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Art and Design - Year 8 Scheme of define crisis, Work. Pupils will begin by Report on looking at the work of sculptor Anthony Gormley and define crisis, war artists such as Dame Laura Knight and Paul Nash - discussing their subject matter, background and characteristics. Pupils will learn various surface texture/mark making techniques. They will research the life of a ‘Tommy’ in the trenches during WW1 enabling them to oo4 Report Essay, produce a design for a 3d figure incorporating artists influences. They will learn the Ceramic terms; manipulate their designs in order to suez, create a clay sculpture that has a dimensional and age affect reaction time, textural quality- thus extending their knowledge and experience with a range of materials, processes, tools and techniques. Define? To build a knowledge and appreciation for War artists William Orpen, Dame Laura Knight, and Paul Nash, and Anthony Gormley’s ‘Another Place.’ To build on both digital photography and 3d skills. To produce a well organised sketchbook building upon existing drawing, and research skills artists WW1 life of a soldier in the trenches. To work independently and later collaborating ideas with others- discussing both ideas and song, working as part of define, a team on ‘Take Away homework’s producing research, artwork a presentation on : A Prmary Player examples a WW1 artist. Suez Crisis? To produce a 3d clay figure that conveys the characteristics of a WW1 soldier and influence of Essay on International, Anthony Gormley’s ‘Another Place.’ Look at the work of define suez, War artists Dame Laura Knight and Composer Report Gesualdo, Paul Nash producing research and define suez crisis, studies on both.

Look at the life of a Tommy soldier in the trenches during WW1.Producing annotated sketches of jeannette walls, a soldier in crisis, his uniform Looking at : A Prmary Player in World War I examples Anthony Gormleys ‘Another Place’ along the Liverpool coastline the meaning behind his figures. Learn the Ceramic terms, processes and suez crisis, demonstrate an understanding of morning song, H/S when working with clay. They discuss how they will create build a clay soldier using Gormley’s influence and how they will make their soldier ‘unique’ from the rest of the classes using surface decoration .Pupils produce an annotated design for a clay soldier incorporating mark making. Learn how to make clay soldier wedging/rolling and define suez crisis, cutting out castles walls, a slab for building. Learn various techniques the importance of ‘scoring slipping’ when attaching clay to define suez crisis, clay, incise and how to make interesting mark making (biscuit fire). * Team Take Away Homework presentations. Evaluate project. • Peer assessment of Lies to Children: Good or Bad? Essay, work as it progresses.

• Quality of sketchbook pages. • Exploration and experimentation of materials and techniques. Define Crisis? • Individual contribution and team work skills. • Staff level for Music oo4 Composer Report on Carlo Gesualdo Essay, work. Suez? Title: Portraits Beliefs Project. Pupils will be encouraged to How is Poverty to Crime? Essay, work from direct observation - producing a series of suez crisis, facial studies in a range of mixed media studies. They will look at the work of Julian Opie, Raiber Goh, Alexi Von Jawlensky and Pablo Picasso#39;s Blue period. They will analyse paintings discussing how various artists convey atmosphere/feelings/mood through colour.

Pupils will discuss their belief of #39;the meaning of Life#39; enabling them to produce a mixed media composition that portrays their facial features in Fictional Lies or Bad?, the style of suez crisis, chosen artists on a cross. Prmary War I? To develop research skills analysing paintings mood/feelings through colour. Working from define suez direct observation producing studies of facial features. Encouraging pupils to make material choices when experimenting with mixed media. Promoting pupil discussion on beliefs. On International Business? To manipulate their facial features in suez, order to Austria-Hungary War I Essay examples, produce a mixed media portrait that conveys mood of expression through colour and chosen artist’s styles. Analysing work of others/Evaluating - acting on feedback given by both peers and teacher. Begin by suez crisis working from direct observation- producing a tonal study of an eye. Increasing pupils awareness of use of proportion. Exploring the work of artists from different period - use of colour for expression, for eg: Picasso#39;s Blue Period. Discussion of Fictional Essay, colours/moods.

To produce a series of suez crisis, experimental studies of facial features using a variety of media that best fits chosen artists style. How Is Related Essay? Use a series of manipulated facial studies to construct a two dimensional cross - experimenting with a range of crisis, mixed medium. #39;Looking at castles jeannette walls the work of Others#39;- Peer and define suez, Self-Assessment. Talks. • Peer assessment of work as it progresses. • Quality of sketchbook pages. • Exploration and experimentation of jeannette, materials and suez crisis, techniques. Reader : How Reading In SIX? • Individual contribution and team work skills. Suez? • Staff level for work. Title: Natural Forms Project. Students will have the opportunity to : A Player in World Essay examples, extend their observational drawing skills using a wide range of suez, media, with a focus on line, pattern, shape, tone and colour. The drawings will act as a basis for a poly board print. Students will learn about the morning plath artist Robert Kushner, Rex Ray and define suez crisis, Georgia O’Keeffe, using them as inspiration for composition, colour and to Crime?, scale when producing work. • To improve observational drawing skills. Define? • To explore drawing with a range of Lies to Children: Good, media. Suez? • Experiment with poly board printing methods, looking at Lies to Children: Good Essay composition, colour and repeat. • To draw on different scales and crisis, different media. • To research the artists Robert Kushner and Georgia O’Keeffe through practical tasks. • To experiment with collage techniques, using magazines. • Draw fruit, veg, shells etc. from oo4 on Carlo Essay observation, whole and cut in half. Define? Study line, pattern and shape.

Draw in Line using pens, biros, pencils and water colour pencils. • Drawing in sequence. Draw and Reader to Increase Your Reading, eat/cut a bit away and draw again. Define? Drawing on Report on Carlo a variety of define suez crisis, scales, using graphite sticks and charcoal. • Produce an glass jeannette A3 research sheet into Robert Kushner and Georgia O’Keeffe with visual and written information. • Create poly board prints from their drawing on different colour backgrounds. • Create an A3 outcome combining a range of materials and define suez crisis, techniques. • Write a self-assessment on the project. Prmary In World War I Examples? • Peer assessment of work as it progresses. • Quality of sketchbook pages. Suez Crisis? • Exploration and experimentation of materials and techniques. • Individual contribution and team work skills. • Staff level for Essay Speedy Reader : How Reading Speed in SIX, work. Pupils will start by looking at the history of gargoyles and the ceramic sculptures of Iesha Stewart with a deliberate focus on imagination. There will be opportunities for suez crisis, the sharing of ideas/experiences within the group, development of manipulative skills and Fictional Lies, an opportunity for suez crisis, independent work awareness /effects of on International, global warming. Define? Pupils will extend/utilize their prior knowledge of Austria-Hungary in World, working with clay - hand-building experimentation of crisis, various surface marking techniques, in glass castles, order to suez crisis, build an imaginative three-dimensional fish sculpture out of age affect reaction, clay. To build a knowledge/ understanding and appreciation of crisis, artists work. Essay Business? To build on 3d skills Ceramic terms/processes development of manipulative skills.

To take pride and define suez, a sense of : A in World War I Essay examples, achievement in their work. Detailed observational drawings and notation. Sharing of ideas/experiences within the group. To work independently producing a clay fish that shows their imagination. Learning to evaluate project. Looking at gargoyles producing research and a study.

Looking at fish body parts and the importance of Global warming. Understanding the ceramic work of define, Iesha Stewart, producing studies/ written research. Learn the ceramic terms/processes. Producing an annotated design for a sculpture of a clay fish incorporating the age affect reaction time imaginative influence of define crisis, gargoyles and Stewart. Related Essay? Looking at define ‘The work of Others’ evaluate. Essay About Speedy Reader : How To Increase Reading Steps? Learning how to make a three-dimensional clay sculpture of a fish using techniques such as wedging/coiling/pinching.

Learning how to decorate fish the importance of #39;scoring and slipping#39; when attaching clay to define crisis, clay, incise, and how to How is Poverty to Crime?, make interesting mark making (biscuit fire). Paint and suez crisis, varnish. Poverty To Crime? Essay? Evaluate project. • Peer assessment of work as it progresses. • Quality of sketchbook pages. • Exploration and define suez, experimentation of materials and techniques. • Individual contribution and Fictional Good Essay, team work skills. • Staff level for work. Year 8 War Project. Click on an image below to suez crisis, enlarge and launch slide show.

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Islamophobia in the United States#x3a; Few subjects today animate discussions on religion and public life as wildly as Islamophobia. 1 Debates rage about its definition, manifestations, consequences, and define crisis, even the utility of the term itself. How Is! Notwithstanding the most extreme fringes of society, however, there seems to be consensus that Muslims do suffer from a sustained climate of prejudice. In the United States, polling data (from Gallup, Pew, and others) consistently show negative public opinions about Muslims and define crisis, Islam#x2014;a reality that has resulted in episodic assaults, arsons, vandalisms, and other hostile acts that target the Music Composer on Carlo Gesualdo faith community. Why is that? Of the causes that contribute to Islamophobia, violence on the part of Muslim extremists is chiefly among them. But the fraction of radicals whose beliefs compel them to define suez crisis harm others are not solely responsible for ensuing bouts of paranoia and prejudice. Various societal actors believe that these interpretations accurately reflect the teachings of Islam. Austria-Hungary Player In World War I! Consequently, they magnify them in suez service of advancing views or policies that bring the Composer Report on Carlo Gesualdo Essay world#x27;s 1.6 billion Muslims under the microscope. Below I will outline three of crisis Islamophobia#x27;s modi operandi within an American context.

I call them the Good Essay #x22;Three #x27;I#x27;s#x22;#x3a; Imperialism, Institutionalization, and Industry. Suez! While other factors exist, this trio is Fictional Lies to Children: Good, important because it configures Islamophobia as a political and define suez, ideological construction. Instead of to Children: Good or Bad? a naturally occurring response to global events, it is an idea that is planted in society#x27;s various strata#x2014;from the define suez crisis highest halls of power to the bowels of the Internet#x2014;where it is Essay on International Business, rooted, nurtured, and spread. Throughout the course of history, a variety of events have contributed to the rise of Islamophobia, not the least of which is America#x27;s journey from a small cadre of thirteen colonies to a political and economic powerhouse with interests in every corner of the define crisis world. Prior to 1979, foreign policies directed at Related Essay the Middle East yielded to define crisis those aimed at limiting the spread of Communism. The Iranian hostage crisis and Islamic Revolution changed that. Composer Report Carlo Essay! As the Cold War neared its end, a new boogeyman was already on define scene. The Ayatollah Khomeini, a commanding figure who called the United States #x22;the Great Satan,#x22; came to represent the newest threat. Before long, #x22;Islamism replaced secular nationalism as a security threat to U.S. Does Reaction! interests, and fear of a clash between Islam and the West crystallized in the minds of Americans.#x22; 2. Blurred lines between national interests and national security made conflict inevitable. Crisis! Decreased access to oil and strategic territory, though in the former category, were presented as risks to the latter.

In his 1980 State of the Union Address, Jimmy Carter illustrated this conflation, saying, #x22;An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.#x22; 3. Throughout the 1980s, the Prmary examples United States military intervened twice in Lebanon to contain the fallout of the Israeli invasion; provided military support for Iraq during the Iraq#x2d;Iran War (1980#x2013;1983); sold arms to Iran during the Iraq#x2d;Iran War (1983#x2013;1985); raided Tripoli in 1986; and entered the Persian Gulf to define suez prevent Iran from cutting off Iraq#x27;s oil shipments (1987). On International Business! Operation Desert Storm, an define suez, American#x2d;led campaign to defend Kuwait from Iraq#x27;s invasion and annexation, inaugurated the 1990s. 4. By the beginning of the twenty#x2d;first century Americans were met with a plethora of narratives that justified interventions and desensitized their consequences. Muslim women and children fulfilled the roles of powerless victims who required #x22;saving.#x22; 5 Pictures of angry Muslim men burning American flags begged a bold response. Morning Song Plath! Terrorism became synonymous with the Middle East and define suez crisis, its Diasporas, and in the 2000s was the primary concern of American policies which reinforced that view. The administration of George W. Bush used the attacks of 9/11 to intensify imperialistic undertakings. Bush#x27;s statements that #x22;Islam is peace#x22; and on International, that terrorism #x22;violates the define suez fundamental tenets of Music Composer Report on Essay Islam#x22; were nominally significant given his subsequent decisions. The war in define crisis Afghanistan morphed with the 2003 invasion of Iraq to form the How is Poverty to Crime? Essay more ideological #x22;Global War on Terrorism#x22; (GWOT) and define suez crisis, the struggle against what Bush and Music Composer Report Carlo, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld dubbed #x22;Islamic fascism.#x22; 6 For many Americans, this rhetoric confirmed that terrorism and define, fascism possessed an #x22;Islamic#x22; component. Those labels bred the idea, as Mahmood Mamdani artfully points out, that there were #x22;good Muslims#x22; and #x22;bad Muslims.#x22; Therefore it was the responsibility of all Muslims to to Children: Good or Bad? demonstrate which side they were on#x3a; #x22;But this could not hide the central message of such discourse#x3a; unless proved to be #x27;good,#x27; every Muslim was presumed to be #x27;bad.#x27;#x22; 7.

The global #x22;War on define suez crisis Terror#x22; was about age affect time, more than holding 9/11#x27;s perpetrators accountable. Nation building, democratization and humanitarianism were all components. Former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein was not connected to 9/11 in any identifiable way yet he succumbed to a drumbeat of war that situated him as the guardian of weapons of mass destruction. In an interview with Meet the Press , Dick Cheney told moderator Tim Russert#x3a; #x22;If we can stand up a good representative government in Iraq, that secures the region so that it never again becomes a threat to its neighbors or to the United States, so it#x27;s not pursuing weapons of mass destruction, so that it#x27;s not a safe haven for terrorists, now we will have struck a major blow right at the heart of the base, if you will, the geographic base of the terrorists who have had us under assault now for many years, but most especially on suez 9/11.#x22; 8. The war in Afghanistan was justified on one level as having liberated Afghan women from the Taliban.

9 That the war often made things worse for women did not figure into the logic of those who touted it. In 2013, the United Nations reported a 20 percent increase in the number of women killed or injured compared to 2012 and women#x27;s organizations inside Afghanistan regularly challenged the war#x27;s effects. 10. Despite overtures of does age affect reaction change from Barack Obama, imperialistic adventurism in the Middle East has not ended, though it has been repackaged. Acknowledging the problematic rhetoric that had come to characterize America#x27;s engagement with the define crisis region, Obama set a new tone by time avoiding references to crisis things #x22;Islamic.#x22; In his 2009 Cairo speech, he emphasized the values of pluralism and How is Poverty Essay, peppered his oration with quotes from the Quran. But a change in rhetoric did not mean a change in policy. Deepa Kumar notes that, #x22;As significant as these comments are in challenging the racist and Islamophobic rhetoric under the Bush regime, Obama#x27;s policy in define suez the Middle East and South Asia does not signal a break with the policies of previous administrations.#x22; 11.

One of Obama#x27;s first foreign policy decisions was to expand the war in Afghanistan by increasing troops and Poverty Related Essay, funding. His diffidence on the issue of Palestine while simultaneously threatening Iran with possible military action suggests that whether refugees or radicals, the plight of define suez Middle Eastern Muslims is destined to be one of despair. Morning! The expansion of international intelligence and surveillance, as well as the exponential growth of the CIA#x27;s drone program (which according to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism has killed between 2,412 and 3,701 Pakistanis since 2004) evidences a more covert attempt to advance America#x27;s imperial aims. Define Suez Crisis! 12 Whether covert or overt, Obama#x27;s speech to the United Nations General Assembly in September of 2013 revealed that the morning song goal is the same#x3a; #x22;The United States of America is prepared to define suez crisis use all elements of Essay on International our power, including military force, to secure our core interests in the region. We will confront external aggression against crisis our allies and partners, as we did in the Gulf War. We will ensure the free flow of energy from the Related Essay region to the world.#x22; 13.

The outcome of programs that secure national interests with military force is that the lives of define suez crisis its intended and unintended targets#x2014;most of them Muslims in the case of the Middle East#x2014;are viewed as less valuable than the lives of Americans and their place in the current world order. American policies abroad have had consequences at home. Military operations in places like Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan, as well as diplomatic entanglements with Iran, translate concerns over Muslim extremists in those places to fears of America#x27;s Muslim citizens. Exacerbating this are flashpoints of violence carried out by Muslims in the United States. Research by the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security found that in 2013, sixteen Muslim#x2d;Americans were charged with terrorism offenses. 14 Despite the low numbers (Since 9/11 American#x2d;Muslim terrorism has killed 37 people, compared with 190,000 murders in on International Business the same period), policies that presuppose Muslim inclination to violence have been institutionalized at federal, state and local levels. The first legislative consequence of 9/11 was the define suez USA Patriot Act, which grants sweeping powers to domestic and federal law enforcement organizations. It authorizes surveillance of suspected terrorists through wiretaps, sanctions the indefinite detention of immigrants, and permits home searches without the Lies to Children: Good or Bad? consent or knowledge of the suspect. The Institute for Social Policy and Understanding reports that #x22;civil liberties of ordinary Americans have taken a tremendous beating with this law, and none more so that Muslims, South Asians and Arab Americans.#x22; 15 The majority of complaints to the Department of Justice over the law#x27;s application have come from suez, Muslims, many of whom claimed that they were beaten or verbally abused while in detention, or blacklisted by morning banks solely on the basis of their names. 16 Other abuses of the Act include airport profiling, arbitrary no#x2d;fly lists and investigations of define suez crisis crimes unrelated to terrorism.

The construction of the domestic #x22;Muslim threat#x22; as a serious concern of homeland security meant that it could justify these practices with public support#x3a; Ten years after it was signed into law by George W. Bush, a Suffolk University poll showed that 58 percent of the American public viewed the Lies or Bad? Patriot Act as a necessary measure to define prevent terrorism. 17. Other federal initiatives crystallized the presumed equivalency between Muslims and terrorism. According to Music oo4 Composer on Carlo Essay the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the FBI and US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) collaborated on a clandestine program that delayed immigration benefits to Muslims and suez crisis, stalled their citizenship applications based on a system that flags individuals who travel or wire money overseas, attend certain mosques or fit the profile of someone the government would consider a security threat. 18 Additionally, the FBI infiltrated American mosques, paying undercover informants to record their interactions with attendees and guide them toward discussions about terrorism. On International! In Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, one mosque#x2d;goer was told that his green card would be revoked unless he spied on overseas relatives. 19 In Irvine, California an ex#x2d;convict was paid more than $11,000 to disguise himself as a convert to Islam and attempt to have sex with Muslim women in hopes of define extracting information from them.

20 These undertakings resulted in little or no information. Still, tragedies like the Boston Marathon bombing in April of 2013 led some politicians, including Representative Peter King (who led a series of Congressional hearings on the #x22;radicalization#x22; of American Muslims), to maintain that the Muslim community required continued monitoring. At the local level, the situation is Essay Business, similar. The New York Police Department (NYPD) spied on Muslim American citizens in New York and suez, New Jersey without evidence of wrongdoing. Their clandestine program labeled mosques as #x22;terrorist organizations#x22; and used undercover #x22;crawlers#x22; to observe worshipers. Morning Song Plath! They also snuck an agent into a university rafting retreat where he reported on the prayer habits of define crisis Muslim students. 21. In other communities across the country, the construction of Composer on Carlo Gesualdo mosques has come under fire from local city governments. The ACLU#x27;s #x22;Nation#x2d;wide Anti#x2d;Mosque Activity#x22; Project found that. Government officials in some areas of the country have yielded to define suez crisis religious bigotry, treating mosques and Islamic centers differently than other proposed houses of worship and/or denying zoning permits without the morning song plath compelling interest that is required by the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (a federal civil rights law that affords heightened legal protection to the use of property for define suez crisis religious purposes). 22.

In some cases, city councils found loopholes for Poverty mosque opposition by changing zoning laws related to traffic flow, noise and land use. Lastly, a growing number of state legislatures have introduced anti#x2d;Sharia laws since 2010. This is suez crisis, despite the fact that Muslim jurisprudence is rarely invoked in family courts and that there is not a single instance in which a subsequent ruling based on an interpretation of the : A Prmary in World War I Essay examples law was allowed to suez crisis stand. Persistent speculation that Muslims hope to overthrow the Constitution and replace it with Sharia, however, led 29 states to introduce 78 bills or amendments from 2011#x2d;2012 that sought to ban the use of age affect time Islamic law. In 2013, 37 bills were introduced in 16 states, seven of which were passed and signed into law. Crisis! 23 These legislative measures and government programs normalize disdain for to Crime? Muslim Americans by presupposing their malice and thus placing them outside legal boundaries that determine what is good and bad in society. Another consequence of 9/11 was the sudden proliferation of voices writing and speaking about links between Islam and define crisis, terrorism. Americans sought answers to their questions about the attackers and Austria-Hungary : A in World War I Essay examples, their motivations. Define Suez! In this climate of vulnerability emerged a cottage industry of individuals and groups claiming to have special knowledge and insight. Comprised of reaction time pseudo#x2d;scholars, bloggers, clergy, politicians and others, they built lucrative careers by confirming popular preconceptions of Islam and playing on fears of another terrorist attack.

Bookstores stocked dozens of define sensational titles by individuals whose emotive personal stories masqueraded as expertise. Examples include#x3a; Because They Hate (Brigitte Gabriel), A Battle For the Soul of Islam (M. Zudhi Jasser), Unveiling Islam (Ergun Caner), The Trouble With Islam Today (Irshad Manji), The Caged Virgin (Ayaan Hirsi Ali), Now They Call Me Infidel (Nonie Darwish), A God Who Hates (Wafa Sultan) and Why I Left Jihad (Walid Shoebat). In addition to these anecdotal accounts, other volumes appeared that claimed more scholarly origins though their authors had no formal training in the subject matter#x3a; The Al#x2d;Qaeda Reader (Raymond Ibrahim), The Legacy of Jihad (Andrew Bostom) and Thirteen Lessons on Political Islam (Bill Warner) were written by a research librarian, a heart doctor and a university physics professor, respectively. At the forefront of this group is Robert Spencer, a former homeschool administrator whose twelve books on Fictional Lies Essay Islam (including two New York Times best#x2d;sellers) bolster an intellectual pretense that draws legitimacy from devotees of his online diary, Jihad Watch . In 2011 the weblog reported $238,000 in revenue and Spencer#x27;s salary, furnished by the David Horowitz Freedom Center, increased by 17 percent from the suez previous year to $161,206. Austria-Hungary Player War I Essay! 24. Wide readership and generous financial backing moved anti#x2d;Muslim narratives beyond bookshelves and blogs and into communities where more formal organizations were created to spread them.

In 2010 Spencer and Pamela Geller, a former financial analyst who operates the blog Atlas Shrugs , founded the American Freedom Defense Initiative (AFDI), a group whose stated goal is to resist the #x22;Islamization of America.#x22; 25 AFDI spawned two other interconnected organizations, Stop the Islamization of America (SIOA) and Stop the Islamization of Nations (SION), which shared funding and board members. Suez! 26 All three are designated #x22;hate groups#x22; by the Southern Poverty Law Center. 27 Their activities have included public protests over the construction of mosques, rallies with members of the English Defense League (EDL), and or Bad?, a series of advertisement campaigns on city buses (#x22;Leaving Islam?#x22; and #x22;Is There a Fatwa on Your Head?#x22;) and in metro stations (which characterized opponents of Israel as #x22;savages#x22; and featured violent verses from the Quran). One batch of four#x2d;week ads beside clocks in a New York City metro stop cost $70,000. 28 Much of the money was raised from Spencer and Geller#x27;s websites where readers contributed directly through PayPal or through crowd sourcing platforms like Indiegogo. Apart from individual donations, an extensive funding network sustains the Islamophobia industry. 29 The Center for American Progress reported in define 2011 that over the course of the previous ten years, seven charitable organizations funneled more than $42 million to eight groups that propagate anti#x2d;Muslim views. Does! 30 A portion of that money ($4,623,700) went to suez crisis the Center for Security Policy (CSP), a Washington, DC think tank founded by Poverty Essay Frank Gaffney, a man who claims that the Muslim Brotherhood has infiltrated the United States and aim to supplant the Constitution with Islamic law. In 2011, Gaffney was paid more than $278,000 in define suez crisis contracting fees by various groups and since 2009, has liaised with AFDI#x27;s attorney, David Yerushalmi, to develop anti#x2d;Sharia legislation (That year, CSP paid Yerushalmi more than $153,000 in consulting fees; in reaction 2012 he earned $110,823). 31 Other beneficiaries of this multi#x2d;million dollar industry include the David Horowitz Freedom Center ($8,380,500), the Clarion Fund, which produced the anti#x2d;Muslim film Obsession#x3a; Radical Islam#x27;s War Against the West ($18,093,600), and Daniel Pipes#x27;s Middle East Forum ($5,963,246). 32 The Council on American#x2d;Islamic Relations reports that between 2008 and 2011, 37 groups raked in a combined $119,662,719 in total revenue.

33 The heads of these organizations are often salaried hundreds of thousands of dollars. It is not surprising that in this climate of #x22;get rich quick,#x22; dozens of define suez crisis other similar groups sprang up, offering services that ranged from security consulting to political organizing. Some of them include#x3a; ACT! For America, the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), the Forum for Middle East Understanding, the Strategic Engagement Group, the American Islamic Forum for to Crime? Essay Democracy (AIFD), the Center for the Study of suez crisis Political Islam (CSPI) and the Shoebat Foundation. How Is Poverty To Crime? Essay! Their members lobby local and federal lawmakers to implement much of the aforementioned legislation, campaign against Muslim#x2d;led initiatives and spread misinformation in define crisis op#x2d;eds, lectures to government officials, and within their communities. What is the net result of : A Player in World examples all of suez crisis this? Since 9/11, eight surveys, most of them conducted by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, show that #x22;unfavorable#x22; views of Muslims have increased. Charles Kurzman of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security, writes that #x22;Before 2006, all five surveys found #x22;unfavorable#x22; rates of 26 percent or lower; in the four surveys between 2006 and age affect time, 2012, only define suez crisis one found #x22;unfavorable#x22; rates that low.#x22; 34 Moreover, studies carried out since 9/11 by Pew, the Arab#x2d;American Institute, and others show that from 2001 to 2006, #x22;unfavorable#x22; views of Muslims declined, while from 2006 onward they spiked upwards from Prmary, 21#x2013;24 percent in 2006 to as high as 63 percent more recently. 35 When it comes to Muslims writ large (as opposed to Muslim Americans) and Islam, the define numbers are worse.

The American National Election Studies#x27; #x22;feeling thermometer,#x22; which uses polling data to measure the #x22;temperature#x22; of certain views, the rating for Muslims fell by 9 points between 2004 and age affect, 2012 and of the nine minority groups mentioned, only two were viewed more negatively than Muslims#x3a; atheists and illegal immigrants. 36. It is not difficult to see how an inescapable circle evolves#x3a; imperialism in Muslim#x2d;majority countries, the institutionalization of policies that present Muslims as a threat, and an industry that disseminates misinformation all foster negative views of Muslims. Define! Those negative views then legitimize the Austria-Hungary in World Essay examples continuation of the aforementioned practices and policies. Lasting improvements are doubtful as long as Muslims are used for suez the political or financial benefit of others, rather than treated with the equality and human dignity they deserve. Nathan Lean is or Bad?, a writer and researcher whose work focuses on Islam, Islamophobia, the Middle East, Muslim#x2d;Christian relations, and other issues. He is the co#x2d;author of crisis Iran, Israel and the United States (Palgrave 2010), author of the award#x2d;winning The Islamophobia Industry (Pluto 2012), and oo4 on, the co#x2d;editor of The Moral Psychology of Terrorism (Cambridge Scholars 2013). Define Suez Crisis! His fourth book, The Changing Middle East#x3a; Power and Politics in an Age of Revolution will be released in 2014. 1 I define Islamophobia as#x3a; An unfounded hostility towards and/or exaggerated fear of Business Muslims that is fueled by repeated negative stereotypes of the Islamic faith. 2 Fawaz Gergez, America and Political Islam#x3a; Clash of Cultures or Clash of Interests? (Cambridge#x3a; Cambridge University Press, 1999), 43.

3 The American Presidency Project, #x22;The State of the suez crisis Union Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress,#x22; http#x3a;//www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=33079. 4 Melanie McAlister, Epic Encounters#x3a; Culture, Media and U.S. Interests in the Middle East Since 1945 (Berkeley#x3a; University of California Press, 2001). 5 Lila Abu#x2d;Lughod, #x22;Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and How is Essay, Its Others,#x22; American Anthropologist 104 , No.3 (2002)#x3a; 783#x2d;790. 6 Juan Cole, #x22;Islamophobia and American Foreign Policy Rhetoric#x3a; The Bush Years and suez crisis, After,#x22; In John L. Esposito and morning song plath, Ibrahim Kalin, eds., Islamophobia#x3a; The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century (Oxford#x3a; Oxford University Press, 2011), 129. 7 Mahmood Mamdani, Good Muslim, Bad Muslim#x3a; America, the Cold War and the Roots of Terror (New York#x3a; Pantheon, 2004), 15.

8 NBC News, #x22;Transcript for Sunday, September 14, 2003,#x22; http#x3a;//www.nbcnews.com/id/3080244/#.UxCwuoXY#x2d;pk. 9 First Lady Laura Bush said at define suez the time#x3a; #x22;Because of our recent military gains in much of Afghanistan, women are no longer imprisoned in their homes. They can listen to music and teach their daughters without fear of punishment. Does Age Affect Time! Yet, the terrorists who helped rule that country now plot and plan in suez crisis many countries. And they must be stopped. The fight against terrorism is also a fight for the rights and morning, dignity of women.#x22; 10 Reuters, #x22;Women, Girls Increasingly Victims in Afghan War, U.N. Says,#x22; February 19, 2013, http#x3a;//www.reuters.com/article/2013/02/19/us#x2d;afghanistan#x2d;un#x2d;idUSBRE91I0E520130219. 11 Deepa Kumar, #x22;Obama#x27;s Cairo Speech#x3a; A Rhetorical Shift in U.S. Imperialism,#x22; June 13, 2009, http#x3a;//dissidentvoice.org/2009/06/obama%E2%80%99s#x2d;cairo#x2d;speech#x2d;a#x2d;rhetorical#x2d;shift#x2d;in#x2d;us#x2d;imperialism/ 12 Bureau of define crisis Investigative Journalism, #x22;Drone Strikes in Prmary Player in World War I Pakistan,#x22; http#x3a;//www.thebureauinvestigates.com/category/projects/drones/drones#x2d;pakistan/ (accessed on February 28, 2014#x2014;figures may change since that date.)

13 The White House, #x22;Remarks By President Obama in Address to the United Nations General Assembly,#x22; September 24, 2013, http#x3a;//www.whitehouse.gov/the#x2d;press#x2d;office/2013/09/24/remarks#x2d;president#x2d;obama#x2d;address#x2d;united#x2d;nations#x2d;general#x2d;assembly. 14 Triangle Center for Terrorism and Homeland Security, #x22;Muslim#x2d;American Terrorism in 2013,#x22; Report. Available online at#x3a; http#x3a;//sites.duke.edu/tcths/files/2013/06/Kurzman_Muslim#x2d;American_Terrorism_in_2013.pdf. 15 Institute for Social Policy and suez crisis, Understanding, #x22;The U.S. Patriot Act#x3a; Impact on the Arab and Business, Muslim Community,#x22; 2004. Report.

17 Paul Bedard, #x22;Public Backs Torture, Patriot Act,#x22; US News and define crisis, World Report , May 25, 2011, http#x3a;//www.usnews.com/news/blogs/washington#x2d;whispers/2011/05/25/public#x2d;backs#x2d;torture#x2d;patriot#x2d;act. 18 American Civil Liberties Union, #x22;Muslims Need Not Apply,#x22; August 2013, Report, Available online at#x3a; http#x3a;//www.aclusocal.org/CARRP/ 19 Paul Vitello and morning song plath, Kirk Semple, #x22;Muslims Say FBI Tactics Sow Fear and suez crisis, Anger,#x22; New York Times , December 17, 2009, http#x3a;//www.nytimes.com/2009/12/18/us/18muslims.html?pagewanted=all_r=0. 20 Paul Harris, #x22;The Ex#x2d;FBI Informant with a Change of Heart#x3a; #x27;There is no real hunt. Music Oo4 Composer Report Carlo Essay! It#x27;s fixed,#x27;#x22; March 20, 2012, Guardian , http#x3a;//www.theguardian.com/world/2012/mar/20/fbi#x2d;informant. 21 Nathan C. Lean, #x22;Since 9/11, U.S. Policy Enforces Islamophobia,#x22; September 11, 2013, CNN Belief Blogs, http#x3a;//religion.blogs.cnn.com/2013/09/11/since#x2d;911#x2d;islamophobia#x2d;legislated#x2d;and#x2d;enforced/comment#x2d;page#x2d;1/

22 ACLU, #x22;Map#x3a; Nationwide Anti#x2d;Mosque Activity,#x22; https#x3a;//www.aclu.org/maps/map#x2d;nationwide#x2d;anti#x2d;mosque#x2d;activity. 23 Council on American#x2d;Islamic Relations, #x22;Legislating Fear#x3a; Islamophobia and Its Impact in define crisis the United States,#x22; September 2013, Report, Available online at#x3a; http#x3a;//www.cair.com/islamophobia/legislating#x2d;fear#x2d;2013#x2d;report.html. 24 According to 2011 I#x2d;990 forms from the David Horowitz Freedom Center. Persistent requests for 2012 I#x2d;990 forms have been ignored. 26 I use the term #x22;organizations#x22; loosely. These groups exist primarily on the Internet, share funding and board members and have no physical address or full#x2d;time staff. In essence, they are online campaigns with the How is Poverty Related to Crime? Essay veneer of a more formal enterprise. 28 Matt Flegenheimer, #x22;Controversial Group Plans More Ads in Subway Stations,#x22; December 13, 2012, New York Times , http#x3a;//www.nytimes.com/2012/12/14/nyregion/controversial#x2d;group#x2d;has#x2d;new#x2d;anti#x2d;jihad#x2d;subway#x2d;ads.html. 29 Nathan Lean, The Islamophobia Industry#x3a; How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims , (London#x3a; Pluto Press, 2010). 30 Donors included#x3a; The Donor#x27;s Capital Fund, Richard Mellon Scaife foundations, the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, Becker foundations and charitable trusts, the define suez crisis Russel Berrie foundation, the Anchorage Charitable Foundation and William Rosenwald Family Fund, and the Fairbrook Foundation.

See#x3a; Wajahat Ali, Eli Clifton, Matthew Duss, Lee Fang, Scott Keyes, and Faiz Shakir, Fear Inc.#x3a; The Roots of the Islamophobia Network in does age affect time America , (Washington, Center for American Progress, 2011), available at#x3a; http#x3a;//www.americanprogress.org/issues/2011/08/pdf/islamophobia.pdf. 31 Council on define suez American#x2d;Islamic Relations, #x22;Legislating Fear#x3a; Islamophobia and Its Impact in Music oo4 Composer Report on Gesualdo the United States,#x22; Report, 2013, available at#x3a; https#x3a;//www.cair.com/islamophobia/legislating#x2d;fear#x2d;2013#x2d;report.html. 32 Ali, Clifton, et. al., Fear, Inc. 33 Council on American#x2d;Islamic Relations, #x22;Legislating Fear.#x22;

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an essay on anything Man, this essay is going to be impossible . Weve all been in this boat before, confronted with an suez essay assignment that is beyond difficult. What if I told you that I can teach you how to write an essay about pretty much anything under the sun? Even hmm wombats. On International Business. What? Why wombats? you wonder. Well, for one, just look how flipping CUTE the little guy is. But also, I want to make a point about this random noun I literally plucked out of thin air: no essay topic is actually impossible , as you will see.

In this post, Im going to define suez crisis teach you how to write an essay on Austria-Hungary : A examples, just about anything under the sun, from brainstorming through proofreading. First, well review the suez crisis, essential elements of a good essay, and then Ill detail a foolproof process that will lead you to a unique, interesting essay on just about anything you or your teacher can imagine. What Are the 3 Essential Elements of a Great Essay? There are three essential elements every essay needs to be, well, an essay. These include: Lets break these elements down a little bit. The most essential ingredient of a great essay is a clear central idea. Fictional Lies To Children: Good Or Bad? Essay. This is define suez crisis usually called a thesis statement . The thesis statement makes your purpose for writing clear. Your readers will know whether they should prepare to be entertained, informed, or so moved theyll need to bring Kleenex.

For when reading gets serious. The thesis also lays out your claims or opinions about your topic. It means taking a stand for what you believe to be true about Austria-Hungary : A Prmary in World War I Essay, your topic or what you will prove through your writing. The second element of suez crisis, a great essay is broad appeal . By that, I mean that your essay needs to have meaning to : A War I examples your audience not just yourself. An informative essay, for instance, should teach your audience something they might feasibly want to know. Define Suez Crisis. This applies to personal essays, too. Fictional To Children: Good Or Bad?. Even though the essay is about you, it should serve a larger purpose or highlight some truth about the world or how things work.

If you are literally the only person on earth who cares about define crisis, your topic, you could certainly still write an Essay on International essay about it. But whats the point? Ultimately, a great essay has to pass the So what? test. No one should read your thesis let alone reach the end of define crisis, your conclusion and be able to reasonably ask, So what? Lastly, every essay needs a structure . It could have as few as three paragraphs introduction, body, conclusion or go on Business, for pages and pages and pages. Either way, there should be a logical framework that guides the reader through your writing. No matter what youre writing about, these three elements will put you on define, the road to How is Poverty Related to Crime? Essay a great essay. Now, lets look at a process that walks you through how to write an essay about anything! How to define Write an Essay that Rocks Every Time. No matter what type of essay youre writing or how long it will be, there is a set of reproducible steps you can take to prepare for writing, to write your paper, and to revise your writing.

Best of all, you can adapt these steps to oo4 Report Essay fit essay assignments ranging from 1 page to 100. Crisis. Research can mean many things. In an informative or argumentative essay, you obviously need concrete facts and possibly statistics in order to teach or persuade your audience. In a literary analysis essay, your research might entail a close reading of a specific text or reading literary journals to determine what other critics have said about your topic. And if youre feeling a bit smug because youre writing a personal essay and think you get to skip this step, think again.

Research can also mean talking to others who share your memories of an event, digging through old photos for inspiration, and so forth. If having an item, a fact, a figure, a quote, or a recollection will help you write a stronger, richer essay, then now is the time to go look for it. Keep your eyes open for what Joe Bunting of The Write Practice calls the story of surprise. Jot down things that are surprising, shocking, or interesting about Essay, your topic during the research phase these often lead to the best essays. Suez Crisis. Take that sweet, cuddly wombat I mentioned earlier, for oo4 Composer Report on Carlo Gesualdo Essay instance. In doing a little research, I found out that wombats poop cubes and define crisis use their armored butts as weapons. Color me surprised!

Professor Cal Newton recommends that you take an idea vacation hey, its not Hawaii, but it is plath free. He says that after youve done some research, but before youve pinned down your main idea, you should walk away from the suez crisis, computer. Just go be with your ideas. I do all my best thinking upside down. Im inclined to agree with him. Some of my best ideas have struck when I was washing the : A Prmary Player War I Essay examples, dishes, taking a walk, driving, or otherwise not at suez crisis the keyboard. (Im not sure that pondering wombat poop ranks among my best ideas). Nonetheless, I absolutely recommend that you leave yourself enough time to take such a brainstorming break when your research is morning done. I also want you to ignore your first few ideas.

No, I mean it throw them out. Poof! Theyre gone. Before you get mad at me for wasting your time, though, let me explain: dont go with the suez, low-hanging fruit. Your first few ideas about your topic are probably obvious and easy. Business. Think about it this way: if theyre the suez, first things you thought of when considering your topic, theyre probably the things your audience would have thought of, too. Bo-ring.

When you feel as though you have some solid ideas for what you want to say about your topic, move on to the next step. Step 3: Narrow your focus and Business write your thesis. I like wombat butts, and define crisis I cannot lie. Music Oo4 Report On Essay. Now that youve had a bit of respite, you probably have a pretty good overview of suez, your topic and some interesting ideas about how you will approach it. But now is the point when you want to narrow your focus and hone in on a thesis statement. Time. You dont want your topic to be so broad that you can barely touch on suez crisis, one subtopic before moving on to the next. At the same time, you dont want a topic so specific that you can barely find anything to say about it, either. Does Age Affect. So how do you find the middle ground? Lets revisit our wombat friends to see this idea in action.

An informative essay describing why wombats are all-around bad*sses? Yup, totally doable. But what if youre limited to two pages? Covering every facet of define suez crisis, this critters awesomeness in so few pages would hardly do it justice. Therefore, I decided to focus on just one element: its bum. Business. I know, I know. But were all adults here, right? (Haha, wombat butts! ) Thanks to my research, I now know that wombats have rather robust rumps that protect and serve them in a variety of suez crisis, ways. Age Affect Time. I could also feasibly cover that topic in detail in a short essay. Define Suez Crisis. Therefore, I wrote the following thesis: The wombats unique posterior sets the marsupial apart from other mammals and is key to its survival.

Now that you have a main idea, its best to Music Report Carlo Essay organize your ideas into an outline. In fact, by the time youre done with this step, youll have the suez, five most important sentences of your essay written. For my hypothetical essay outline, Im using the basic 5-paragraph structure featuring an introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Morning. Your essay may have more or fewer paragraphs, but this is suez crisis a great, basic structure to build upon. You dont have to write complete sentences to fill in Fictional Lies Essay an outline, but I recommend that you do. Its just five sentences, after all: your thesis, a topic sentence for each paragraph, and a topic sentence for your conclusion that ties back to the thesis. Check out my example below: It probably seems like youve done a lot of work up to crisis this point. : A Player War I Essay. (You have.) You might wonder whether all that was really necessary. (It was.) But heres the thing: by now, you know what youre going to write about. You have sources to suez crisis back up your claims.

You know the structure your essay will take. And best of morning plath, all, you already have the five most important sentences in your essay written. All you have left to do is support the suez, main ideas youve already written. You also need to lead into your thesis with a compelling hook. And remember just because your essay needs to have an introduction, body, and conclusion when you finish doesnt mean you have to write them in does age affect reaction that order. Personally, I find it easiest to write the body first, then the introduction, and then the conclusion.

This way, I can jump right into the meaty part of the essay without wasting a lot of time thinking about my hook, and I dont have to suez try and introduce writing that doesnt exist yet. Lastly, to song make the drafting process as painless as possible, just worry about getting words on define suez, the page at this point. Follow your outline, of course, but dont worry too much about editing yourself or getting things just so the time will come for editing. Essay. If at all possible, wait a day, or at least a few hours, before moving on to this step. Youll be more patient, less frustrated, and better able to spot issues in your writing. Start the revision process by reading through your essay and define suez looking for problems with flow, clarity, structure, and logic. Its okay to Essay on International fix grammar or punctuation errors at this point if you spot them, but dont focus on surface-level issues until youve patched up the deeper problems first. Once youre feeling confident about your content, its time to define suez crisis proofread.

Reading your essay out loud is one of the Poverty to Crime?, best ways to define spot grammar and punctuation errors and : A examples issues with wording give it a shot! Running short on time or patience? Let us help with this step! A fresh set of define suez crisis, eyes (from the pros, no less) can help you spot major issues with your organization or clarity, and we can ensure that your essay is in its best possible shape before you turn it in. Final Thoughts on How to Write an Essay About Anything. Were cute but not fun to Lies Good write about. The next time youre assigned a groan-worthy essay topic, repeat after me: At least its not wombat butts. And take heart you not only know more about wombats rear-ends than you could ever want, but you also know exactly how to write an essay about pretty much anything your teacher can throw at define suez you. Psst.

98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Erin H. Related. has been wowing Kibin customers since her first edit in define suez August 2013. She is now Kibin's community manager and a regular contributor to morning plath Kibin's blog.

She lives in Indiana with her husband and define suez daughter. To Crime? Essay. This was really helpful and also interestingly cute! Thank you! Thanks so much, Annie! It was fun to define write #8212; I#8217;m really glad it helped you #128578; Hi, I#8217;m having problems identifying what type of age affect reaction, essay should I write. My theme is: Smart cities from theory to practice, critical reflections applied to a real case. Is it an suez crisis analytic essay? a summary analysis? a critical analysis? I am really confused about the How is Related to Crime? Essay, right outline#8230;Could you help me figure it out please?

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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by suez crisis anything from what we say or do, to Essay Business the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of suez, coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to evaluate where that integration is in World War I occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an area of define suez crisis, social psychology but go no further. Related To Crime? Essay. This is define suez partly the result of a proliferation of research in social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and Essay, take less notice of what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach. The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the different 'levels of explanation' at define suez, which social psychological research operates at. The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and : A Prmary in World War I examples, the research has tended to concentrate on one of these levels without integrating them together. This can lead to an incomplete answer to the original research question.

Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the suez example of social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to on International integrate social psychological knowledge and outline some of these attempts. The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. For example, explanations of crisis, social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis. This can be seen in a variety of experiments on How is to Crime? Essay the effects of motivational and emotional factors on suez crisis behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Prmary War I. Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral. The second involved making a judgement about a person under a variety of different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the social judgement of the participants.

They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the study. The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to being another overarching theory - although this is define crisis more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and Poverty Related Essay, physical. This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to differing levels of investment in define suez offspring. How Is Related. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in modern technological societies. Both the evolutionary theory and crisis, ideas from cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an oo4 Gesualdo Essay integrated perspective. Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and define suez crisis, Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986).

Social identity theory grew out of the minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an Prmary Player War I examples extremely arbitrary and suez, loosely formed grouping so as to oo4 Report on Essay prefer the in-group members over the out-group members. This would occur with only the smallest and most subtle provocation (described in Tajfel, 1978). This theory is based on the idea that society is structured by social groupings with different levels of power and interests and that people gain their social identity from these groups. Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to. People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to define separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the age affect reaction confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of critics. Define. Because of Composer on Carlo Essay, its concentration on the importance of groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. These include, for suez example, in-group favouritism and intergroup differentiation. Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes? Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory.

Self-categorisation theory grew out of social identity theory and reaction, concentrates on how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from a number of fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to a kind of prototype. This analysis brings in the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and then comparing individual behaviour to that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in crisis research like that carried out by Essay Business Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively. The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to define suez fine arts students, and on International, their creativity when comparing themselves to physics students.

This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to define suez others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is affected by the exact nature of the social comparison that they are making. The combination of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of self-esteem. One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the salient points is that of crowd behaviour. Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in self-awareness in an individual person.

Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the Poverty Related intergroup interactions. In an analysis of crowd behaviour based on define social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is How is Essay that there is often a high level of the sharing of social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to crisis behave and so people tend to Business look for those members of the group that they identify with and copy them. To look at it from define crisis, another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in Lies Good Essay a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity. The simple result is that people tend to conform to the group norms to a greater extent. Studies of define suez, riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for this point of Music Report on Carlo, view. Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in 1980 in define crisis the St Paul's area of Bristol. Good. It was found that, for define example, people only Essay Business, targeted symbols of the state such as the police and banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of findings tend to define support ideas from social identity and morning, self-categorisation theory.

The fragmentation and suez crisis, attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the morning song plath most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in the late 60s and early 70s. This was lead by critics of traditional approaches to social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and positivism. The effect of concentrating on reductionism in psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at the expense of define suez crisis, understanding the social nature of Essay Business, human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of define suez crisis, traditional scientific methods. Music On. They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of define suez, people in an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to be objective about yourself - by definition! While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to grow from morning plath, different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in the past.

Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of 'social constructionism'. This new plurality of approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is socially constructed. In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of suez, analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of written or verbal text. While these new approaches to social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is carried out. Still, their concentration on the social in social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in : A Prmary Player in World examples the same direction. Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is certainly questionable. The main problem for define social psychologists is that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is Composer on Gesualdo Essay little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for crisis the sharing and integration of knowledge. As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules. How Is Poverty Related Essay. Unless bridges can be built between the define crisis sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks. There is Essay Business some evidence that some level of integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in the mainstream.

Branscombe, N. R. Spears, R. (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Halonen S. F. Davis (Eds.). The many faces of psychological research in the 21st century (text-only version; chap. 7). Retrieved September 5, 2005 from http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164-168. Define Crisis. Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66.

Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Lies to Children: or Bad?, Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. Eysenek, M. Crisis. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman. Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and Player War I, social psychology: Beyond attitudes and suez crisis, behaviour. London: Sage.

Reicher, S. (1984) St. Paul's a study of the limits of crowd behaviour. In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology. Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. Fictional Lies To Children:. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of social psychology, Vol. 6, pp.

161-198). Suez. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. Composer Report On Carlo Gesualdo Essay. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. (1978). Interindividual behaviour and define suez crisis, intergroup behaviour. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp. Morning Plath. 27-60). New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986).

The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. G. (Eds.), The psychology of suez, intergroup relations (pp. Music Report Gesualdo Essay. 7-24). Suez Crisis. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. Morning Song Plath. Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. In Turner, J.C.

Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory (pp. 42-67). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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