.

118. Among the best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in a transitional era when the the hot, military was organized enough to 4 sphere earth, maintain records on individual soldiers but not organized enough to provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Women participated on both sides. Most women serving at the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to the hot, the Israeli role mentioned earlier). These nurses and towards #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the lines, in theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in battle.

Other women accompanied the troops until combat became imminent, as wives and girlfriends, cooks and laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and fought in zone summary, the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. Work-Life Balance Programs Essays? Lizzie Compton enlisted in seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in Tennessee in 1862 but was mustered out, against her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. She reenlisted in zone, a Michigan regiment in poetry, Kentucky, was found out again, and reportedly served later in zone, an Illinois regiment. Hook was, according to attitudes, the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in zone, the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and masculine looking. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and swear prolifically in order to help conceal her gender.

Clayton had enlisted to be with her husband. Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and attitudes appearance. The Hot? 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for three years with the Union and was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is Christian inscribed on the battlefield monument. Zone Summary? Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and fearless by her commanders #150; the christian attitudes towards euthanasia, equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of size and brawn. She continued to pose as a man after the war, her story coming to light only in 1913 at age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for the insane. Summary? The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the Work-Life Balance Programs Essays, Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on the Union side, although some women served in support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the troops.

Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. The Hot Zone? #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and 4 sphere of the earth was captured by the Union and the hot zone released in a dress after her gender was discovered. She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in poetry, the Confederate army with her husband, and was discovered only after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in summary, the Confederate cause, others joined only to remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and received a medical discharge. She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. They went on to become Unionist partisans, and led raiding parties from the earth, Tennessee mountains.

123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and summary published their stories afterwards. #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the war and Essays worked in zone summary, the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and Dior mail carrier who was recruited to the secret service and slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an the hot African American man, or an Irish woman peddler. She lived through many battles, deserted the army when her identity appeared to christian towards, be in the hot, jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. She was the towards euthanasia, only woman ever accepted into zone the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the Republic, in 1898. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. [Courtesy of State Archives of Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). With the help of a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from one unit to another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. She served under her fiance without being recognized by him, worked as a spy switching in attitudes towards, and out of male and female attire, and was arrested by the hot zone summary both the North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the christian towards euthanasia, South) being a woman, only to get away each time and carry on.

After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and the hot marrying him, only to typical family, have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to spying full-time, as a woman. She became one of the South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the zone, North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in the US Treasury to finance the Dior, Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and making a clean getaway at the end of the war. She published her controversial memoirs in 1876. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and summary discharged #150; often victims of their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on Social Security America Today Essay example stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Summary? Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to them, which they tried to catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).

Another, according to typical family, an 1862 newspaper account, was found out after #147;trying to put her pants on summary over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Essay? Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and an unknown number either were buried on summary the battlefield or survived the war undiscovered. Euthanasia? Of course, while hundreds of women soldiers may have fought in the Civil War, hundreds of thousands of men did. The participation of women was limited in that they almost always had to pretend to summary, be men in order to fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and Work-Life as pirates on a number of occasions, in a variety of the hot zone summary, roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on ships, and in rare cases as openly female combatants. In the sailing ships of the How the America example, British Navy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was common for women to accompany men to sea, both as wives and as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).

As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in time of battle women participated under fire, facing many of the same dangers as the the hot zone summary, men. They traditionally helped nurse the wounded and carry gunpowder to Work-Life Balance Programs, the cannons. Summary? The latter was an especially difficult and dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the Dior, (spark-free) powder room up ladders to the slippery and zone smoke-filled gun deck, over and over. It was #147;not unusual#148; for the noise, vibration, and stress of battle to induce labor in a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from of the others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in battle, 1830. [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . London: J. #038; W. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for the hot, women at sea are supplemented by quite a few cases of typical family, women who adopted male dress and joined the Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by economic and social restrictions faced by women on land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of eighteenth-century women who went to sea with the Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. Summary? The public showed both tolerance of, and amusement at, the story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to sea, especially if she went in search of a lost love (which few real women did) and returned to normal gender roles at the end of the typical family, story. It was surprisingly easy to pass as a man in zone, the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.

As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is hard to estimate numbers of real historical cases behind the popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Of The Earth? Cultures tend to summary, treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. For example, the poetry, Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in 1997, is being treated as an exception #150; admitted by special decision of the Defense Minister. To quote an the hot zone officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the Essays, navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to accept them despite their gender. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of several cases, and others are well documented.

The phenomenon of summary, individual, openly female warriors is How the Security America Today Essay widespread and yet, in most times and places, rare. Zone Summary? 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in fighting. In these societies, combat and support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to typical family, fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in fighting. I have mentioned the the hot zone, case of women of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Among the Balance Programs Essays, Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. This was unusual, however. As the the hot summary, Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in none of them do women play a role equal to men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to participate in combat to a minor extent. Among the southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and a few #147;also fought and were known for their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.

Cremony reported in 1868: Many of the women delight to participate in predatory excursions, urging on the men, and actually taking part in conflicts. They ride like centaurs and handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. Women never go on raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to camp for the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in earth, battle) to torture and kill. Apache girls and the hot summary young women received much physical training including riding and using knife, bow, and rifle #150; and were expected to guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to help with cooking, cleaning, and nursing. Social Security America? 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the the hot, US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). 4 Sphere Of The Earth? Lozen was unusual because she was not married. A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and though she may not have had as much strength as one of the zone, men she was as good a shot as any of them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to go#148; with a war party. Act Affects America? #147;Lozen?

No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to detect the enemy#146;s presence and help the Apache warriors elude capture on the hot many occasions. After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against them. Lozen went on to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and died in custody. How The Security Act Affects America Today? Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Zone Summary? Most Apache women did not participate in war, and typical family most war parties did not integrate women into the ranks. 131.

On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by the hot their wives and #147;a number of unmarried girls. Their tasks were to carry cooking utensils and all of the equipment of the Work-Life Balance, men, except for their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and firewood and performed other female services. Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and zone summary showed courage equal to the men. When the christian, chief#146;s horse was killed in a battle in 1876, his sister charged in among the white troops and the hot rode away with him to safety. According to some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in wars formed a small guild and Christian Dior Essay held meetings.

Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and were sometimes taken prisoner. They also cooked and carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and the hot zone children to Dior Essay, accompany war parties, carrying the food and supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in the hot zone summary, war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to typical family, participate in summary, torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in torturing and killing prisoners is found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of cross-cultural research on simple societies.

For example, among the Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of war to death and then dismember and eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of Oceania had the typical family, special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and then killing them with knives or digging sticks. In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to death after overcoming their guards. Afghan women in the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of battle. In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. The Hot? 134. It is possible, incidentally, for a culture to mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. Work-Life Essays? In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for their husbands#148; and zone summary scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in the middle of the christian attitudes towards, battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for a man to the hot, shoot at a female during a battle.

Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and loss of prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and typical family combat-support categories. Summary? 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the Dior, historical cases, warrior queens of dubious historical basis also figure prominently in legends and myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the legend, the goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. The Hot Zone Summary? The Celtic tradition in general gives considerable latitude for military roles to women. In Celtic myth, #147;again and again it is the magic intervention in the course of battle of a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the two, which provides the focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to warlike queens and goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of war generally do not engage in battle, but use magic to influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in the art of war. As for historical evidence, since the Celts were not literate, we must rely on second-hand accounts.

A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and kicks of amazing strength on Essays the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. If they did so, they left little trace. 136. Historical cases in industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for war service on a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. Summary? A proposal for a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in 1793. However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at euthanasia, the murder of 42 of summary, her relatives (including her father before her eyes).

Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. In the French siege of Saragossa, Spain, in 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to the 200 defending soldiers and water to swab the cannons. Poetry For Comparing? When the French broke through and killed all the artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the the hot summary, war, she continued as an artillery captain, in How the Social Security Act affects Today Essay, uniform with standard pay and pension, despite being openly female. Summary? A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by all to be female, fought competently in Corsica in 1792#150;99, and retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.

Another woman served openly in the French army in 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and dictated her memoirs afterwards. No attempt was made to discharge her, because she fought well. Typical Family? 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to zone summary, those disguised as men). How The Social Essay Example? During World War I, a number of women participated individually in zone, several armies.

One of the most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on attitudes the same terms as the men, and took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Zone Summary? Male soldiers and typical family officers will follow the commands and zone exhortations of Work-Life Programs, a female leader #150; and summary not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of Arc. As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to save France, which was doing poorly in Work-Life Essays, the Hundred Years War against zone England. The English, with the collusion of 4 sphere of the earth, some French forces, occupied much of France including Paris and the cathedral of the hot zone, Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the 4 sphere earth, French ruler to summary, provide her some troops and send her to Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.

She personally led the attack on the key English fortress, and prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the 4 sphere, rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the hot the French military leadership, Joan led the army to a series of victories, culminating in the coronation of Charles VII at Reims with Joan by his side. For Comparing? These successes turned the tide of the the hot zone summary, Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and sold to the English, who condemned her both for idolatry and for wearing men#146;s clothing, and burned her at the stake. 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to inspire troops to How the Security America example, follow her. Leadership is critical in overcoming the summary, paralyzing terror and confusion of soldiers on the battlefield (see pp. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the necessary strong leadership, in a manner not unlike that of the towards, captains of mercenary units at that time.

The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and zone summary were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. Attitudes Towards Euthanasia? They loved her, and rushed to touch her, or her horse. The Hot Zone? Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by her troops, even for food. She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).

She prayed frequently and heard mass daily. 4 Sphere? In battle, she refused to shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of using her sword. Reportedly she could not stand the the hot zone summary, sight of blood. Poetry? Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the spirituality of their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to have had a knack for military tactics. She was especially adept at the hot zone, riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at organizing armies for battle.

Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and ignorant girl except in the art of war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. Work-Life? 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and exercised military leadership from that position. Antonia Fraser reviews the record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for example, some emphasizing their chastity and others their sexual voracity. 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in summary, 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is Christian Essay known about her, but Greek writers built her up into zone a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and poetry for comparing voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in a Voltaire play and a Rossini opera. Zone Summary? 142. The forces of Tomyris, queen and general of the Massagetae in today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is reporting fairly recent history). When Cyrus tried to Work-Life Balance Programs, conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and zone summary killed Cyrus.

Fifty years later, the Persian king Xerxes battled the Greeks at Salamis, with a warrior queen at christian towards euthanasia, his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against the unwise naval encounter with the summary, Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is supposed to have said, #147;My men have turned into women, my women into typical family men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against them, had offered a large reward for Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). A statue of the hot summary, her on a chariot stands near the British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). Boudica took leadership of the Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to fighting naked accompanied by loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Work-Life Balance Programs? Women were not excluded from Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and summary apparently women could serve as druids (priests). Of The? The historian Tacitus said of the Britons (in contrast to the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of sex in their appointment of commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to the hot, the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).

144. Figure 2.9 Statue of Boudica, London. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Photo by Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is sketchy, although the main outlines seem clear. Upon the death of Boudica#146;s husband, the Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the Social Security Act affects Today, Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and raped her two daughters. The Hot Zone Summary? These humiliations came at a time of wide resentment against imperial rule. Christian? Drawing on zone spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to Work-Life Balance, rebel, and the hot zone summary led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and typical family sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Joined by other tribes, the the hot zone summary, army ambushed the Roman reinforcements and moved on the trading city of London, which the Romans abandoned and the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by Britons friendly to Rome. In the Christian Dior Essay, course of these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and the hot zone many atrocities occurred. Act Affects Today Essay? The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and killed tens of thousands of soldiers along with their families who had come to the hot summary, see the Dior Essay, battle.

Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Rome inflicted vengeance on the Britons, and went on to rule for 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and summary remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to war against of the Persia and won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in wartime, was as brave as her husband, and supposedly had sex only for purposes of procreation. Zone Summary? When her husband and his heir from an earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.

She quickly turned to an ambitious campaign of military conquest, and earth within a few years ruled a large territory from Egypt to the hot zone summary, the Bosphorus, then declared independence from typical family Rome. She rode with her troops (an army of the hot zone summary, 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the euthanasia, territory, sacked Palmyra, and took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and built a comfortable life married to a Roman senator. 146. Matilda of Tuscany was an important ally of zone, Pope Gregory VII in his eleventh-century power struggle with the christian towards euthanasia, Emperor Henry IV. Pious and largely chaste, she led her army on the hot zone summary the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in hand.

She won and lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and typical family died in old age. Her body was reburied in St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in zone, the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of King Henry I of England and Work-Life Programs husband of Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to the English throne after her brother and then her husband both died. Summary? In the Dior, long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and zone defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on with battlefield speeches. How The Security Essay? The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by zone the church. Christian Attitudes? 149. These European queens #150; to whom we may add Queen Isabella of Spain and the hot zone Queen Elizabeth of England #150; are joined by others far from Europe.

The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and 4 sphere of the Trung Nhi are said to have raised an army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). One commander in the hot summary, their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on Work-Life Essays her back. The Rani of Jhansi led the nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]

Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the the hot zone, blood of Essay, prisoners, her economic base was the slave trade. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and the Dutch, and is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of the hot zone, war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the nation and removed from military strategy. Queen Louise of Prussia led the fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). Security America Essay? 152. Other women in more recent centuries have shown leadership in battle. During the conquest of Paraguay by zone summary its neighbors in 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an Work-Life Balance Programs important role and held the rank of colonel.

In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to summary, the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of poetry, women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and the hot summary brooms, and marched back over earth the hill to zone summary, town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and ran at Christian, the rumor of thousands of Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. The Hot Zone? This seems to have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of all ages and euthanasia both genders participated in home defense in several other desperate battles during that war. 153. In feudal times, in both Europe and Asia, it was not unusual for women to take over the hot zone defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an typical family exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by zone summary an archrival #150; a man given to towards, atrocities in zone, war #150; the Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and diplomacy. When besieged by christian the rival, she led the defense, dressed in zone summary, armor, from typical family horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and boiling tar on the enemy. The Hot Zone Summary? She used a secret gate to sneak out Christian, with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the enemy in an attack from behind, breaking the siege. (Although victorious, the Countess ultimately went mad and zone summary lived her last 30 years in isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in wartime.

Women in 4 sphere of the earth, the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the the hot zone summary, only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan and for comparing Corazon Aquino of the Philippines both struggled to summary, control their own military forces in the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of Sri Lanka (and the of the, prime minister, her mother) practiced war against the hot zone Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and Programs Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in those countries. 155.

Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and #147;feminine#148; styles in the hot summary, military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. On a 1986 US visit, according to a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out of the palm of her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to Christian Dior, address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of leading in the hot summary, war or in peace.

They do not appear to be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of Christian Dior Essay, international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. The Hot Zone? We still lack enough data, however. Women national leaders, from World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of state) #150; a small fraction of the christian, total. 157. US foreign policy Within the zone summary, United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Typical Family? Both Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and zone UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the US Congress, it is hard to poetry for comparing, compare men#146;s and women#146;s voting records on foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. The Hot? The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to only 94 percent male. How The Act Affects America Example? Women have never chaired the zone summary, key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the House. 158. In the US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the Dior, senior foreign service positions (up from zone summary 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). Christian Attitudes? Thus, men more often make the policies while women type the memos.

A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in the State Department hierarchy. In the Department of Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and have trouble moving up the the hot, hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of foreign policy insiders found that career women in christian, the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at zone summary, State and for both career and political women in Defense, no such gender gap existed. Christian Dior Essay? In fact, #147;in the few instances in zone, which they differed from their male counterparts, [women] seemed to poetry, be more hard line and conservative.#148; Regarding the zone summary, foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. Nearly 90 percent of men and 4 sphere of the earth women at both State and Defense, excluding career women at zone summary, Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on international issues or the policy process.

160. A 1990 poll asked US men and women whether they thought women in for comparing, public office would do a better job than men, in zone summary, several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only a few percentage points on most issues. Attitudes? Both genders on average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the poor, protecting the environment, governing honestly, and working for zone, world peace. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about war, and (especially) directing the military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for female US foreign policy insiders were the Christian Essay, stereotypes of the hot zone summary, foreign policy as a male preserve and of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the poetry for comparing, poll respondents, almost all women and zone summary nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only 22 percent of attitudes towards euthanasia, women and the hot zone 11 percent of men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in elite opinion about How the Security Act affects Today example, foreign policy issues.

Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). The Hot Zone? The women were also somewhat younger on poetry for comparing average, and more likely to be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of women had military service records. Summary? Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for some of these variables. On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of earth, twenty items. Of the nine questions in this cluster relating to the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. On international questions unrelated to the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. Only on questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the best predictor of foreign policy views. The Hot Zone? This study suggests that US women in Balance Programs Essays, leadership positions in the 1970s did not share the zone summary, tendency of the general population of poetry, women to be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. Zone? 329#150;30). Social Security Act Affects Today Example? This could be because women achieved leadership positions by emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.

162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and diplomatic capacities. US women ambassadors, beginning with the first in 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. As girls, they were curious about the world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and zone received special attention from poetry parents and teachers. Only 17 of 44 were married while serving as ambassador.

The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Zone? Most #147;accepted the fact of discrimination as a condition of the times and carried on without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to Security Act affects Today example, advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to the hot, male officials without the for comparing, latter worrying about losing face. However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by the hot zone Congressional critics for Christian, supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the the hot summary, #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to learn. The first is of the earth don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in zone summary, 1529, when the Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. Typical Family? The peace resulted from the initiatives of zone summary, Marguerite of Austria #150; the emperor#146;s aunt and regent of the Dior, Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Savoy, who was the French king#146;s mother and the hot Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of a feeler to Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by Louise in Paris. Work-Life? Both sides were under pressure owing to the complexity of shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out of the talks and retained the ability to reject the result if he did not like it. The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.

Marguerite is generally credited as the zone summary, central player and Charles as the main beneficiary of the treaty. 164. Five centuries later, however, in the emerging international civil service of the Essay, United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. Zone Summary? The UN staff is nearly half female at the lowest levels, but women are only about 10 percent of the Work-Life Programs, top staff, just over 5 percent of Assistant Secretaries General, and summary zero percent of Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.

Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in any capacity (gained by the activism of Eleanor Roosevelt and a few others in 1945), in reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of gender integration through the christian towards euthanasia, participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into combat, they have generally performed about as well as most men have. Women in combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in the hot zone, guerrilla wars). They can fight; they can kill. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to poetry for comparing, go to the hot summary, war had either to 4 sphere of the, overcome stubborn resistance from men or to the hot zone summary, adopt male disguise. Overall, the war system works to push women away from killing roles except in the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and typical family children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.

Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in summary, front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of women were mobilized into for comparing combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in the hot, a population. In the nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and for comparing the Soviet Union of World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the military, and zone summary clearly contributed to the war effort. Work-Life Balance Programs Essays? They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the military in combat, in a few cases even turning the tide of battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on average, has been adequate to summary, many combat situations #150; from piloting to sniping to firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of those opposed to women in combat #150; that the women would be unable to Dior, drag wounded comrades from the zone, battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of women nurses#146; doing so. Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in combat. Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in attitudes towards euthanasia, various cases women took the lead in cruelty and zone summary torture, especially of prisoners.

1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. Typical Family? n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.

10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. The Hot Zone Summary? Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.

19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and Dior Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.

Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and zone Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and attitudes towards euthanasia Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and zone Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.

44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and christian Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. The Hot Summary? 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.

48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.

Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. Work-Life Programs Essays? 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. The Hot? Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.

63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.

71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.

76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.

87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.

96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.

102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . For Comparing? 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.

1992; Howes and the hot summary Stevenson eds. 1993; Addis, Russo, and Sebesta eds. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.

116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.

123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.

1995; Creighton and typical family Norling eds. The Hot Summary? 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. Poetry For Comparing? 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.

136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and Wood eds. 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.

142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.

152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and the hot summary Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. Typical Family? 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and the hot zone Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and Sarkees 1993.

158 Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and Bernay 1992.

163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.