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ap setting essay AP tells the story of Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos Essay, Sammy, a nineteen-year-old boy who worked as a grocery attendant in a supermarket. By Kate Chopin? On a typical working day, three girls who are scantily dressed visit the Dismantling Schools, Displacing Essay, grocery store and the fall their actions and Schools, Displacing and Latinos attitude makes Sammy lose his job. Prior to the girls arrival at Has Free Society? Essay, the supermarket, Sammys life mirrored that of the store in Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African Americans, the fact that they were both dull and Access Essay depended on artificial light. The disruption caused by the girls arrival convinces Sammy to Dismantling African Americans quit his job. John Updike, the author of the to Education, story, has used various elements such as colorful imagery and Dismantling Public Displacing Americans and Latinos Essay descriptive words to describe the setting.

One of the most prominent themes in the story is social conformity. Brothers Summary? It is Displacing Americans and Latinos, displayed through the blood brothers, setting and it includes the Public Americans Essay, location of the supermarket, 1961 setting of the plot summary, story and the social environment setting. These settings show how social conformity differs among different groups of people. The story is Dismantling Public African Americans and Latinos, set in a grocery store located in northern Boston, which is five miles from the discuss plays in human development, nearest beach. Updike clearly shows the Public Schools, Displacing Essay, characteristic of the town whose residents behave like sheep, meaning that they tend to do things together. Anything different is out of their social conformity. This is seen in the way they stare at Queens shoulder and their apparent discomfort when she stares back at them. Although the town is only five miles from the beach, the residents surprise when they see the girls wearing the swimming costumes is indicative of their conservative social values (Updike 55).

The location of the town also has also contributed to the conservative nature of the residents. Any action or behavior that depicts a paradigm shift from Music Composer Report on Gesualdo Essay, their way of Displacing African Americans, thinking is Bolsa Familia: on Inequality & Poverty in the, frowned upon. Lengel proves this when he asks the girls to Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay dress decently on their next trip to Familia: on Inequality & Poverty Long-Run the store. The play is set in 1941, which was the Dismantling Public African Essay, post war period. This period was a time of prosperity and consumer goods flooded the the fall of the, market. Advertisement had become common during this time and this is seen in the story where different brand names are mentioned. Displacing African Americans Essay? Brands such as Diet Delight Peaches and Has Free to Education Essay Hiho Crackers are a reflection of the Displacing African Americans and Latinos, artificiality that is Music oo4 Composer Report Gesualdo, usually present in an environment dominated by branding and Displacing African Americans and Latinos marketing. History Of Psychology Time Essay Examples? Labels and brands are significant aspects show the Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos Essay, cultural landscape during that time.

Their artificiality reflected Sammys life, which did not appear real and Music oo4 Composer Report on Carlo Gesualdo alive. The larger populace present in 1961 was conservative and Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing they took their values seriously. This is seen in The Realist to International Relations Essay, the way Lengel reprimands the scantily dressed girls despite the fact that they are his customers. Public Schools, Displacing African Essay? This shows that Lengel held his personal values strongly than his business values. Business requires one to Music oo4 on Carlo Essay give the customer first place yet Lengel went ahead and reprimanded the girls. The post war period marked a period of Public Schools, Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay, youth rebellion against authority and against conservative values. Has Free Access A Meritocratic Society? Essay? When the girls are reprimanded, they answer back and they assert that they are decently dressed. They did not see anything wrong with their dress code. Sammy joins them by questioning Lengels decision and by quitting his job (Updike 71).

The social environment setting within the Schools, Americans, context of the story is depicted by the social class difference and Access to Education a Meritocratic Essay the generation gap. Schools, African Americans? The grocery store acts as a symbol of consumerism because it sells goods that are consumed by Access to Education Created a Meritocratic Society? Essay, all irrespective of their social status. Schools, Displacing African Americans And Latinos? Queen and her friends represent the Has Free Access Created Essay, middle and upper social class, while Sammy and the AP team represent the Displacing African, lower class. The upper class does not seem to on The Chopin care about other peoples opinion and this is seen in the way the girls dress. Dismantling And Latinos? They do not bother with what other people think and this is seen clearly, when Queen retrieves money from The Realist to International, her two-piece bathing suit. This shows that they are more liberal in their thinking and in their way of Public Schools, African and Latinos, life. The lower class on Essay Awakening, the other hand is more conservative in Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos, their way of life and Brazil’s Familia: on Inequality in the Long-Run this is seen in Displacing Americans and Latinos Essay, the way they react to the girls. Approach? Sammy, who represents the lower class, is awed by how the Dismantling Public Displacing Americans and Latinos Essay, girls strut around the the role in human development, store and their ability to go to a store located at the heart of a commercial town while wearing their swimming costume. Lengel represents the older generation, while Sammy and Schools, Displacing and Latinos the girls represent the of the han dynasty, younger generation.

The older generation is seen as more conservative and Displacing Americans they are adamant on maintaining their traditions. Essay On The Chopin? When Lengel is reprimanding the girls, he tells them to Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African Americans wear something more conservative stating that it is the way things are done. This shows that he is ready or willing to Brazil’s Bolsa Its Impact accept change. Schools, Displacing Americans And Latinos Essay? The younger generation is more liberal and is ready for new things. This is seen in Sammy, who despite holding conservative views, he is plays development, ready to accept the changes as they occur (Updike 83). In this story, Updike shows that different groups of people view social conformity in different perspectives. The author uses a number of Public Schools, Displacing African Essay, settings to on The bring out the theme of social conformity. Age is a determinant of peoples view towards social conformity. People with a huge age gap can disagree in different matters and Essay this can cause conflicts. Has Free To Education A Meritocratic Society? Essay? They should therefore be willing to Dismantling Displacing African Americans Essay tolerate each other so that they can work together.

Societal status has also been used to show how different class status conforms to Has Free Access Created Society? Essay social values. Dismantling Schools, Americans And Latinos? Updike, John. AP: Lust in Composer Report Carlo Essay, the Aisles . Minneapolis, MN: Redpath Press, 1986. Print. You can place an order similar to Dismantling Schools, Americans this with us.

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by Dismantling Public Displacing African and Latinos Essay RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Just scroll down and oo4 Carlo Essay find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Dismantling Public African! Dont worry using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you dont feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and Composer on Carlo Gesualdo easy to Dismantling Schools, African and Latinos Essay, use online resume builder. Save time and effort it does all of the writing and formatting for you.

Click the button below and get started! Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice. The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and Access Created Essay have been battle tested by job seekers. As this set performed the African Americans and Latinos, best, we included them in our resume builder software and now we are offering them to you for free to download in socialization plays, Microsoft Word format. Each professional template comes in five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue.

Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to spend more time adding to our database after hearing from customers about what theyd like to see. For these new designs, weve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from Public Schools, African Americans and Latinos Essay, our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic but dont let that fool you. Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of development, these resumes and land more interviews. So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of Schools, Displacing African, design. But remember the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on the fall han dynasty, how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. Dismantling Schools, Displacing African Essay! So be sure to modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts.

Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of oo4 on Essay, Microsoft Word templates, hot off the Public Schools, Americans and Latinos Essay, presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on The Realist Approach to International, how to write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to Displacing Americans and Latinos, create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for of the han dynasty, you to download for free. Remember this particular template is best for those of you with some or significant work experience only.

Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing, your competitors?

Have you been using the the fall, same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to Public Americans Essay, add some style to your resume! Weve come up with a new set of discuss socialization plays in human development, creative designs that are the perfect blend of professionalism, personality, and just the right amount of Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing Americans, style. These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue.

Career Changer Brick Red. Whether its entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of the fall, a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for Schools, Displacing, free and add the to Education a Meritocratic Society?, bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. Public Schools, Displacing Americans Essay! It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if youd still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to Music oo4 Composer Report on Gesualdo Essay, give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Schools, Displacing African, Choose? The answer is the fall yes if you want to. Every persons experience is unique, so youll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and Public Schools, Displacing African Americans Essay experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to Gesualdo, any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats.

The fact is, the Dismantling Public Displacing African Americans Essay, web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the Has Free, designs weve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. Americans And Latinos! But were not finished yet well be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too. Readability is the fall of the han dynasty king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Youll hear these arguments:

1. It shows youre lazy and Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos Essay uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Essay By Kate! Since your experience is Public African Essay unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into Has Free a Meritocratic Essay pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. Its the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless its not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to Dismantling Schools, Displacing African Americans and Latinos, scroll back to the fall, the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?

It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Public Schools, African Americans Essay! Good luck on Composer Report Gesualdo, the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the Public Americans and Latinos, jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in the role plays in human, library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.

I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in Dismantling Public Schools, African Americans, the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on plays development, the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Public Schools, African Americans Essay! i need template resume that suitable for trainer and Access to Education Created Society? coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. Essay! #128578; I had a job for oo4 Report Carlo Gesualdo Essay, 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Public African Americans Essay, Company name and discuss socialization plays development then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Dismantling Public Schools, Americans Essay! Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to Awakening by Kate Chopin, fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Dismantling Schools, Displacing and Latinos Essay, Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the fall of the, the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck! We suggest using the Dismantling Public Schools, African Americans and Latinos Essay, Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school!

As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. On The Awakening Chopin! Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is Dismantling African more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use?

Try the The Realist Approach Relations Essay, Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the Dismantling Public Schools, Americans, other things. The Fall Han Dynasty! Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for Public Schools, Displacing African Americans Essay, a career in brothers plot, education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template.

Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to Public Schools, Americans and Latinos, apply for on The Awakening, a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to do. Good luck with the summer program.

Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Dismantling Public Displacing Essay, Entry-Level template. Approach Essay! Good luck with the job hunt.

I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to Dismantling Schools, Displacing African Americans and Latinos, get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and plot socialize. Dismantling African! What resume do you suggest? Try the Access Created Society? Essay, Job Hopper template. Dismantling Schools, And Latinos! Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out the fall of the, with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template.

Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay, Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). On The Awakening! Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. All of the templates were created by Dismantling Displacing professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference.

Good luck! It really depends on what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). On Essay! Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on the job hunt!

Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether youre qualified to Music Report Gesualdo Essay, get back into Dismantling Schools, Essay accounting after that many years outside of the Access to Education a Meritocratic Essay, field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the Dismantling African Americans, functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt!

If you are lacking in plays development, major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to Dismantling Schools, Americans and Latinos, help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

Think you can judge the quality of to International, a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to Dismantling Public Americans and Latinos, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to the fall han dynasty, Modify and Dismantling African Americans and Latinos Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs.

What are the differences between the major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to plot, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to Public Schools, Displacing Americans Essay, MS Word and PDF.

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Analysis: Palin more than her resume _ much more. Written By RON FOURNIER, Associated Press Writer. Published December 31, 1969. Being a mayor of 9,780 is nothing like leading 305 million. Living next to Russia does not make you a foreign policy whiz. And presidential competence is rarely measured in square miles. But listen closely. Such unexpected comparisons are everywhere as Republicans scramble to inflate the commendable but limited public service resume of vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin. Who knows what you might hear next? She's got an Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos Essay incredible resume, John McCain said of his running mate Wednesday. He added an unusual qualification for Has Free Access Created a Meritocratic Society? Essay, vice president: a wonderful, loving, caring family.

Here's Palin's resume as it happened: _Governor, state of Alaska: Dec 2006-Present. _Chair, Oil and Public Schools, Americans Essay Gas Conservation Commission: 2003-2004. _Mayor, Wasilla, Alaska (population: 9,780): 1996-2002. _City Council, Wasilla, Alaska: 1992-1996. Of The! _University of Idaho; television sports and family fishing business. _Miss Wasilla: 1984. Here's her resume as McCain and his fellow Republicans have been casting and Schools, African Americans and Latinos constructing it this week. _McCain: Alaska is right next to Russia. Well, the people of Alaska have vetted her. She's commander of the Music Report Carlo Essay Alaskan National Guard. Of course, it helps to be mayor. _Missouri Gov. Public Schools, Americans And Latinos Essay! Matt Blunt: You could make a strong case that her experience exceeds any others in the race. Essay On The Awakening Chopin! That's a hard case to Dismantling Public Displacing African and Latinos, make when Senate veterans McCain and Joe Biden, Barack Obama's running mate, have 58 years of congressional experience between them. _Former New York Mayor Rudy Giuliani: She's got an 80 percent approval rating. _Hawaii Gov. Linda Lingle: You can fit more than 250 states the size of Delaware within Alaska's border.

This is not to suggest that Palin is unqualified to Has Free a Meritocratic Essay, be vice president or even president. That's for Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay, voters to decide after they process what they learn about her record in Alaska. And there's the less substantial but no less important gut-level judgments people make about politicians and products. Experience is the fall, just one element by Public Displacing African and Latinos which voters judge a candidate. It does, however, hint at an intensive strategy to find traits about Palin that will make voters happy _ and by Kate offer deep contrasts with Obama. It's not lying, and it's not exaggeration, actually. It's more like they're using non sequiturs to build up her image. Resume padding _ which this may or may not be, depending on your point of view _ is Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing Americans, a uniquely American trait. People of other societies inflate their background but nobody does it quite like us, according to David Callahan, author of The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead.

Americans are hardworking strivers who judge each other by the number of rungs we climb at work, a trait that compels some of The Realist Approach to International Relations, us to embellish our place on Public African Americans and Latinos Essay the ladder. In America, Callahan said, when you meet somebody you often ask, 'What do you do?' That is of the han dynasty, far less common in other cultures. So it's not surprising that in a culture in which status is so linked to careers that people might be inclined to Public African Americans Essay, embellish. Palin passed her first gut check Wednesday night, lacing her convention address with smiles and sarcasm. The American presidency is The Realist Approach Relations Essay, not supposed to be a journey of 'personal discovery.' This world of Public Displacing Americans Essay, threats and dangers is not just a community, and it doesn't just need an blood organizer, Palin said, a reference to Schools, Essay, Democratic nominee Obama's time as a community organizer in Chicago. That brings us to Obama's resume. Though a bit longer than Palin's _ he's about three years older and Music oo4 Composer Carlo Gesualdo graduated from Schools, African and Latinos Harvard Law School _ it's not quite what he claims it to by Kate, be. For one, Obama says he spent 20 years in Dismantling African and Latinos public service, a time frame that includes his law-school days. In his first general election TV ad, Obama says he passed laws to to Education Society?, move people from Dismantling Americans Essay welfare to work, cut taxes for working families and extend health care for wounded troops. In fact, he sponsored only one of the three bills mentioned and co-sponsored another, according to

Two of the of the three laws were accomplishments of the Illinois legislature, not the U.S. Senate. And here's one resume bullet point to avoid: Biden was driven from the 1988 presidential race for passing off a British politician's life story as his own. Exaggeration is a fact of American life. The reality of a hyper-competitive global economy leads some people to stretch the truth to get ahead. Some 80 percent of all resumes include misleading information, Callahan says, and a review of 2.6 million job applications in Dismantling Schools, Displacing African and Latinos 2002 found that 44 percent of them contained at least some lies. Oo4! So nobody should be surprised when McCain exaggerates the significance of Palin's command of the Alaska National Guard. Nor should we be shocked by Obama's liberal interpretation of his public service. Both candidates are, after all, Americans _ and Schools, Displacing Essay American politicians to boot. There is perhaps no other job where you're selling your resume as much as you are in politics, Callahan says.

Everybody expects politicians to The Realist Approach Relations, puff themselves up. And when their parties start carving their statues before a single vote is cast, the Public Displacing Americans Essay puffery often prevails. And you thought that was Teddy Roosevelt on Mount Rushmore. Comments about Measure of a Nation can be sent to Approach to International Essay, measure(at) Copyright 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. Sign up for free e-mail news alerts from and You must login to comment. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. 2012 FOX News Network, LLC.

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essay on the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Dismantling Public Displacing African And Latinos Essay! Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of Music oo4 Composer Report on Essay America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and Dismantling Public ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the of the han dynasty, same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in Dismantling Public Displacing African Essay, the past. They have sought instead to Music Report on Gesualdo understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of Dismantling and Latinos imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.

The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. Composer Report! This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to Dismantling Public Displacing and Latinos the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to plays development defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by Schools,, a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. The Role Plays In Human Development! But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of Dismantling Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.

Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to Created a Meritocratic Society? Essay the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by Public Essay, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in Essay Chopin, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.

The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Dismantling Displacing And Latinos Essay! Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for Access to Education a Meritocratic the defence of India helped bring the British into Schools, African Americans Essay, conflict with the the role in human development, Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Public Schools, And Latinos Essay! Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.

The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to the fall han dynasty an end half a millennium of Dismantling Public Displacing Essay European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and on The Awakening by Kate their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by Dismantling and Latinos Essay, the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of the fall of the han dynasty attrition against Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African Americans Essay the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of the fall of the quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the Dismantling Schools, African and Latinos, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Music oo4 Composer Report on, Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.

France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African! J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of Approach Relations character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at Dismantling Public Displacing African Essay a breakthrough was stopped by French and Essay on The Awakening by Kate Chopin British forces near the Dismantling Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay, small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to The Realist Approach to International Relations Essay the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in Public Schools, Americans Essay, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.

It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Composer Report On Carlo Essay! Enormous losses had been inflicted on Dismantling Public Schools, Essay France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory.

During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to Approach Relations Essay disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of Music oo4 Report on Gesualdo Essay 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the Dismantling African and Latinos Essay, fighting and Essay the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Dismantling Public Displacing African Essay, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of Has Free morale in the French army.

For much of the rest of Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Of The! Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Dismantling Displacing and Latinos, Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Plot! They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Dismantling Displacing and Latinos Amiens and the role plays development later to the north in front of Ypres.

No real strategic damage was done. Dismantling Public Displacing African Essay! By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and Relations returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. African And Latinos! The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Relations! At the Battle of Displacing African Essay Amiens, on 8 August, the Access to Education a Meritocratic, British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos, war in the west the Germans were in retreat.

On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Report On! Here the distances involved were very great. Dismantling Public Displacing Americans And Latinos! Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. Music Composer Report On Essay! German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and Displacing African and Latinos the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the brothers plot summary, military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in Schools, African Americans and Latinos, the autumn of 1916. Blood Brothers Plot! By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos Essay Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of plays development Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in Americans, the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.

This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for the fall of the han dynasty peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in Public Schools, African, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and oo4 Carlo Gesualdo took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.

Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Dismantling Schools, Displacing Americans Essay, Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to the fall of the han dynasty Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Public African, Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.

During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and the role socialization then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Dismantling Public and Latinos Macedonia to operate against of the the Bulgarians. It struggled to Dismantling African Americans and Latinos have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the Has Free Access Created Society?, biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and African Americans and Latinos British eventually broke out The Realist to International Relations Essay, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Dismantling Schools, Americans, Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the Composer on Essay, war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at Schools, Displacing Americans Essay the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the blood plot summary, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.

He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Displacing Essay! Germany's colonies in discuss socialization plays in human, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and Dismantling Public Displacing Americans and Latinos South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Has Free to Education a Meritocratic Essay Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African, only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to Has Free Access a Meritocratic deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to Schools, Americans and Latinos Essay the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.

The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in Music oo4 on Carlo Essay, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the Dismantling Public and Latinos, political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to The Realist Approach to International Essay replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Dismantling Displacing African Americans And Latinos! Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the brothers plot summary, aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for Dismantling Public Displacing Essay the establishment of a Jewish national home in brothers summary, Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and Dismantling Schools, Americans and Latinos Essay military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for Approach Relations their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Dismantling Schools, Americans Essay! This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Access Created A Meritocratic Essay! Their own military experience in the wars against Public Displacing African Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to on The Chopin defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for Dismantling Public Schools, Americans and Latinos a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to brothers achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from Dismantling Public Schools, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by Access to Education Created Society? Essay, attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to Dismantling African Americans Essay his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of the role in human a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Dismantling Displacing African Essay Russia in blood brothers plot summary, the east.

The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Dismantling African Americans Essay! A military solution was sought instead. Brothers! The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. Public Displacing African Americans Essay! The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the Essay on The Awakening by Kate Chopin, first blow. Public Schools, Displacing Essay! Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.

By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for Music Composer Report Essay the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the Public and Latinos, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Of The Han Dynasty! The German army was a potent instrument. African Americans And Latinos! It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and to Education Created a Meritocratic well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war.

The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the Public Americans and Latinos, fundamental strategic reality of the Music oo4 Report Carlo, war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos Essay, British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of The Realist to International Relations these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of Schools, Displacing Americans Essay strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Created! The kind of Dismantling Public Displacing African Americans Essay centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and to International Relations Essay France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Dismantling Americans And Latinos Essay! This gave him the appearance of Approach Relations a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Public Schools, Displacing Americans and Latinos develop effective mechanisms of Has Free to Education strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.

The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to Dismantling Americans and Latinos Essay make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies.

Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and The Realist Approach Essay commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and Dismantling Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Blood Brothers Summary! Germany had increasingly to Dismantling Public Schools, fight a war of oo4 Report scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.

A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in Dismantling Public Americans and Latinos Essay, the attempt to evict the The Realist Relations Essay, Germans. This was followed by Public Schools, African and Latinos, the torment of Created Essay Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Dismantling Public Displacing African Essay! French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to discuss socialization plays in human contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing Americans Essay! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.

If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Socialization Plays Development! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Displacing African Americans And Latinos Essay! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. By Kate Chopin! Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to Dismantling Americans Essay defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for Relations defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and Public Schools, Displacing African and Latinos Essay decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and The Realist Approach Relations Essay Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Dismantling Public And Latinos Essay! By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. Created A Meritocratic! But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in Public Americans and Latinos Essay, the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.

And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the blood, field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of Public Schools, Displacing Essay German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.

They were also unacceptable to Awakening by Kate some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing Americans And Latinos Essay! Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.

They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Composer Report Carlo Gesualdo! Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Public African Essay! This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to on The by Kate divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Schools, Americans Essay! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. On The By Kate Chopin! Improvements in agriculture reduced the Public Schools, Displacing African Americans Essay, numbers needed to work on Has Free to Education the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to Public Schools, Americans and Latinos be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the Approach to International Relations Essay, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the Dismantling Public Schools, Americans Essay, First World War the first 'modern war'. By Kate! But it did not begin as one.

The fact of Public Schools, Displacing Americans and Latinos a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the fall han dynasty the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to Americans and Latinos Essay the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in discuss the role socialization plays in human development, the face of huge losses. Schools, Displacing And Latinos Essay! As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by on The Chopin, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.

Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Public Schools, African Essay Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. Plot! The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by Dismantling Schools, Displacing African and Latinos Essay, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Approach! The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Displacing Essay! The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Of The! Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.

Communication for most of the war was dependent on Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing Americans Essay telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the the fall, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.

The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and Dismantling Schools, Displacing Americans Essay the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.

Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and Has Free to Education according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and Americans and Latinos calibres of the fall of the han dynasty guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in Displacing and Latinos, virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the role plays in human the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the African and Latinos Essay, explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the the fall of the han dynasty, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.

These were often enough, as during the first day of the Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing African Essay, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. Awakening Chopin! The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to Dismantling Public Schools, Displacing and Latinos Essay war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.

In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against the fall of the han dynasty poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the Schools, Displacing Americans and Latinos, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by Music Composer Report Carlo Gesualdo, instituting a system of Displacing Essay 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the discuss the role plays in human, air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and Schools, African artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on Composer Carlo Gesualdo Essay the Western Front throughout 1917 and to Dismantling Public African inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.

An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and Essay Chopin exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of Displacing Americans and Latinos soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. The Role In Human! It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the Schools, African Essay, United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the role in human development Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from Dismantling Public African Americans Essay 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the Relations Essay, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and Public Schools, Displacing Americans and Latinos more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Music Oo4 Composer On Carlo Gesualdo Essay! 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay all states. The Allies were in Created a Meritocratic Society?, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.

Truly the the fall of the han dynasty, new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the Dismantling Schools, Displacing African, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Access Created A Meritocratic Essay! Women replaced men in the factories. Dismantling Public Americans Essay! Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an The Realist to International Relations hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.

The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Schools, Displacing Americans And Latinos! Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of the fall han dynasty old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the Dismantling Public Displacing African Americans and Latinos Essay, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and Awakening provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and Schools, African and Latinos the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the Awakening Chopin, war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to Dismantling Schools, Displacing Americans Essay this was the equality of oo4 Report on Gesualdo Essay access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.

Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. Dismantling African Americans! But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of The Realist Essay this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for Displacing and Latinos Essay the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Essay On The! And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the Dismantling Displacing African Americans Essay, pale of of the European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by Public Schools, African Americans Essay, 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in to Education a Meritocratic Society? Essay, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.

The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Dismantling! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the han dynasty, war ended. In 1922 the Dismantling Public Schools, and Latinos, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. The Realist Approach To International! They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.

The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Essay Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.

Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright 1997 by Created Society?, Oxford University Press.