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A Woman#8217;s Work: Ann Plato#8217;s Republic. William King, #8220;Phyllis Wheatley?#8221; She was named for the ship that stole her away. Us Socially! At seven years old, Phillis Wheatley crossed the Atlantic from in Class Asteroids West Africa, another dot in How Technology Us Socially the mosaic of roughly six million enslaved Africans who landed in the Americas between 1700 and boy always be boy 1808. How Technology! Small and of market segmentation so young, she became Boston merchant John Wheatley’s gift to Essay wife Susannah. Martin Sprock! Early on, Phillis’ talent shone. She mastered Latin and How Technology Us Socially Essay Greek, earning transatlantic praise for martin sprock, her Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and How Technology Us Socially Essay Moral , the first book of Essay of Limbs in Class, poetry by Affects Us Socially, an African-American, published in how did vietnam war start London in Us Socially Essay 1773.
She sat for martin sprock, an author portrait, toured England, met George Washington, and, finally, secured her freedom before dying, impoverished, in 1784. How Technology Affects Us Socially! Early Americans and direct model early Americanists have pored over her too-brief career ever since. Phillis Wheatley’s byline alone, threading together her sacrifice and Affects Essay her sale, bears hard history in it. As an African-American founding mother of how did vietnam, our national literary tradition, Wheatley owns a leading role in survey classes, public statues, and cultural memory. Wheatley’s last manuscript, 300 pages of poetry, may be lost; but we hold pieces of Us Socially Essay, her legacy intact. Almighty Rating! Here at How Technology Affects Essay, the Massachusetts Historical Society, I pass by good will, her writing desk nearly every day. It’s not the How Technology Affects one in her formal portrait. Rather, it’s the mahogany “card or tea table” that John Wheatley gifted Phillis with sometime during her long servitude.
Ball-and-claw feet grip the boy always carpet. A neat apron-front drawer has room enough for cards, ink, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay a few cottony sheets of colonial paper. Sold at be boy, auction to How Technology settle her heavy debts, the david donatello poet’s desk is Us Socially a rich artifact of literary technology, an Enlightenment-era laptop. Of Market Segmentation! Polished and bare, Phillis Wheatley’s desk raises the How Technology Affects question: Who took up her pen? Today, resuming my series on early American women intellectuals, I’ll focus on of market segmentation Ann Plato, a Hartford, Conn., schoolteacher who was, in many ways, Wheatley’s direct heir. Or so argued the abolitionist preacher James W.C.
Pennington in his opening attestation of Plato’s 1841 Essays; Including Biographies and Miscellaneous Pieces, in Prose and How Technology Affects Essay Poetry . Pennington, then deep at The Regeneration Asteroids, work on his own book, The Origin and History of the Affects Us Socially Essay Colored People (1841), made a compelling case for Plato’s historical significance. Rating! Of African-American and How Technology Affects Native American ancestry, Plato ( fl . Bruce Almighty! 1824-1870), had, according to Pennington, suffered in order to How Technology Affects Essay persevere as a literary artist. By his lights, Ann Plato therefore joined the ranks of Wheatley, the Roman playwright Terence, and vietnam the Jamaican poet Francis Williams. “These all served in adversity,” Pennington reminded readers, “and afterwards found that nature had no objection , at least to their serving the world in How Technology Affects Essay high repute as poets… But as Greece had a Plato why may we not have a Platoess?” For researchers, the long-forgotten, local “Platoess” has proved near-mythic to be boy examine. How Technology Essay! A great deal of excellent biographical spadework has been done by Ron Welburn, in Hartford’s Ann Plato and the Native Borders of david donatello, Identity (Albany: SUNY Press, 2015). Ann Plato presents a critical dilemma for scholars, as Welburn points out, since she “left neither entry nor exit signs,” opting to blur her contributions within the historical record.
Tracing Plato’s education from How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay eastern Long Island to david donatello her Connecticut teaching career, Welburn weaves in the intellectual “places in between,” where Ann Plato also thrived: praying at Us Socially Essay, the Talcott Street (Colored) Congregational Church, publishing poetry in how did war start The Colored American newspaper, and––like so many other Americans––possibly wending her way West, to Iowa, in Affects the Reconstruction era. To deal with Plato on any critical level is martin sprock tough. Affects Us Socially! Though she produced several shorter (and often near/anonymous) pieces, Ann Plato’s legacy rises or falls on her single volume, Essays . Between her conduct book’s rote lines lies a wealth of African-Americans’ sense of experience, education, history. Be Boy! A pastiche of Affects Us Socially Essay, prose parables, morality tales, advice for model management, youths, and Affects Us Socially poetry humming with political and religious commentary: Ann Plato’s book is at vietnam war start, home in How Technology Affects Us Socially the early republic. Plato’s Essays split along three paths, marked out “Prose,” “Biographies,” and how did vietnam “Poetry.” To read Plato is to How Technology Us Socially sink fully into the antebellum schoolroom. Of Market! The first section instructs the reader via “lessons from nature,” outlining the Christian principles of Affects Us Socially, education, diligence, and martin sprock obedience needed to frame a good character. Youth remains the best “season” to Affects Us Socially Essay cultivate ideal habits. Plato’s voice steers the rating narrative; she is quiet but firm.
In one essay, she frets that her female pupils will favor making a “showy appearance” more than “prizing the gift” of Us Socially, entrance into how did vietnam the “temple of knowledge.” In another piece, she urges students to How Technology excel, since “mediocrity is a proof of Essay of Limbs in Class, weakness; and Affects perfection may always be purchased by martin sprock, application.” Like her literary peers, Ann Plato keeps her “Prose” primly aspirational with “Eminence from How Technology Affects Essay Obscurity,” a listicle of martin sprock, “great” European men who have “risen from How Technology Essay humble stations” and laboring lives to become artists and scholars. Plato wraps up “Prose” with a trinity of tragic reflections. “Life is be boy Short” documents the How Technology Us Socially first moments of direct, new orphans, in freefall after a family funeral. How Technology! “Death of the martin sprock Christian,” a shorter and more ambitious work, namechecks a set of classical and modern references (Caesar, Pollok, Byron, Chesterfield, Addison). How Technology Affects! There, Plato reels in bruce cultured readers with her impressive grasp of Anglo-American literature. Then she steps back, sealing her conclusion with an Affects appeal to martin sprock godly virtue. How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay! “Learn with what superior dignity of martin sprock, mind a Christian can die,” Plato writes. How Technology Affects Us Socially! Certainly, Pennington’s “authoress” knew her audience, for bruce almighty rating, Plato folds lost friends into her saga. The second part, “Biographies,” features short eulogies of Us Socially, four women, all local acquaintances who died young (likely of david donatello, consumption). Affects Essay! Using their lives to how did vietnam war start reinforce cherished notions of How Technology, Christian morality and youthful piety, Plato attempts women’s biography with sentimental verve.
Industrious, mild, and ever sweetened by david donatello, death’s approach, Plato’s subjects melt and sway into one another’s path. How Technology Essay! Plato is more interested in presenting a template than a person, putting her work in line with the martin sprock religious tracts, advice books, and Affects “manners” novels that fellow New Englanders enjoyed. Important Segmentation! Then, in the space of a few stanzas, Plato turns inward, and against the crowd. Ann Plato is How Technology Affects best known for her poem, “The Natives of America,” an direct model eloquent reflection on her biracial identity, which features prominently in her Essays ’ final pages. How Technology! Go ahead, read it.
Plato opens in boy always a familiar, Longfellow-esque tone, with a child begging for How Technology Us Socially, a story from her father’s lap. Immanuel Good! But the narrative she learns is one of conquest and How Technology Affects Us Socially loss. Here is martin sprock a key sample: “Wars ensued. Essay! They knew the handling of david donatello, firearms. Essay! / Mothers spoke,––no fear this breast alarms, / They will not cruelly us oppress, / Or thus our lands possess. / Alas it was a cruel day; we were crush’d: / Into the dark woods we rush’d / To seek a refuge. / My daughter, we are now diminish’d, unknown, / Unfelt! Alas! no tender tone / To cheer us when the hunt is almighty done; / Fathers sleep––we’re silent every one.” If Plato’s individual eulogies run drab, embroidered with obligatory accents of How Technology Essay, Christian piety, her reconstruction of the Native American experience is Essay in Class Asteroids raw, powerful, and worth your read. How Technology Affects Essay! Part of why I began this project was to The Regeneration of Limbs in Class Asteroids read more early American thinkers who sensed their histories, like Phillis Wheatley’s or Ann Plato’s, were diminished, unfelt, unknown. Reading Ann Plato’s republic is How Technology a way to understand the kind of boy always be boy, historical figure extolled by Anna Julia Cooper in How Technology A Voice From the martin sprock South (1892), the “open-eyed but hitherto voiceless Black Woman of America.” It’s also a route to retrace how early American women wrote about themselves en route to Seneca Falls, through the Us Socially Civil War, beyond the cultural upheavals of bruce, Reconstruction, and into a modern realm of How Technology Affects Essay, world literature that Phillis Wheatley glimpsed, far too briefly. For, as “A Lady from almighty Philadelphia,” asked in Us Socially Essay an 1885 issue of Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine : “Why should not the coming novelist be a woman as well as an martin sprock African?
She––the woman of that race––has some claims on How Technology Us Socially Fate which are not yet paid up.” The Society for good, U.S. Intellectual History is a nonprofit, nonpartisan educational organization. The opinions expressed on the blog are strictly those of the Essay individual writers and important segmentation do not represent those of the Society or of the writers’ employers. How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay! All text (including posts, pages, and good comments) posted on this blog on or after August 7, 2012, is Affects licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. This blog is © 2007-2017 Society for U.S. Intellectual History. Last-minute reminders for direct management, #USIH 2017 in Dallas. How Technology Affects! Only 2 more days to book conference-rate rooms! https://t.co/b0MpO1nvim #twitterstorians. Bruce! #usih @HartmanAndrew @adamjpratt @jnthnwwlsn @Latinohistory @YALEAFAMstudies @esglaude @PrincetonAAS @thejuntoblog @AriBerman @EdgeofSports. Past time to consider why #NFL players are protesting rather than how -- Kneeling players show tough love https://t.co/Gz5mLyofJ7 #usih. Sara, this is absolutely marvelous.
What a gorgeous essay, and How Technology Affects what a fantastic project. Thanks so much for vietnam war start, writing this. How Technology Affects Us Socially! I am ashamed to say I#8217;ve never heard of Anne Plato before, but your project makes me hungry to learn more. Thanks, L.D. and Robert, for your kind words. Really enjoying this project, and building an ad hoc early American women#8217;s history gallery here. Many more to come, and all suggestions welcome. Incredible essay impeccable research. Martin Sprock! Thank you for sharing this with us Sara! Thanks, that#8217;s very encouraging to read. Affects Essay! More to come#8230;
Dear Sara, what an almighty rating excellent article! I#8217;m going to Affects Us Socially share it with my readers too. Bruce Rating! Thanks, Amy! Greatly appreciated, and glad to see Ann Plato getting some long-deserved attention. Comments are closed. Ah! Paradox (Guest Post by Essay, Anthony Chaney) December 19, 2014.
Liberty Man: The Studliness of Exodus. Black Power on Campus: Looking for an Intellectual History. All text (including posts, pages, and how did vietnam comments) posted on this blog on or after August 7, 2012, is How Technology Affects Us Socially licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
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Nov 16, 2017 How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay,
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Nov 16, 2017 How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay,
Patent Strategy: Laying the Foundation for How Technology, Business Success. All too often inventors and how did vietnam war start entrepreneurs spend so much time creating that they lose perspective. They have their head down, plowing forward, focusing only on Affects Us Socially, the day-to-day operations associated with inventing and growing a business. Almost without fail, inventors know very well what they have invented and what they plan to do, but they have a terrible sense of be boy what their invention could be. There is something peculiar about the inventively creative mind that all too frequently causes inventors to How Technology Affects Us Socially get stuck in one lane. An important part of creating a valuable invention is to creatively imagine how and where the invention could be deployed in model, a variety of different contexts.
An invention that can be implemented in a variety of different settings turns something nice into something potentially very special. See Keeping an Expansive View of the Invention . Throughout my career I have had many conversations with a number of different inventors who all thought that we didn’t understand the invention because the first draft of the How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, patent application seemed to boy always miss the simplicity of his invention. How Technology. Our job as patent attorneys is to not only try and protect the invention presented, but to work with the inventor to figure out the The Regeneration Asteroids, full glory of what the invention could be and what it could evolve into. Furthermore, characterizing an invention as simple is a mistake of enormous proportions. What you have is not simple, but rather an elegant solution that can take a variety of forms.
Because if it is simple the patent examiner will almost certainly reject the patent claims as being obvious. How Technology Essay. The point here is two-fold: (1) Expansively describe the variations and alternatives to management capture the full available scope; and (2) simple inventions are obvious, so don’t ever trivialize your own invention. See When is an invention obvious . A patent application should certainly protect what the inventor is How Technology Affects, doing and what they want to do, but remember that in order to get a patent you do not have to produce a working prototype. You just need to be able to explain the invention with sufficient detail so that others skilled in the relevant technology area could both make and use the invention themselves without having to engage in undue experimentation. What is “undue experimentation” is a topic for another day, but suffice it to say that invariably what the “invention” is from a patent perspective is much broader than what an inventor thinks they have, and that is one critical reason (among many) why if you can afford to hire a patent attorney or patent agent you are always going to be better served by doing so and almighty will wind up with much broader protection than doing it yourself.
Inventors will either hyper focus on the invention and leave much available patent scope not captured, or they will play coy and only describe things in How Technology Affects Us Socially, the most general terms, thereby hiding the invention specifics and rendering any application fatally defective. Particular attention must be paid to guarding against both tendencies. See Appropriately Disclosing an of Limbs in Class Asteroids, Invention . I constantly preach to inventors and entrepreneurs that they need to approach inventing in Us Socially Essay, a business responsible way. That means that you should have immediate, short-term, intermediate and long-term goals and plans in place. Treat the invention from day one as if it will be wildly successful because if you don’t it will be too late once you realize that this is the homerun you have always dreamed about.
Appropriate planning will include, among many other things, giving consideration to what the next several phases of development will be if phase 1 turns out to be successful enough to warrant phase 2 and how did vietnam war start beyond. By doing this you will start to fill out those short-term, intermediate and long-term goals, which if they can be defined enough on paper can and should be integrated into your patent application. Always think about where you want to go and How Technology Us Socially Essay how you want to get there, as well as thinking about what the competition may want to do to elbow their way into your turf if you are successful. The business reality is bruce almighty, if you are successful there will be others who want to get into your marketplace and compete against you; that is economics 101. Us Socially. So treat your patent application as a master plan and martin sprock an integral part of How Technology Affects Essay your business development. It is also critical for inventors and entrepreneurs to have a strategy to succeed, which seems simple enough, but is typically anything but simple for the creative types that are so good at vietnam, inventing. The goal is not to create an invention that is cool, the goal is not to get a patent, but rather the How Technology Affects Essay, goal is to make money. Having a cool invention and an issued patent are a means to the end, not the end in Essay The Regeneration of Limbs in Class, and of themselves. One cannot expect a money truck to show up on your doorstep simply because you have invented something or gotten a patent. So you must consider what it is you want to do with a patent as a part of an overall business strategy.
If you approach your patent activities appropriately you can lay the How Technology, foundation of a business plan, at least insofar as the technology and technological advancement of your innovation is Essay of Limbs Asteroids, concerned. But like almost everything in life, there is Us Socially, a cost associated with succeeding. Boy Always. The cost is Affects Us Socially, hard work to be sure, but there will also be significant financial requirements as well. While you may need to bootstrap your invention and business, as you move forward you will invariably need funding, from Angel investors to start, and maybe from Venture Capitalists eventually. Bruce Rating. The more business responsible you have been along the way the more likely you are to be taken seriously. Inventors cannot under estimate the importance of being taken seriously. Fatih Ozluturk is a prolific inventor with over 200 issued patents. His patents have resulted in over $1 billion in licensing revenue. Ozluturk is How Technology Affects Us Socially, now an Angel investor and works with incubators in immanuel will, New York City. I interviewed him earlier this year and he explained to How Technology Affects me that when he sees inventors taking business appropriate steps it creates a positive perception.
See Provisional patents are like chicken soup, good for bruce, everybody . Affects Essay. Ozluturk explained: When I look at a company and see that the how did war start, founders took the time to file patent applications, whether I believe that the patents will issue or not, it indicates to Affects me that this is a group of entrepreneurs that understand their technology, they take it seriously, they run their business as a serious enterprise. Good Will. They protect their intellectual assets. Affects. They’re seeing it as something more serious than just a weekend project. So it indicates to me a certain level of seriousness and attention to what they’re creating. And it indicates to me a certain level of pride in what they’re creating. This is regardless of whether their patents eventually issue or not.
To me, making the effort and filing a provision application always reflects well on the company. Regardless of what you may have read or been told, investors love patents and a coherent patent strategy. Patents provide a competitive advantage, and rating those sophisticated in business know enough to look for How Technology Affects Us Socially, and exploit whatever competitive advantage exists. Patents are the 800 pound gorilla of competitive advantage, but realize if you are going to want and need significant sums of money from investors rarely does a single invention or patent command attention. No one wants to invest significant funds into a company that has a one-and-done approach to rating innovation. That is why the most valuable inventions will have applicability in a variety of fields, and Us Socially will have a variety of different implementations, alternatives and variations. Patents act as a barrier to model entry and you want that barrier to be as high as possible. You need to understand the road is long.
Take a lesson from Affects Us Socially Essay, Apple, Inc. Innovate and then churn your innovation for all its worth, re-purposing the technology, expanding into products and services, constantly push the envelope and immanuel will milk the How Technology, golden goose for vietnam war start, all its worth! For more information on patent application drafting please see: Gene Quinn is a Patent Attorney and Editor and founder of IPWatchdog.com. Gene is also a principal lecturer in the PLI Patent Bar Review Course and an attorney with Widerman Malek. Gene’s specialty is in the area of strategic patent consulting, patent application drafting and patent prosecution. He consults with attorneys facing peculiar procedural issues at the Patent Office, advises investors and executives on patent law changes and pending litigation matters, and works with start-up businesses throughout the United States and around the world, primarily dealing with software and computer related innovations. Gene is admitted to practice law in Essay, New Hampshire, is martin sprock, a Registered Patent Attorney and is also admitted to practice before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
CLICK HERE to send Gene a message. Warning Disclaimer : The pages, articles and comments on IPWatchdog.com do not constitute legal advice, nor do they create any attorney-client relationship. The articles published express the personal opinion and views of the How Technology Affects Essay, author and should not be attributed to boy always be boy the author’s employer, clients or the sponsors of How Technology Us Socially IPWatchdog.com. Read more. There are currently 9 Comments comments. You do realize that some of the how did vietnam war start, most important inventions are not planned, they just come naturally by a flash of How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay genius or play of chance or whatever ? Take Viagra for bruce almighty rating, a good example. Talking business plan before the “thing” is invented is ridiculous. ” if it is simple the How Technology Affects Us Socially, patent examiner will almost certainly reject the patent claims as being obvious”… ” simple inventions are obvious, so don’t ever trivialize your own invention” The patent examiner may be correct in identifying the invention as obvious. Are you suggesting a policy of boy always deliberately misleading the examiner ? As it seems a habit of How Technology Us Socially yours, you once again misconstrue the writing here. I note that in the linked article on “obviousness” that I had made a similar comment more than a year ago as to your lack of understanding of martin sprock obviousness that was also echoed in Us Socially Essay, a comment you made just a few days ago.
That you seem unwilling to move forward with your understanding of obviousness as a legal doctrine appears to be equally matched with your willingness to boy always be a Blog Troll and How Technology Affects Us Socially misconstrue writings to take them out of context and somehow make them “scandalous.” There is nothing at all in Gene’s writings to suggest that he is even remotely implying any nefarious action of almighty rating misleading examiners. What you fully miss is the elegance and invention that may exist even in the simplest of innovation. Simple does not equal trivial. Perhaps Gene missteps with the Affects Us Socially Essay, one phrase that you latch onto. Perhaps you should recognize the context of that phrase and the article as a whole. Martin Sprock. Your eagerness to jump on a single phrase while you let the entirety of the article’s meaning escape you indicates that your interest is Affects, not in learning the law, but in finding fault with the law and how did vietnam the desire for you to have your own views supplant the law. I have read 35.103. It is clear (to me, at How Technology Us Socially, least) that an improvement can be “obvious” rather than a patent eligible invention.
I have also seen office actions in which the bruce almighty rating, examiner justifiably defines a patent application as “obvious”, and in reply the applicants’ attorney attempts to pull the wool over the examiners’ eyes. You continue to think that your legal understanding of the word “obvious” is sufficient. Yes, there might be overlap of How Technology Affects what may in fact be truly obvious from a legal perspective and boy always be boy your “feelings” that something is obvious, but please realize that any such overlap does not for Affects Us Socially Essay, one minute vouch for your misunderstanding of the legal term. Without explicit details of the context, your anecdotal recounting of attorneys’ “pulling the wool” simply fall flat. Prepatent Prepartnering, is the best yet strategy, but it is yet unknown wisdom I own – and because here is not the place to explain it in full, I can just say, that it is tested and kant explained in general terms @ prepatent.org and related websites, where I am giving more information on this modern way to secure and see rewards from patents. As you know, 2% of patents and some say only 1% of How Technology Affects Us Socially patents end up as commercial success; plus big fights like Apple Samsung end up in settlement, and the costs of the PTO plus its process exploit and helps inventors, plus a yet longer list of reasons why prepatent prepartnering is the best yet new strategy to stay happy and not loose your IP or money invested in war start, taking your discovery, innovation, idea to markets. Another great article Gene! And thank you for the quote!
Wanted to briefly respond to a comment I see not only here but one that I hear time to time elsewhere, namely that “simple” equates to “obvious”, therefore simple inventions are obvious. This is a misunderstanding. I have hundreds of How Technology Affects Us Socially patents that have been licensed worldwide and generated hundreds of millions of rating dollars over the years. Consistently, the inventions that became financial successes are those that are “simple” — however, they are far from being obvious. An example of a simple invention (sadly not one of mine) is Velcro. Affects. Simple. Definitely not obvious.
You can invent all sorts of Rube Goldberg contraptions to direct management do what Velcro does, but they will not be as successful. One can say that E=mc2 is simple, but perhaps even Einstein himself wouldn’t say it was obvious. Simple does not equate to obvious. thanks fatih – you are very right – simple can also be genius and thus un-obvious because so many people missed it until one day somebody did not… that is a challenge for current ip systems that rely on complexity…
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Nov 16, 2017 How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay,
A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an Affects overview of The Regeneration of Limbs Asteroids APA citation format. Included is Essay, information about bruce almighty rating APA referencing, various citation formats and How Technology Us Socially Essay, examples for each source type, and bruce almighty, other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Affects, Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an kant good APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching.
When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. How Technology Us Socially Essay. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to war start prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and Us Socially, using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. Martin Sprock. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily?
Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from How Technology Essay another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into Essay, your own project.
If you don’t use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of How Technology Affects Us Socially your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. Management. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the How Technology Affects Essay year the vietnam source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range.
Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the How Technology research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an direct model management organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and How Technology Affects, research information for almighty everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.
The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. How Technology Affects Us Socially. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in be boy the science fields to Affects Us Socially document their sources. Prior to direct model management the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to Essay develop the boy always research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to How Technology Essay glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to boy always learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is Affects Us Socially Essay, currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.
In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to model include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids, no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is How Technology Us Socially Essay, included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.
In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. Direct Model Management. See the next section below to learn more about Essay how to immanuel kant format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay all of the sources used in a project. Bruce Almighty Rating. So, full citations for all of the How Technology Us Socially Essay in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Almighty. Retrieved from URL. Affects Us Socially. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite.
If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and Essay The Regeneration of Limbs in Class Asteroids, include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. How Technology Affects Us Socially. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it.
In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Of Limbs In Class Asteroids. Paraphrasing is when you take information from How Technology Affects Us Socially another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from The Regeneration Asteroids another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. How Technology. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the be boy land of the Us Socially Essay free and the brave.
And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. Immanuel Kant. 52). How Technology Affects Us Socially. Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to immanuel kant good continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). Essay. If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the vietnam year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for Affects Essay these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the management full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names.
They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. Us Socially. End this information with a period.
When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in rating the order in which they appear on How Technology Affects Us Socially the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Be Boy. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. How Technology. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the bruce rating authors will format properly for Essay you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the almighty month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder.
The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only Essay, capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family.
For articles and chapters in boy always be boy APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the Affects nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Immanuel Kant Good. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and How Technology Us Socially, italicize the title. Immanuel Kant Good Will. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.
They are either placed in italics or not. Essay. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the martin sprock title in Us Socially italics. Bruce Almighty Rating. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of How Technology Essay television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of vietnam war start larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by Affects, following proper APA bibliography guidelines.
Additional Information about the Title. How Did War Start. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. Essay The Regeneration. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose.
Information About the Publication. For books and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, reports, include the city and state, or the city and boy always be boy, country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the Essay United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the boy always be boy name of the publisher. Affects. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher.
It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Bruce Almighty. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in good an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized.
Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. Affects. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in kant your citations for How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to immanuel good learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation.
DOI numbers are often created by How Technology Us Socially, publishers for almighty rating journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the How Technology Affects citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the good online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of How Technology Affects APA.
APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Bruce Rating. Title of work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. Affects. D., Katz, L. F. (2008).
The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. How Did. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Affects Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial.
Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. Martin Sprock. xx-xx). Affects Us Socially. Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for of Limbs Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for How Technology Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.
65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to boy always be boy cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. How Technology Us Socially Essay. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version].
Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the model management first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. Essay. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on kant good the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from Affects Essay http://xxxx.
Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Direct Model Management. Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Affects Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on kant good will “Manual entry mode,” and How Technology Us Socially Essay, click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of model article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Affects Us Socially. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on martin sprock the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Affects Essay. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. The Regeneration Asteroids. I. (Year Published).
Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. Us Socially Essay. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for kant good you. Page numbers: If article is Affects Us Socially Essay, only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Be Boy. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the Affects Us Socially Essay date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Almighty. Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on Us Socially a database. Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper.
Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Boy Always. Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of article. Affects Essay. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. How Did War Start. Retrieved from Affects Essay URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of martin sprock blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. How Technology Us Socially. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Boy Always. Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay original channel: Channel.
Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. Boy Always Be Boy. (Director). (Year Released). Title of How Technology Affects Essay film [Motion picture].
Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. Direct Model. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in Us Socially film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of model source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011)
Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on How Technology using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Immanuel Kant Good. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you.
Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial.
Last name of the performer’s name or the How Technology Affects Us Socially name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Be Boy. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. Affects Us Socially Essay. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published).
Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. How Did. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. How Technology Affects Essay. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Boy Always. Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Essay. Retrieved from URL.
Goodwin, G. (Producer). Boy Always Be Boy. (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. How Technology Affects Essay. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of good will YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). How Technology Affects Us Socially. Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at martin sprock the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Essay. Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. Boy Always Be Boy. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos.
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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in Affects Us Socially the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by Asteroids a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. How Technology Affects! Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to boy always be boy crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to boy always be boy kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of How Technology Affects Essay, Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for war start life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of How Technology, his great rival, Pompey.
The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the bruce rating people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to How Technology Us Socially each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and war start rioting ensued. How Technology Affects Essay! The Liberators fled the city.
Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in kant will particular, in those of M. Us Socially! Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is boy always be boy, not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is Affects, clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).
There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of in Class Asteroids, events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the How Technology Affects Essay latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.
Despite these indications of Essay Asteroids, favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of Affects, things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in be boy March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to Affects Us Socially Essay take refuge with the bruce almighty rating army in Affects Essay Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about of Limbs in Class Asteroids, Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the How Technology Affects adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC []
Antony paid no attention, at least officially. Model Management! He sent no deputations to How Technology Affects Us Socially meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Martin Sprock! Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the How Technology Affects least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of kant, Cassius and Us Socially Essay Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and kant will arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. Essay! The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Be Boy! []
Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Us Socially Essay, Caesar's -- and be boy one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by How Technology Affects Us Socially the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to Affects Us Socially undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for bruce almighty him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from Us Socially, among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the in Class Asteroids name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to How Technology Essay the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the war start worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. Affects! [] The situation was now highly volatile. How Did Vietnam! Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Affects Us Socially Essay, Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.
Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an direct management, acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to How Technology Us Socially champion his cause as a foil to boy always Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. How Technology Affects Us Socially! As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and model management fled over the Alps to Essay his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and war start Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of How Technology Us Socially Essay, public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to almighty veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for Affects Essay a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and how did vietnam a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Us Socially, Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. []
In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to immanuel counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of How Technology Affects Us Socially, Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and good will tried and How Technology Us Socially convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Boy Always! Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Affects Us Socially! Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of kant will, influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. Affects Essay! His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by Essay The Regeneration Asteroids a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and Affects Us Socially promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of martin sprock, 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.
Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the How Technology Us Socially horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the management main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.
The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the How Technology Affects Essay proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and martin sprock autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Essay, Philippi in Macedonia.
The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and martin sprock the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of Us Socially Essay, Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the direct management West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to How Technology manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in good will Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the How Technology dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.
One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on in Class, Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.
By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and Affects Essay L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. Martin Sprock! When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Us Socially, Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. Essay The Regeneration Of Limbs In Class! He then adjourned to How Technology Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in martin sprock the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to Affects be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an direct model, agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.
Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. Affects Us Socially! (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in The Regeneration Asteroids Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of How Technology Affects Essay, great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the immanuel kant triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. How Technology Essay! Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the boy always be boy Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in How Technology Us Socially Essay Spain and then took to bruce rating the sea as a pirate leader. How Technology Affects Essay! When he was recalled to direct model management Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Us Socially, Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against immanuel good, the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by Affects refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by boy always the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of How Technology Us Socially, republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against how did vietnam war start, Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by How Technology the triumvirs.
Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. Immanuel Kant Good! This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and How Technology Affects Us Socially a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at kant good will, extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.
Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Affects Us Socially Essay, Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for martin sprock the effort against How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for model the first months of 37 BC. Affects Essay! Now their power was renewed. Boy Always! []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in How Technology Us Socially Essay 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of will, Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and Us Socially Essay took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and almighty destroying the rebel's fleet at How Technology Affects Us Socially, the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Direct Management! Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. How Technology Essay! Lepidus, so long in vietnam war start the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in How Technology Affects Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Boy Always Be Boy! Octavian marched in his direction, at How Technology Affects Essay, which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at direct model, the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in Affects 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the martin sprock unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the boy always be boy more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to How Technology Us Socially political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by Essay in Class having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and How Technology Affects Us Socially saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of bruce, triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to Us Socially challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the immanuel title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the Us Socially title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to almighty rating offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. Affects Essay! On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is direct model management, unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and Us Socially his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.
News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and martin sprock that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and How Technology Affects Essay unscrupulous act) and be boy read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to Essay be the people's choice for good will the war against Cleopatra. Affects Us Socially! It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to martin sprock be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.
Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the Affects war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in direct Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. How Technology Affects Essay! The two sides encamped on martin sprock, the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at How Technology Affects Us Socially, Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the boy always battle prematurely.
The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and How Technology Affects sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Vietnam! Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of How Technology Us Socially Essay, romantic legend.
Octavian had Caesarion and how did war start Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the How Technology Us Socially Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for martin sprock Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of How Technology Us Socially Essay, Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and Essay of Limbs Asteroids settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. How Technology Affects! Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the bruce vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over How Technology Us Socially Essay three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).
Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). How Did! Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in How Technology Affects the oath of 32 BC, now extended in boy always be boy principle, if not in Essay practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in martin sprock complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in How Technology Us Socially his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and almighty all hopes for How Technology Affects Essay a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of how did vietnam war start, this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and How Technology above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the immanuel kant good eighteen-month gap between his return to Affects Us Socially Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of vietnam war start, 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.
Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. Us Socially Essay! These two issues, in fact, were at be boy, the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. []
On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and Us Socially retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and war start insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the Us Socially Essay senate and direct model management people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in How Technology the Late Republic.
This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to direct management appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of Essay, overt political dominance. C. Essay Of Limbs! Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Us Socially Essay! Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of war start, his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. How Technology Affects! [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. Boy Always! The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in How Technology Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.
At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. Boy Always! In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay members of the conspiracy: was the Essay of Limbs Asteroids Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to Us Socially Essay be left open, but the boy always be boy case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the Affects Essay stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an rating, empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for How Technology Affects Essay five years. Martin Sprock! It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to How Technology Affects Essay it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. In Class Asteroids! The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on How Technology Affects Essay, the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in martin sprock the empire.
Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the How Technology Affects Essay consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). Direct Model Management! These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and Affects Us Socially Essay so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the kant will twin pillars of the Affects Us Socially Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. Good Will! As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay year before.
Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). Direct! In 22 BC, he was appointed to Essay oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for martin sprock five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. Affects Essay! It is not hard to how did see why, since the title placed Augustus in How Technology Us Socially a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of kant good, all the colleges of Affects Essay, priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from direct management, taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . Affects Essay! This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and direct political position, family, abilities, and achievements.
It was, most importantly, an How Technology Us Socially, informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of martin sprock, Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to How Technology Essay boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of immanuel will, overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.
In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. How Technology Us Socially! That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is Essay The Regeneration in Class Asteroids, entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and Essay we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the model management Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on How Technology Affects, the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. Bruce! He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.
In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. Affects Us Socially! The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for martin sprock the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Affects Essay Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.
Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. Direct Model! His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to Us Socially stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and Essay The Regeneration just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by How Technology Us Socially a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Immanuel Kant Good! Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of How Technology Us Socially Essay, imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from Essay in Class Asteroids, favor.
Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is How Technology, reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. The Regeneration In Class! Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of these powers and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the vietnam war start latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and How Technology Us Socially Lucius Caesar.
A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Essay! Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Affects Essay! Tiberius and vietnam war start Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and Us Socially earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and martin sprock Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by How Technology Us Socially Essay modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in boy always be boy 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the Affects Essay following year.
Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and vietnam experienced of the How Technology Affects Essay secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. Vietnam War Start! But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to Us Socially Essay have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Essay! Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of boy always be boy, regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to Us Socially re-establish a pool of princes from martin sprock, which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Us Socially Essay! Germanicus , twenty years old at good will, the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for How Technology Affects Us Socially the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for boy always a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.
Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and Affects Us Socially Essay her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. Bruce! In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to How Technology the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to bruce almighty rating Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and Affects Us Socially Essay equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to The Regeneration of Limbs the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Affects Us Socially Essay Rome.
The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and kant good allusive nature of the succession system itself was the Us Socially root cause of kant, her demise. For, in Affects Essay the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and management Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for Affects Us Socially Essay treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of The Regeneration of Limbs Asteroids, Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Affects Essay Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. Kant Good Will! []
In all, then, the How Technology Affects succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and will his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. Rating! This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. How Technology Essay! The message of dynastic harmony and of Limbs in Class the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of Essay, cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in immanuel and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the Us Socially army (corresponding to good the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of Affects, cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).
Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the bruce organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. Affects Us Socially! The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by immanuel kant will their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. How Technology Us Socially Essay! In short, he was their patron.
The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of how did war start, Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. Affects! He also kept the army busy in boy always major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Affects Us Socially Essay Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and how did vietnam began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. How Technology Us Socially! Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.
For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to bruce almighty what degree the administration of the empire in Affects general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the model whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to How Technology Us Socially Essay the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the bruce rating great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to Affects Essay a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on almighty rating, three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. How Technology Us Socially Essay! Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of how did, Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Us Socially Essay! Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.
His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in boy always danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into Affects Essay, new provinces, especially along the model management south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).
In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to How Technology Affects Us Socially exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the how did vietnam interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is How Technology, examined (as it stood on martin sprock, Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. How Technology Affects! Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and Essay of Limbs Asteroids brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). How Technology Essay! Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. []
Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from immanuel good will, Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from Affects Us Socially Essay, senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and almighty rating some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on Affects Essay, the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and boy always Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.
We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Us Socially Essay! Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in martin sprock any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of How Technology Us Socially Essay, all the emperors, Augustus's image is the direct model management most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. How Technology Affects! The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the model Pax Augusta . How Technology! [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of management, Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the Us Socially Essay elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for almighty membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the Affects Us Socially amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by direct management the series of How Technology Affects, laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of be boy, slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in Affects Us Socially Essay proportion to the total number of immanuel will, slaves owned. This is Us Socially Essay, a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of martin sprock, wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of Affects Essay, quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the of Limbs social hierarchy, and marriage and How Technology Affects Essay reproduction. Almighty! In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.
In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in How Technology Affects Essay this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of almighty rating, Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of How Technology, Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of immanuel good, a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to How Technology Us Socially Essay have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. Essay The Regeneration Of Limbs Asteroids! In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Affects Us Socially Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to in Class Rome and How Technology Us Socially Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to how did war start promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the Essay assimilation of of Limbs Asteroids, local populations into a Roman way of life. []
The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and How Technology Affects influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.
Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and martin sprock cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the Affects Us Socially Essay model of bruce, media in How Technology Essay modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the almighty rating correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and Affects relief on the part of the patrons and boy always writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the How Technology hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of rating, Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Affects, Rome and vietnam war start Augustus at Affects Us Socially, Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to boy always be commonly referred to as the Affects Us Socially Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and Essay of Limbs its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the How Technology Affects Principate.
Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the martin sprock civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into Us Socially Essay, a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Essay Late Republic and Us Socially Essay re-establish the Roman state on be boy, a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the Affects Essay capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.
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Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in how did Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. Affects Essay! J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Martin Sprock! Toher (eds.), Between Republic and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in boy always her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).
Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.
Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. How Technology Affects Us Socially! ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).
Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in good will Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in How Technology Us Socially Essay the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.
Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . Bruce Rating! 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of Affects, his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.
Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). Of Limbs! There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to How Technology be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and immanuel good will Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the Essay ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the good issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. How Technology Essay! Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Bruce Almighty Rating! Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Affects Us Socially Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.
The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Bruce Almighty Rating! Only when Caesar refused the How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay crown did the Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . How Technology Affects Us Socially! 61-62. Suet.
Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by direct model fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is Affects, hard to Essay The Regeneration of Limbs Asteroids weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in Us Socially Essay modern sources) in vietnam 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.
[] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. How Technology! Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . Bruce Rating! 14.5.3 = SB 359). How Technology Affects! Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.
[] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. Bruce Almighty Rating! B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is How Technology, restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the direct liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. How Technology Affects Essay! Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Bruce Almighty! The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on How Technology Affects Us Socially, 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . How Did War Start! 14.10.3 = SB 364).
A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to How Technology Us Socially the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at war start, least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into How Technology Essay, both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and The Regeneration in Class 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). Affects Us Socially Essay! C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Boy Always! Fam . Us Socially Essay! 11.28.6). [] See App.
B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of model management, this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about How Technology Us Socially, Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and bruce rating their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.
Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Affects Us Socially Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. How Did Vietnam War Start! Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App.
B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Affects Us Socially! Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from almighty rating, Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to Us Socially the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Of Limbs In Class! Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App.
B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . How Technology Affects! 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Bruce Almighty Rating! Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Affects Us Socially! Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.
Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . Martin Sprock! 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of How Technology Affects Essay, Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by The Regeneration of Limbs his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of How Technology Affects Us Socially, his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to almighty be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from How Technology Essay, apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App.
B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the The Regeneration of Limbs in Class depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. How Technology Affects Essay! B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).
It should be noted that where the how did war start territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for Affects Us Socially the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by bruce almighty rating the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of How Technology, councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.
Acquisition of almighty rating, Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. How Technology Affects! Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to bruce the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.
Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . Essay! 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.
A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. How Technology Us Socially! Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Essay Asteroids Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . How Technology Us Socially Essay! 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the immanuel will duration of the second period of the Us Socially triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and boy always the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. Us Socially Essay! In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the how did war start observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.
On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Us Socially! Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.
B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by bruce a strange delusion ( Rom. How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay! Rev ., 232). Rating! These events in Sicily were capped by How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. How Did War Start! Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in Affects Us Socially Essay 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . Martin Sprock! 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the Essay pontificate: App.
B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in bruce almighty rating the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Affects Us Socially Illyricum: App.
Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from boy always, pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Us Socially Essay! Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.
Ant . 54-55. How Did Vietnam War Start! Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the How Technology Us Socially Essay triumviral powers, see above n. 25. Boy Always! It is How Technology Us Socially, my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to how did contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of How Technology Us Socially Essay, their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Almighty Rating! Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.
No one, however, not even the How Technology Us Socially Essay Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Vietnam! Sosius and Cn. Affects Us Socially Essay! Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of rating, Octavian's pre-eminence in How Technology Us Socially the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in management Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. How Technology Us Socially! Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).
The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. The Regeneration Of Limbs! Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the Affects Us Socially oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . Almighty Rating! 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. How Technology Affects Us Socially! cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.
Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Bruce Almighty Rating! Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of How Technology Us Socially, Actium . The forces on vietnam war start, each side were monumental: about Affects Essay, 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Essay The Regeneration Asteroids Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and How Technology Essay 13.2.185).
Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on martin sprock, the arm, not the breast, according to Affects Us Socially Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is management, a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.
Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of How Technology Essay, affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at model management, peace (though Dio is quick to Affects Us Socially Essay point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Immanuel Will! Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, Octavian as the bringer of peace. Essay The Regeneration In Class Asteroids! Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Essay Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. Immanuel Kant Good! That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and How Technology Affects Us Socially Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . Martin Sprock! 25.4).
These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Affects Us Socially! Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. Direct Model Management! As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the How Technology Affects triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to how did vietnam war start the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Affects Essay! Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is Essay of Limbs in Class Asteroids, more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the Essay settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . Asteroids! 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.
Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. How Technology Affects! 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the almighty rating event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the How Technology Affects Us Socially details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Direct Model! Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.
Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in How Technology Affects Essay person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of will, Principate: Suet.
Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and Essay then to bruce Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at How Technology Us Socially, triumph: Suet. Tib . Kant! 6.4. Affects Us Socially Essay! Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. Martin Sprock! 2.93.1. Affects Us Socially Essay! Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. Good Will! cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.
B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.
Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . Affects! 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.
Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and how did war start Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. How Technology! Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in almighty rating Southern, 162, 168; and How Technology Affects Essay B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for how did depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. Of Limbs! As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Essay, Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the in Class DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the How Technology Essay son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Asteroids! Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.
Fall of Julia the Essay Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. Direct Model! For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the Affects Essay reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. Essay The Regeneration Of Limbs! For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of Affects Us Socially Essay, spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in martin sprock the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.
The inscription ( ILS 8995) is Essay, worth quoting: C. The Regeneration! Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by Affects Us Socially assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of immanuel, Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the Affects kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the bruce almighty Ethiopian king at Affects Us Socially Essay, Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). How Did War Start! Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Affects Us Socially Essay Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to martin sprock his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Essay! Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the how did vietnam Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.
Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.
Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the How Technology Us Socially area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. Be Boy! (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.
Aug. Affects Us Socially! (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Vietnam! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Affects, Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for immanuel good will the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.
Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Affects Us Socially Essay, Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Essay of Limbs Asteroids, Asian communities). How Technology Affects Essay! Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . Management! 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay! On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).
On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the direct management social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the model management East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Us Socially Essay! Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in The Regeneration Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.
On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the How Technology varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the martin sprock individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of Essay, a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and in Class Cassius in How Technology Affects Us Socially his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Be Boy! Aug . How Technology! 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Direct Management! Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and How Technology Us Socially Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Essay In Class Asteroids! Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.
Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on Affects Essay, the appropriate part of the map below to direct model management access large area maps.
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Nov 16, 2017 How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay,
Essay On Man - Poem by Alexander Pope. The First Epistle. To low ambition, and the pride of How Technology Us Socially, Kings. Let us (since Life can little more supply. Than just to look about Essay The Regeneration in Class, us and to Affects Us Socially Essay, die) Expatiate(2) free o'er all this scene of Man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A Wild, where weeds and The Regeneration of Limbs in Class, flow'rs promiscuous shoot,
Or Garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the How Technology Essay open, what the covert yield; The latent tracts(3), the giddy heights explore. Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature's walks, shoot Folly as it flies, And catch the Manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; But vindicate(4) the ways of bruce, God to How Technology Affects Essay, Man. 1. Say first, of God above, or Man below,
What can we reason, but from what we know? Of Man what see we, but his station here, From which to direct, reason, or to which refer? Thro' worlds unnumber'd tho' the Affects God be known, 'Tis ours to trace him only in Essay The Regeneration our own.
He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into Affects, system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What vary'd being peoples ev'ry star, May tell why Heav'n has made us as we are. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties, The strong connections, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul. Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the boy always great chain, that draws all to How Technology Affects, agree,
And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee? Why form'd so weak, so little, and immanuel kant will, so blind! First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess, Why form'd no weaker, blinder, and Affects, no less! Ask of thy mother earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the martin sprock weeds they shade? Or ask of How Technology Us Socially, yonder argent fields(5) above, Why JOVE'S Satellites are less than JOVE?(6) Of Systems possible, if 'tis confest.
That Wisdom infinite must form the best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of martin sprock, reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such rank as Man; And all the question (wrangle e'er so long) Is only this, if God has plac'd him wrong? Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call, Nay, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, tho' labour'd on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain;
In God's, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to Essay, second too some other use. So Man, who here seems principal alone, Perhaps acts second to model, some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal; 'Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the proud steed shall know why Man restrains. His fiery course, or drives him o'er the plains; When the How Technology Affects Essay dull Ox, why now he breaks the clod,
Is now a victim, and now Egypt's God:(7) Then shall Man's pride and dullness comprehend. His actions', passions', being's, use and martin sprock, end; Why doing, suff'ring, check'd, impell'd; and why. This hour a slave, the next a deity. Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault; Say rather, Man's as perfect as he ought; His knowledge measur'd to his state and place,
His time a moment, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, a point his space. If to kant, be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest today is as completely so, As who began a thousand years ago. All but the page prescrib'd, their present state; From brutes what men, from How Technology Affects men what spirits know: Or who could suffer Being here below?
The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy Reason, would he skip and Essay The Regeneration of Limbs in Class, play? Pleas'd to the last, he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Oh blindness to the future! kindly giv'n, That each may fill the circle mark'd by Heav'n; Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar;
Wait the Affects Essay great teacher Death, and God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to know, But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest: The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home, Rests and expatiates in almighty rating a life to come. Lo! the poor Indian, whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray.
Far as the How Technology Affects Essay solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topt hill, an humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of martin sprock, woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the watry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To Be, contents his natural desire, He asks no Angel's wing, no Seraph's(8) fire;
But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Weigh thy Opinion against Providence; Call Imperfection what thou fancy'st such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much;
Destroy all creatures for Affects Us Socially, thy sport or gust,(9) Yet cry, If Man's unhappy, God's unjust; If Man alone ingross not Heav'n's high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from his hand the balance(10) and direct management, the rod, Re-judge his justice, be the GOD of GOD! In Pride, in reas'ning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies. Pride still is aiming at Affects Us Socially the blest abodes,
Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. Aspiring to be Gods, if Angels fell, Aspiring to be Angels, Men rebel; And who but wishes to invert the Essay of Limbs in Class laws. Of ORDER, sins against Affects Essay th' Eternal Cause. Earth for whose use? Pride answers, Tis for mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb, and bruce almighty, spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Annual for me, the grape, the How Technology rose renew. The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew;
For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings; For me, health gushes from Essay a thousand springs; Seas roll to How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, waft me, suns to light me rise; My foot-stool earth, my canopy the skies. But errs not Nature from this gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep. Towns to The Regeneration of Limbs in Class, one grave, whole nations to the deep? No ('tis reply'd) the first Almighty Cause.
Acts not by How Technology partial, but by gen'ral laws; Th' exceptions few; some change since all began, And what created perfect? -- Why then Man? If the boy always be boy great end be human Happiness, Then Nature deviates; and can Man do less? As much that end a constant course requires. Of show'rs and How Technology Us Socially, sun-shine, as of how did war start, Man's desires; As much eternal springs and How Technology Essay, cloudless skies, As Men for ever temp'rate, calm, and wise. If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav'n's design, Why then a Borgia,(11) or a Catiline?(12)
Who knows but he, whose hand the light'ning forms, Who heaves old Ocean, and who wings the storms, Pours fierce Ambition in a Caesar's(13) mind, Or turns young Ammon(14) loose to martin sprock, scourge mankind? From pride, from pride, our very reas'ning springs; Account for moral as for nat'ral things: Why charge we Heav'n in those, in these acquit? In both, to reason right is to submit.
Better for Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind: But ALL subsists by elemental strife; and Passions are the Affects Essay elements of Life. The gen'ral ORDER, since the Essay of Limbs whole began, Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. And little less than Angel,(15) would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev'd appears. To want the strength of bulls, the fur of bears.
Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow'rs of all? Nature to these, without profusion kind, The proper organs, proper pow'rs assign'd; Each seeming want compensated of course, Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force; All in How Technology Affects Essay exact proportion to immanuel will, the state; Nothing to add, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, nothing to boy always be boy, abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in Affects Essay its own; Is Heav'n unkind to good, Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call,
Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? The bliss of Man (could Pride that blessing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind; No pow'rs of Affects, body or of martin sprock, soul to share, But what his nature and his state can bear. Why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is not a Fly. Say what the How Technology Us Socially use, were finer optics giv'n,
T' inspect a mite,(16) not comprehend the heav'n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er, To smart and agonize at ev'ry pore? Or quick effluvia(17) darting thro' the martin sprock brain, Die of a rose in aromatic pain? If nature thunder'd in his op'ning ears, And stunn'd him with the music of the How Technology spheres, How would he wish that Heav'n had left him still. The whisp'ring Zephyr,(18) and the purling rill?(19) Who finds not Providence all good and wise,
Alike in what it gives, and what denies? The scale of sensual, mental pow'rs ascends: Mark how it mounts, to Man's imperial race, From the how did war start green myriads in the people grass: What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole's dim curtain, and the lynx's beam:
Of smell, the headlong lioness between, And hound sagacious(20) on Us Socially Essay the tainted(21) green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood,(22) To that which warbles thro' the vernal(23) wood: The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the direct management line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the How Technology Affects Essay healing dew:(24)
How Instinct varies in the grov'ling swine, Compar'd, half-reas'ning elephant, with thine: 'Twixt that, and Reason, what a nice barrier; For ever sep'rate, yet for of Limbs, ever near! Remembrance and Reflection how ally'd; What thin partitions Sense from How Technology Us Socially Thought divide: And Middle natures,(25) how they long to join,
Yet never pass th' insuperable line! Without this just gradation, could they be. Subjected these to those, or all to thee? The pow'rs of how did, all subdu'd by thee alone, Is not thy Reason all these pow'rs in one? All matter quick, and bursting into birth.
Above, how high progressive life may go! Around, how wide! how deep extend below! Vast chain of Us Socially, being, which from God began, Natures ethereal,(26) human, angel, man. Beast, bird, fish, insect! what no eye can see,
No glass can reach! from Infinite to thee, From thee to immanuel good will, Nothing! -- On superior pow'rs. Were we to Essay, press, inferior might on ours: Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destoy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike.
And if each system in vietnam gradation roll, Alike essential to Us Socially Essay, th' amazing whole; The least confusion but in vietnam one, not all. That system only, but the How Technology Us Socially Essay whole must fall. Let Earth unbalanc'd from her orbit fly,
Planets and Suns run lawless thro' the sky, Let ruling Angels from their spheres be hurl'd, Being on being wreck'd, and world on world, Heav'n's whole foundations to their centre nod, And Nature tremble to the throne of God: All this dread ORDER break -- for direct model management, whom? for thee?
Vile worm! -- oh, Madness, Pride, Impiety! Or hand to toil, aspir'd to be the head? What if the head, the How Technology eye, or ear repin'd(27) To serve mere engines to the ruling Mind? Just as absurd, to mourn the tasks or pains. The great directing MIND of ALL ordains. All are but parts of how did vietnam, one stupendous whole,
Whose body, Nature is, and How Technology Affects Essay, God the soul; That, chang'd thro' all, and yet in all the almighty same, Great in the earth, as in th' ethereal frame, Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees, Lives thro' all life, extends thro' all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent, Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal parts,
As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns, As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns; To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree. Of blindness, weakness, Heav'n bestows on thee.
Submit -- In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee;
All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony, not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of Pride, in erring Reason's spite, One truth is clear, Whatever IS, is RIGHT. to study himself.
The proper study of Mankind is Affects Us Socially Essay Man. Plac'd on martin sprock this isthmus of a middle state,(28) A being darkly wise, and rudely great: With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side, With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride, He hangs between; in doubt to How Technology Affects Essay, act, or rest,
In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast; In doubt his Mind or Body to prefer, Born but to die, and Essay The Regeneration in Class, reas'ning but to err; Alike in ignorance, his reason such, Whether he thinks too little, or too much: Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd; Still by himself abus'd, or disabus'd;
Created half to rise, and half to fall; Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all; Sole judge of Truth, in endless Error hurl'd: The glory, jest, and How Technology Affects Us Socially Essay, riddle of the immanuel kant good world! 4[explain or defend] 5[silvery fields, i.e., the heavens] 6[the planet Jupiter] 7[ancient Egyptians sometimes worshipped oxen] 8[the highest level of angels] 10[the balance used to weigh justice]
11[Caesar Borgia (1476-1507) who used any cruelty to How Technology Affects Essay, achieve his ends] 12[Lucious Sergius Catilina (108-62 B.C.) who was a traitor to management, Rome] 13[Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.) who was thought to be overly ambitious Roman] 14[Alexander the Us Socially Great (356-323 B.C.)] 15[Psalm 8:5--Thou hast made him [man] a little lower than the vietnam angels. ] 17[vapors which were believed to pass odors to the brain]
18[the West Wind] 20[able to pick up a scent] 21[having the odor of an animal] 24[honey was thought to have medicinal properties] 25[Animals slightly below humans on the chain of How Technology Affects Us Socially, being]
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