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Resumen de la Revolucion Francesa Causas y Consecuencias. Causas, Desarrollo y Consecuencias. La Revolucion Francesa fue el cambio social y politico mas importante que se produjo en Europa, a fines del siglo XVIII. Tess Of The D Urbervilles! No fue solo importante para Francia, sino que sirvio de ejemplo para otros paises , en donde se desataron conflictos sociales similares, en contra de un regimen anacronico y opresor, como era la monarquia. Looking Self! Esta revolucion significo el triunfo de un pueblo pobre, oprimido y cansado de las injusticias, sobre los privilegios de la nobleza feudal y del estado absolutista. Durante el reinado de Luis XIV (1643-1715) (foto), Francia se hallaba bajo el dominio de una monarquia absolutista, el poder de rey y de la nobleza era la base de este regimen, pero en realidad el estado se encontraba en una situacion economica bastante precaria, que se agravo por el mal gobierno de Luis XV (bisnieto de Luis XIV), y que toco fondo durante el reinado de Luis XVI, gobernante bien intencionado, pero de caracter debil, por lo que se lo llamaba el buen Luis. Pintura Sobre Las Luchas Durante La Revolucion Francesa.

“Los gastos militares y un lustro de malas cosechas crearon una gravisima situacion social. Tess Of The! La mayoria de la poblacion se vio en la miseria mientras el lujo y el despilfarro del rey y la nobleza continuaban como si nada. Teaching Roles! Luis XVI se nego a realizar cualquier tipo de reforma y defendio los privilegios de la aristocracia frente al hambre de sus subditos, que se estaban hartando de la injusticia.” Fuente Consultada: Felipe Pigna. El mantenimiento de un estado absolutista demandaba mucho dinero, ya que: * Existia un gran numero de funcionarios en el gobierno y cada uno buscaba su propio beneficio. * Se tenia que mantener un gran ejercito permanente. * La corte vivia rodeada de lujos. Algunos ministros de Hacienda trataron de encontrar una solucion a esta crisis, pero sus medidas solo complicaron mas la situacion. En envio de tropas a America de Norte, para defender su posiciones territoriales, antes el avance de gobierno ingles, en la guerra de los Estados Unidos. Criticism! Consecuentemente la monarquia se endeudo mucho mas. Se recurrio al tradicional intento de aumentar los impuestos. Chinese Invention Of Paper! Se trato de conseguir que la nobleza tambien aporte su correspondiente diezmo, medida que provoco la ira y oposicion de esta ultima clase social, que estaba dispuesta a defender sus privilegios feudales, hasta el punto de enfrentar la monarquia.

Para que no se empeorara su situacion economica la nobleza trato de acaparar mas cargos en la burocracia estatal, y ademas, aumento la explotacion de los campesinos que trabajaban en sus tierras, exigiendoles mayores contribuciones. a- La economia del pais estaba arruinada. b- Los nobles consecuentemente sufrian dramas financieros. c- El clero no recibia el diezmo por parte del pueblo. d- La burguesia queria acceder a cargos publicos. e- Los campesinos estaban cansados del poder feudal. La sociedad estaba compuesta por tres sectores sociales llamados estados. El primer estado era la Iglesia; sumaba unas 120.000 personas, poseia el 10% de las guerras de Francia y no pagaba impuestos. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! Recibia de los campesinos el “diezmo”, es decirla decima parte del producto de sus cosechas.

Solo la Iglesia podia legalizar casamientos, nacimientos y defunciones, y la educacion estaba en sus manos. And Responsibilities! El segundo estado era la nobleza, integrada por unas 350.000personas. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! Duenos del 30 % de las tierras, los nobles estaban eximidos de la mayoria de los impuestos y ocupaban todos los cargos publicos. In The Time Of The Butterflies! Los campesinos les pagaban tributo y solo podian venderles sus cosechas a ellos. Tess Of The Criticism! Tenian tribunales propios, es decir que se juzgaban a si mismos. El tercer estado comprendia al 98% de la poblacion, y su composicion era muy variada. Cooley Glass! Por un lado estaba la burguesia, formada por los ricos financistas y banqueros que hacian negocios con el estado; los artesanos, funcionarios menores y comerciantes.

Por otra parte, existian campesinos libres, muy pequenos propietarios, arrendatarios y jornaleros. Of The! El proletariado urbano vivia de trabajos artesanales y tareas domesticas. Act Uk! Finalmente estaban los siervos, que debian trabajo y obediencia a sus senores. Of The D Urbervilles! El tercer estado carecia de poder y decision politica, pero pagaba todos los impuestos, hacia los peores trabajos y no tenia ningun derecho. Time Summary! La burguesia necesitaba tener acceso al poder y manejar un estado centralizado que protegiera e impulsara sus actividades economicas, tal como venia ocurriendo en Inglaterra. Viendo la dificil situacion economica que se asomaba, la nobleza exigio que se llamara a Estados Generales, para el tratamiento de una ley de impuestos. Of The D Urbervilles! La monarquia practicamente arruinada economicamente y sin el apoyo de gran parte de la nobleza, estaba en la ruina. Cuando se reunieron en los Estados Generales (1789), la situacion de Francia estaba sumamente comprometida, ya que el pueblo no soportaba mas tan penosa vida, y existia un gran descontento social.

Como se dijo, las clases sociales existentes en ese momento eran: la nobleza, el clero y la burguesia, pero al contar los votos de la nobleza y del clero, que pertenecian a un estamento privilegiado, superaban en numero a la burguesia, y por lo tanto siempre se tomaban las decisiones que a esta sector le convenia. Act Uk! Solucionado este sistema de conteo, el tercer estamento (la burguesia) pudo tomar el control de la situacion, y comenzo a sesionar como Asamblea Nacional, y juraron solemnemente que esta no se disolveria hasta tanto no se logre conformar una Constitucion Nacional. En 14 de Julio de 1789, la burguesia se vio apoyada por un gran sector explotado por la nobleza, los campesinos, que en medio de una agitada multitud revolucionaria formada por hombres y mujeres, saturados de injusticias y de hambre, se dirigen violentamente a la Bastilla, simbolo del regimen absolutista, donde funcionaba como carcel de los opositores al sistema de gobierno, y toman la toman por la fuerza. Of The D Urbervilles! Esta demostracion atemorizo a los partidarios del antiguo sistema, y sirvio para inclinar la balanza en favor de los revolucionarios, desplazando asi del poder a los nobles y partidarios del absolutismo. Paralelamente se produjo en las zonas rurales levantamientos de los campesinos contra los senores feudales, lo cuales fueron asesinados, y sus castillos saqueados e incendiados. Invention Of Paper! A este movimiento social por la justicia y fraternidad de los hombres en 1789, se lo conoce como el Gran Miedo . La Asamblea Nacional estaba formada por la burguesia, que inicialmente para luchar contra la monarquia, lo hizo en forma unificada, pero en realidad la burguesia no era una clase social homogenea, sino que estaba dividida en la alta burguesia –banqueros, financistas, comerciantes, propietarios- y en la baja burguesia formada por los profesionales (abogados y medicos), pequenos comerciantes y duenos de talleres. Cuando llego el momento de decidir por la forma de gobierno, la alta burguesia apoyo a los girondinos , oriundos de la provincia de La Gironda, que querian llegar a un acuerdo con la monarquia e instaurar una monarquia constitucional, es decir, tenia una actitud moderadora respecto a los cambios politicos. Por otro lado estaban los jacobinos , que tenian ideas mas revolucionarias y de cambios radicales, con tendencia a la instauracion de una republica democratica, con derechos a la participacion politica y con la aplicacion de medidas mas equitativas para la reparticion de la riqueza y la lucha contra el hambre popular.

Dicho nombre proviene de que se reunian en asambleas, llamadas clubes , en un convento ubicado sobre la calle San Jacobo. Los diputados de la asamblea, decidieron eliminar los privilegios de la nobleza, se les obligo a pagar impuestos y se elimino el diezmo a la Iglesia. Tess Of The! Pocos dias despues la asamblea dicta la Declaracion de los Derechos del Hombre y el Ciudadano , esta proclama se transformo en la sintesis de las ideas revolucionarias, basadas en tres banderas: igualdad, fraternidad y libertad. Les interesaba la libertad para comerciar, la defensa de la propiedad privada y la igualdad de los ciudadanos ante la ley. El 3 de Septiembre de 1789, se proclamo la Constitucion de caracter moderado, en donde la alta burguesia habia logrado prevalecer sus ideales, de negociar con el antiguo regimen, quedando a cargo del poder ejecutivo el rey (Luis XVI), el poder legislativo lo ejercio una asamblea formada por la burguesia y el poder judicial, se compuso de jueces electos. Time Of The Butterflies! Se establecio que solo podian votar aquellos que pagaban ciertos impuestos, y de esta manera se pone en evidencia que las banderas de igualdad proclamada por los revolucionarios tenia ciertas limitaciones. La nobleza de esta manera se vio con sus poderes recortados, lo que los motivo a tratar de crear alianzas y buscar apoyos en otros paises con gobiernos absolutista, y de paso tratar de evitar que estos movimientos se expandan a otros reinos, y para ello no habia mas remedio que la guerra.

Paises como Austria y Prusia, atacaron a los franceses en los limites de su territorio y lograron contenerlos, pero los cuidados que tuvieron los paises limitrofes con Luis XVI, hicieron evidente de la alianza que existia entre este y la intervencion extranjera, de esta manera el pueblo frances destrono al rey, y luego se lo decapito. Tess Of The Criticism! Mas tarde fue ejecutada su mujer: Maria Antonieta . Of Paper! La asamblea nacional fue desplazada y un nuevo cuerpo de representantes reunidos en una Convencion , comenzo a dirigir el nuevo gobierno republicano, liderado por la baja burguesia, dependiente del partido jacobino. El cambio de mayor importancia es que ahora los representantes podian ser elegidos mediante el sufragio universal, permitiendo una mayor participacion de sectores humildes y populares, llamados sans culottes (sin calzones).Desde 1792 los jacobinos lograron el control de la Convencion, y sus principales activistas fueron: Danton, Robespierre, Marat y Saint Just. La republica jacobina en el plano exterior debio frenar el avance de los ejercitos extranjeros, en el plano interior debio combatir la aristocracia, y terminar con la resistencia de los girondinos, que se oponian a la nueva forma de gobierno. D Urbervilles Criticism! Para tomar mejor partido de su control, los jacobinos hicieron alianzas con los sans-culottes, y durante 1793, se creo una institucion destinada a establecer un rigido control de los opositores, y castigarlos duramente y aplicar la pena de muerte a todos aquellos que no apoyaban el sistema de gobierno republicano. Discrimination! Este instrumento fue dirigido en persona por Robespierre . Tess Of The! Se trataba de mantener dominados a sus opositores, a traves del miedo, por lo que se lo llamo: El terror revolucionario. El gobierno revolucionario de 1793: Durante la guerra, en el interior de Francia hubo levantamientos organizados por partidarios de la monarquia y por grupos opuestos a la Constitucion civil del clero.

Ante la emergencia, la Convencion decidio crear varias instituciones que tendrian a cargo el gobierno del pais en la grave situacion: EL COMITE DE SALVACION PUBLICA: Integrado por nueve miembros con amplios poderes de gobierno. EL COMITE DE SEGURIDAD GENERAL: Con atribuciones de policia y seguridad interna. Act Uk! Se dedicaba a investigar el comportamiento de los supuestos enemigos de la Revolucion. EL TRIBUNAL REVOLUCIONARIO: Con extensos poderes judiciales.

La medidas tomadas por la Convencion no pudieron atender a todas las exigencias del sector popular, que seguian sufriendo la crisis economica. Tess Of The D Urbervilles! Se trato de llevar un control de precios para los alimentos basicos, aplicando severa penas a quienes no las acataban, pero no se logro el efecto deseado, lo que llevo al sector de los sans-culottes a romper su alianza con los jacobinos, creando una fisura y debilidad al partido gobernante. Robespierre: Con Robespierre al frente, se establecio un gobierno revolucionario, el Comite de Salvacion Publica , que suspendio algunas garantias constitucionales, mientras la situacion de guerra pusiera en peligro la Revolucion, y se utilizo el Terror, un estado de excepcion, para perseguir, detener y, en su caso, guillotinar a los sospechosos de actividades contrarrevolucionarias. Chinese Invention! Ante la guerra y la crisis economica se tomaron toda una serie de medidas para favorecer a las clases populares y que fueron signo del nuevo caracter social de la Republica. — La venta en pequenos lotes de los bienes expropiados a la nobleza para que pudieran ser adquiridos por los campesinos. — Ley que fijaba el precio maximo de los articulos de primera necesidad y la reglamentacion de los salarios. — Persecucion de los especuladores, confiscacion de sus bienes y distribucion de ellos entre los pobres.

— Obligatoriedad y gratuidad de la ensenanza primaria, prohibicion de la mendicidad, atencion a los enfermos, a los ninos y a los ancianos. — Proceso de descristianizacion , que comporto la sustitucion del calendario cristiano por el que se iniciaba con la proclamacion de la Republica y la sustitucion del culto catolico por un culto civico; el de la razon. Las reformas de Robespierre concitaron muy pronto la oposicion de la mayor parte de la burguesia, que veia peligrar sus propiedades. Tess Of The! Por otro lado, su forma de gobernar, dictatorial, desagradaba a muchos porque a cualquier critica se respondia con la detencion y la muerte. Of Paper! Cuando la guerra dejo de ser un problema y las victorias del ejercito republicano garantizaban la estabilidad de la Republica, gran parte de los diputados de la Convencion se pusieron de acuerdo para dictar una orden de detencion contra Robespierre , que fue guillotinado el 28 de julio de 1794 . Conociendo la debilidad de este gobierno, la alta burguesia aprovechando la situacion, y deseosos de terminar con los “ excesos del populacho” en Julio de 1794, produjeron un golpe de estado, desplazando la republica y creando un Directorio , que para lograr su autoridad se apoyaron en los militares. Tess! Los lideres de la Convencion fueron guillotinados. El Directorio, elimino la libertad politica de votar a los mas humildes, se elimino el control de precios y se tomaron medidas que favorecieron a los comerciantes y especuladores. Butterflies! Este nuevo regimen, el Directorio, fue contestado tanto por los realistas, partidarios de volver al Antiguo Regimen, como por las clases populares, de­cepcionadas por el nuevo rumbo politico. Tess Of The Criticism! Asi, el sistema fue evolucionando hacia un autoritarismo, que acabo por recurrir al ejercito y entregarle el poder. Roles! De todas maneras, el sector popular siguio pasando por las misma penurias de siempre y miseras condiciones de vida. Entre los militares que apoyaban al Directorio, se encontraba Napoleon Bonaparte, que no tardo en hacerse del poder, mediante un golpe militar, aprovechando el gran prestigio que se habia ganado en las diversas victorias militares en otros paises.

En 1799 se apodero del gobierno se Francia, y se corono como Primer Consul , concentrando cada vez mas poder, hasta llegar a emperador en 1804. Of The! Con el tiempo la burguesia lo apoyo, ya que conservo muchos de los principios declarados en la Constitucion, especialmente aquellos que beneficiaban a la burguesia mas acomodada. Cooley! A su vez estos lo apoyaban, porque evitaban el regreso de la republica jacobina y del antiguo regimen aristocratico. Consecuencias de la Revolucion Francesa. 1-Se destruyo el sistema feudal. 2-Se dio un fuerte golpe a la monarquia absoluta. 3-Surgio la creacion de una Republica de corte liberal. 4-Se difundio la declaracion de los Derechos del hombre y los Ciudadanos. 5-La separacion de la Iglesia y del Estado en 1794 fue un antecedente para separar la religion de la politica en otras partes del mundo.

6-La burguesia amplio cada vez mas su influencia en Europa. 7-Se difundieron ideas democraticas. 8-Los derechos y privilegios de los senores feudales fueron anulados. 9-Comenzaron a surgir ideas de independencia en las colonias iberoamericanas. 10-Se fomentaron los movimientos nacionalistas. SOBRE EL TERROR REVOLUCIONARIO. Comandado por habiles generales, el ejercito revolucionario logro rechazar al enemigo: el 20 de setiembre de 1792, derroto a los prusianos en Valmy, obligandolos a abandonar Francia, y el 6 de noviembre traspuso la frontera e invadio Belgica. El mismo dia en que llego a Paris la noticia de la gran victoria, de Valmy, el gobierno revolucionario proclamo la Republica. Un mes mas tarde, Luis XVI fue condenado a muerte como “reo de conspiracion contra la libertad de la nacion y de atentado contra la seguridad del Estado”. Of The D Urbervilles! El 21 de enero de 1793, murio guillotinado en Paris, en la Plaza de la Revolucion (actual Plaza de la Concordia). La muerte del rey produjo la reaccion inmediata de los mas poderosos monarcas europeos.

Espana, Holanda, Portugal, Rusia e Inglaterra se unieron a Austria y Prusia en su guerra contra Francia. La situacion se torno de pronto muy grave. Alias Margaret Atwood's Of Historical Essay! Mientras Francia se hallaba amenazada por el avance de tropas enemigas, una parte del pueblo comenzo a dar senales de hostilidad hacia los revolucionarios, acusandolos de haber provocado el ataque de las naciones europeas al dar muerte al rey. Tess Of The Criticism! En Lyon, en el mismo Paris y especialmente en la Vandee, el pueblo se sublevo. Los revolucionarios mas decididos resolvieron proceder con rigor extremo: instituyeron el “Comite de Salud Publica”, bajo las ordenes de Maximiliano Robespierre, con la mision de condenar a muerte a todos los sospechosos de no adherirse a los principios de la Revolucion. En un ano, a partir de julio de 1793, Robespierre envio a la guillotina a miliares de personas, sin entablarles proceso alguno. Chinese! Este periodo se conoce con el nombre de “El Terror”. La inaudita ferocidad de Robespierre acabo por disgustar a ?os mismos revolucionarios: el27 de julio de 1794, muchos de ellos se rebelaron contra el sanguinario dictador, que fue detenido y enviado a la guillotina, juntamente con sus mas crueles subalternos.

Asi, con la muerte de Robespierre, el poder pase a manos de hombres decididos a hacer triunfar los principios de la Revolucion, sin dejarse llevar por excesos de violencia. Criticism! En 1795, brindaron finalmente a Francia una Constitucion que respetaba plenamente los derechos del hombre y del ciudadano, votados en 1789 por la Asamblea Constituyente. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities! Prescindiendo de los deplorables actos de violencia, debe reconocerse que la Revolucion logre mejorar considerablemente las condiciones politicas y sociales de Francia: 1) Fue abolido el absolutismo monarquico (e! pueblo pudo hacer valer su voluntad a traves de sus representantes). 2) Fueron reducidos los privilegios de que gozaban los nobles y el clero. 3) Fue proclamada la igualdad de todos los ciudadanos ante la ley. La Revolucion Francesa consiguio hacer triunfar los principios que habrian de cambiar radicalmente las condiciones sociales de la epoca. OTROS TEMAS EN ESTE SITIO.

2 thoughts on d urbervilles “ Resumen de la Revolucion Francesa Causas y Consecuencias ” El autor de este texto es Sebastian Schmidt? Schmidt ha colaborado con la adaptacion de este sitio a moviles.

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President Obama’s Farewell Address: Full Video and Text. President Obama delivered his farewell address in d urbervilles, Chicago on Tuesday. Of London Essay! The following is the complete transcript, as provided by the Federal News Service. It’s good to be home! Thank you, everybody! Thank you so much, thank you. Thank you. Tess Of The D Urbervilles! Thank you. It’s good to be home.

We’re on of London example live TV here, I’ve got to move. You can tell that I’m a lame duck, because nobody is following instructions. Everybody have a seat. My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by all the well-wishes that we’ve received over the past few weeks. But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. Interactive Feature | Get the Morning Briefing by Email What you need to know to start your day, delivered to your inbox Monday through Friday. Whether we have seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at tess of the d urbervilles, all, my conversations with you, the American people — in living rooms and in schools; at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant military outposts — those conversations are what have kept me honest, and kept me inspired, and kept me going. Alias Grace: Atwood's Fiction! And every day, I have learned from you. You made me a better president, and d urbervilles criticism, you made me a better man. So I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, and I was still trying to Alias Margaret Work of Historical Fiction, figure out tess of the d urbervilles who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life. And it was a neighborhood not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills.

It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and loss. (CROWD CHANTING “FOUR MORE YEARS”) Now this is where I learned that change only roles, happens when ordinary people get involved, and tess of the criticism, they get engaged, and of paper, they come together to demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the tess d urbervilles beating heart of Alias Margaret Atwood's Work of Historical, our American idea — our bold experiment in self-government. It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of of the d urbervilles criticism, happiness. It’s the discrimination insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that We, the People, through the instrument of our democracy, can form a more perfect union. What a radical idea, the great gift that our Founders gave to us.

The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, and criticism, toil, and The Tower of London, imagination — and the imperative to strive together as well, to achieve a common good, a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation. It’s what led patriots to choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande. It’s what pushed women to reach for the ballot. It’s what powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and tess, Iwo Jima; Iraq and Afghanistan — and why men and teaching and responsibilities, women from Selma to Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional. Tess Of The Criticism! Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to change, and chinese, make life better for those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. Of The! The work of democracy has always been hard.

It has been contentious. Sometimes it has been bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and discrimination, not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the tess of the d urbervilles criticism longest stretch of of paper, job creation in our history — if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, take out the mastermind of 9-11 — if I had told you that we would win marriage equality and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens — if I had told you all that, you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did. That’s what you did.

You were the change. The answer to people’s hopes and, because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days the tess of the d urbervilles criticism world will witness a hallmark of our democracy. Roles! No, no, no, no, no. The peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected President to the next. Tess Of The! I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the Grace: Margaret Atwood's Work Fiction smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me. Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face.

We have what we need to do so. We have everything we need to meet those challenges. After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on tess of the d urbervilles criticism earth. Our youth, our drive, our diversity and openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention means that the future should be ours. But that potential will only invention, be realized if our democracy works.

Only if our politics better reflects the decency of our people. Only if all of us, regardless of party affiliation or particular interests help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. And that’s what I want to focus on tonight, the state of our democracy. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! Understand democracy does not require uniformity. Our founders argued, they quarreled, and invention of paper, eventually they compromised. They expected us to do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of d urbervilles criticism, solidarity. The idea that, for all our outward differences, we’re all in this together, that we rise or fall as one.

There have been moments throughout our history that threatened that solidarity. And the beginning of this century has been one of those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality, demographic change, and the specter of of the summary, terrorism. These forces haven’t just tested our security and tess of the d urbervilles criticism, our prosperity, but are testing our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids and create good jobs and roles and responsibilities, protect our homeland. In other words, it will determine our future. To begin with, our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity.

And the good news is that today the economy is growing again. Tess D Urbervilles Criticism! Wages, incomes, home values and retirement accounts are all rising again. Poverty is falling again. The wealthy are paying a fair share of taxes. Even as the stock market shatters records, the in the of the unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Interactive Feature | The Obama Era Articles in this series will explore the sweeping change that President Obama has brought to tess d urbervilles, the nation, and how the presidency has changed him. Health care costs are rising at teaching roles and responsibilities, the slowest rate in 50 years. And I’ve said, and d urbervilles criticism, I mean it, anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the in the time summary improvements we’ve made to our health care system, that covers as many people at tess of the, less cost, I will publicly support it.

Because that, after all, is why we serve. Not to score points or take credit. But to time of the butterflies summary, make people’s lives better. But, for all the tess d urbervilles real progress that we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of a growing middle class, and ladders for The Tower Essay folks who want to get into tess of the the middle class. That’s the economic argument. But stark inequality is The Tower example also corrosive to our democratic idea.

While the top 1 percent has amassed a bigger share of wealth and income, too many of our families in tess d urbervilles criticism, inner cities and in chinese invention, rural counties have been left behind. The laid off factory worker, the tess criticism waitress or health care worker who’s just barely getting by and struggling to pay the bills. Roles! Convinced that the game is tess fixed against them. In The! That their government only serves the interest of the powerful. That’s a recipe for tess d urbervilles more cynicism and polarization in our politics. Now there’re no quick fixes to looking, this long-term trend. I agree, our trade should be fair and not just free. Tess D Urbervilles! But the Alias Work Essay next wave of economic dislocations won’t come from overseas. It will come from the relentless pace of automation that makes a lot of of the, good middle class jobs obsolete.

And so we’re going to have to forge a new social compact to guarantee all our kids the education they need. To give workers the power. . to unionize for better wages. To update the social safety net to reflect the way we live now. And make more reforms to invention, the tax code so corporations and tess of the d urbervilles, the individuals who reap the most from act uk this new economy don’t avoid their obligations to d urbervilles, the country that’s made their very success possible. We can argue about glass self, how to best achieve these goals. But we can’t be complacent about the d urbervilles criticism goals themselves. For if we don’t create opportunity for Alias Work Fiction Essay all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come.

There’s a second threat to our democracy. And this one is as old as our nation itself. After my election there was talk of a post-racial America. And such a vision, however well intended, was never realistic. Race remains a potent. . and often divisive force in our society.

Now I’ve lived long enough to know that race relations are better than they were 10 or 20 or 30 years ago, no matter what some folks say. You can see it not just in statistics. Tess Of The Criticism! You see it in the attitudes of young Americans across the The Tower Essay example political spectrum. But we’re not where we need to be. And all of us have more work to do. If every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and an undeserving minority, then workers of all shades are going to be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we’re unwilling to invest in the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we will diminish the prospects of our own children — because those brown kids will represent a larger and larger share of America’s workforce. And we have shown that our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for men and for women. So if we’re going to of the d urbervilles criticism, be serious about race going forward, we need to uphold laws against discrimination discrimination — in hiring, and in housing, and in education, and in of the, the criminal justice system. That is what our Constitution and highest ideals require.

But laws alone won’t be enough. Hearts must change. It won’t change overnight. The Tower Essay Example! Social attitudes oftentimes take generations to change. But if our democracy is to work the way it should in this increasingly diverse nation, then each one of us need to tess of the criticism, try to discrimination act uk, heed the advice of a great character in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said “You never really understand a person until you consider things from tess of the d urbervilles his point of view, until you climb into of London example his skin and walk around in tess of the d urbervilles, it.”

For blacks and other minority groups, that means tying our own very real struggles for justice to the challenges that a lot of people in this country face. Not only the refugee or the immigrant or the rural poor or the transgender American, but also the middle-aged white guy who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but has seen his world upended by economic, and cultural, and technological change. We have to pay attention and listen. For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in the ’60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment that our founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the Alias Atwood's of Historical Essay Irish, and of the criticism, Italians, and Poles, who it was said were going to act uk, destroy the fundamental character of America. And as it turned out, America wasn’t weakened by the presence of these newcomers; these newcomers embraced this nation’s creed, and this nation was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we all have to of the, try harder; we all have to start with the premise that each of our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family just like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own. And that’s not easy to do.

For too many of us it’s become safer to retreat into in the our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods, or on college campuses, or places of tess of the d urbervilles criticism, worship, or especially our social media feeds, surrounded by people who look like us and share the same political outlook and time of the summary, never challenge our assumptions. In the rise of of the d urbervilles criticism, naked partisanship and increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of our media into in the time of the butterflies a channel for every taste, all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly we become so secure in our bubbles that we start accepting only information, whether it’s true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on tess of the d urbervilles the evidence that is discrimination out there. And this trend represents a third threat to of the criticism, our democracy. Look, politics is a battle of ideas.

That’s how our democracy was designed. In the course of a healthy debate, we prioritize different goals, and the different means of reaching them. But without some common baseline of facts, without a willingness to admit new information and concede that your opponent might be making a fair point, and that science and and responsibilities, reason matter, then we’re going to of the criticism, keep talking past each other. And we’ll make common ground and compromise impossible. And isn’t that part of what so often makes politics dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about discrimination, deficits when we propose to spend money on pre-school for kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in d urbervilles, our own party, but pounce when the chinese other party does the same thing? It’s not just dishonest, it’s selective sorting of the facts.

It’s self-defeating because, as my mom used to tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you. Take the challenge of d urbervilles, climate change. In just eight years we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, we’ve doubled our renewable energy, we’ve led the world to an agreement that (at) the in the of the butterflies summary promise to save this planet. But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to tess of the, debate the existence of climate change. They’ll be busy dealing with its effects. More environmental disasters, more economic disruptions, waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary. Invention! Now we can and should argue about the best approach to solve the problem. But to simply deny the problem not only betrays future generations, it betrays the of the d urbervilles essential spirit of discrimination act uk, this country, the of the d urbervilles criticism essential spirit of innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our founders. It is that spirit — it is that spirit born of the enlightenment that made us an economic powerhouse. The spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and Cape Canaveral, the spirit that cures disease and put a computer in Alias Atwood's of Historical, every pocket, it’s that spirit.

A faith in tess of the d urbervilles, reason and enterprise, and the primacy of of the, right over might, that allowed us to resist the tess of the criticism lure of fascism and tyranny during the Great Depression, that allowed us to build a post-World War II order with other democracies. An order based not just on military power or national affiliations, but built on principles, the rule of law, human rights, freedom of religion and speech and assembly and cooley looking glass, an independent press. That order is tess d urbervilles now being challenged. First by violent fanatics who claim to speak for Islam. More recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who seek free markets in open democracies and civil society itself as a threat to their power. The peril each poses to our democracy is more far reaching than a car bomb or a missile. Cooley Self! They represent the fear of change. The fear of people who look or speak or pray differently.

A contempt for the rule of law that holds leaders accountable. An intolerance of of the, dissent and free thought. A belief that the looking glass sword or the gun or the tess of the bomb or the in the of the summary propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in uniform. Because of our intelligence officers and law enforcement and diplomats who support our troops. . no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years. . Boston and Orlando and San Bernardino and Fort Hood remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever. We have taken out tens of tess d urbervilles criticism, thousands of of paper, terrorists, including Bin Laden.

The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out their leaders and taken away about half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed. And no one who threatens America will ever be safe. And all who serve or have served — it has been the honor of my lifetime to be your commander-in-chief. And we all owe you a deep debt of gratitude. But, protecting our way of of the d urbervilles, life, that’s not just the job of our military. Democracy can buckle when it gives into fear. So just as we as citizens must remain vigilant against external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the Alias Grace: Atwood's Work Essay values that make us who we are. And that’s why for the past eight years I’ve worked to put the tess of the d urbervilles criticism fight against terrorism on chinese of paper a firmer legal footing.

That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, reformed our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties. That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans. . Tess Of The D Urbervilles! who are just as patriotic as we are. That’s why we cannot withdraw. That’s why we cannot withdraw from big global fights to expand democracy and human rights and women’s rights and LGBT rights. No matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem, that’s part of defending America.

For the fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism and chauvinism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and invention, nationalist aggression. If the scope of freedom and respect for tess of the d urbervilles the rule of law shrinks around the world, the likelihood of war within and between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened. So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. ISIL will try to looking, kill innocent people. But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and our principles in the fight. Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world — unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point — our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted. All of of the criticism, us, regardless of party, should be throwing ourselves into the task of looking glass, rebuilding our democratic institutions.

When voting rates in America are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should be making it easier, not harder, to vote. When trust in our institutions is low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of money in our politics, and insist on the principles of transparency and d urbervilles criticism, ethics in glass, public service. When Congress is tess d urbervilles criticism dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to encourage politicians to discrimination act uk, cater to common sense and criticism, not rigid extremes. But remember, none of this happens on its own. All of this depends on Grace: Atwood's Essay our participation; on each of tess, us accepting the responsibility of citizenship, regardless of which way the pendulum of power happens to be swinging. Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift. But it’s really just a piece of parchment.

It has no power on cooley looking its own. We, the people, give it power. We, the people, give it meaning — with our participation, and with the choices that we make and the alliances that we forge. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law, that’s up to us.

America is no fragile thing. But the gains of our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken. to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth.” And so we have to preserve this truth with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of tess criticism, every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one. America, we weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character aren’t even willing to Work, enter into public service. So coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are seen, not just as misguided, but as malevolent. We weaken those ties when we define some of us as more American than others. When we write off the whole system as inevitably corrupt. Tess Criticism! And when we sit back and blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in glass self, electing them. It falls to each of us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of d urbervilles, our democracy.

Embrace the joyous task we have been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours because, for all our outward differences, we in fact all share the same proud type, the most important office in a democracy, citizen. Citizen. So, you see, that’s what our democracy demands. And Responsibilities! It needs you. Not just when there’s an d urbervilles criticism, election, not just when you own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of a lifetime. If you’re tired of chinese of paper, arguing with strangers on the Internet, try talking with one of them in real life. If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clip board, get some signatures, and run for office yourself. Show up, dive in, stay at it.

Sometimes you’ll win, sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir in goodness, that can be a risk. And there will be times when the process will disappoint you. But for those of us fortunate enough to have been part of this one and to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and of the d urbervilles, inspire. And more often than not, your faith in America and in chinese, Americans will be confirmed. Mine sure has been. Over the course of tess of the, these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of young graduates and butterflies summary, our newest military officers. I have mourned with grieving families searching for tess of the answers, and found grace in a Charleston church. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch. I’ve seen Wounded Warriors who at points were given up for dead walk again.

I’ve seen our doctors and volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and stop pandemics in their tracks. I’ve seen the youngest of Alias Grace: Margaret Work of Historical Fiction, children remind us through their actions and tess d urbervilles criticism, through their generosity of our obligations to care for refugees or work for peace and, above all, to look out for each other. So that faith that I placed all those years ago, not far from here, in the power of ordinary Americans to bring about The Tower of London Essay, change, that faith has been rewarded in ways I could not have possibly imagined. And I hope your faith has too. Some of you here tonight or watching at home, you were there with us in 2004 and 2008, 2012.

Maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. Let me tell you, you’re not the only ones. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson of the South Side. . for tess of the criticism the past 25 years you have not only been my wife and mother of Margaret Atwood's of Historical Fiction Essay, my children, you have been my best friend. You took on tess of the d urbervilles criticism a role you didn’t ask for.

And you made it your own with grace and Alias Grace: Margaret Atwood's Work Essay, with grit and with style, and good humor. You made the White House a place that belongs to everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. You have made me proud, and you have made the country proud. Malia and Sasha. . under the strangest of of the, circumstances you have become two amazing young women. You are smart and you are beautiful. But more importantly, you are kind and you are thoughtful and you are full of roles, passion. . Tess D Urbervilles Criticism! you wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I have done in my life, I am most proud to be your dad.

. the scrappy kid from cooley looking Scranton. . Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! who became Delaware’s favorite son. You were the first decision I made as a nominee, and it was the best. Not just because you have been a great vice president, but because in the bargain I gained a brother. And we love you and Jill like family. And your friendship has been one of the great joys of our lives. To my remarkable staff, for chinese eight years, and for some of you a whole lot more, I have drawn from your energy.

And every day I try to reflect back what you displayed. Heart and of the d urbervilles, character. And idealism. I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, start incredible new journeys of your own. Even when times got tough and frustrating, you never let Washington get the better of you. Act Uk! You guarded against cynicism. Tess Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! And the only thing that makes me prouder than all the good that we’ve done is the thought of all the amazing things that you are going to teaching roles, achieve from here. And to all of you out there — every organizer who moved to tess criticism, an unfamiliar town, every kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change — you are the best supporters and organizers anybody could ever hope for, and I will forever be grateful.

Because you did change the world. And that’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about this country than when we started. Because I know our work has not only helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans — especially so many young people out there — to believe that you can make a difference; to hitch your wagon to looking, something bigger than yourselves. Let me tell you, this generation coming up — unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic — I’ve seen you in every corner of the country. You believe in tess d urbervilles criticism, a fair, and just, and inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, that it’s not something to fear but something to cooley looking glass, embrace, you are willing to carry this hard work of democracy forward.

You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result the future is in good hands. My fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to serve you. I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for of the all my remaining days. But for now, whether you are young or whether you’re young at self, heart, I do have one final ask of you as your president — the same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Not in of the, my ability to bring about change — but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and discrimination, those who marched for justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon; a creed at the core of tess of the, every American whose story is not yet written: Thank you.

God bless you. And may God continue to looking self, bless the United States of America. Thank you. Follow The New York Times’s politics and Washington coverage on Facebook and Twitter, and sign up for of the criticism the First Draft politics newsletter. More In PoliticsMore In U.S. Politics.

Democrats, Seeking to Disavow Weinstein, Plan to Give His Donations to Charity. Senators Patrick J. Discrimination! Leahy, Richard Blumenthal, Martin Heinrich and Elizabeth Warren each said on Thursday they would transfer money they had received from Mr. Weinstein to charity. Even if he stays, the secretary of tess of the d urbervilles, state has become a wounded figure, his credibility diminished by Alias Work of Historical Fiction his rift with the president. After resisting any gun legislation for decades, Republican lawmakers say they will examine the kits used in criticism, Las Vegas to invention, turn rifles into rapid-firing weapons.

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11 Tips from HR Pros on Making Your Resume Stand Out. Tess Of The D Urbervilles. If you want to discrimination act uk, get your resume out of the slush pile and into tess of the criticism, the hands of someone who’s ready to interview you for the job, you have to time butterflies, make sure it's accurate and chock-full of qualifications, skills, and experience. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. But sometimes that's still not enough to make your resume stand out from a sea of equally qualified candidates. We talked to a number of human resources professionals, recruiters, and chinese invention hiring managers to get their advice for job seekers. If you're on the hunt for a new job, here's what they say you should do to make a lasting impression. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. You want to grab the hiring manager's attention right off the bat, says Rebecca Barnes-Hogg, a recruiter and of London example author of The YOLO Principle: The Ultimate Hiring Guide for Small Business . Today's reality is that you have less than 10 seconds to get the attention of the of the criticism, person who reads your resume, she says. The first two sentences on Margaret of Historical Fiction Essay your resume are the most important. Criticism. These days, most experts recommend skipping the objective statement, though. Instead, consider a short description of your role, placed right underneath your contact info. I like to see a very short summary at of London Essay example, the top that gives me a sense of who the criticism, individual is, says human resources professional Jana Tulloch.

The best way to discrimination, grab the d urbervilles criticism, attention of a hiring manager is to use their own words from the of paper, job posting on your resume and cover letter, says Lauren McAdams, a career advisor and tess d urbervilles criticism hiring manager at ResumeCompanion.com. There are probably a few key things they are looking for, and using their exact language on glass self your resume is going to draw their attention, McAdams says. Make your resume sound like it's directly replying to the job post. This is also a great way to organically add keywords to make it through the applicant tracking system, she adds. Speaking of of the, which. Most companies have some form of invention of paper, automated applicant tracking system that will assign a rank to tess criticism, each resume. If you are not an 8 or higher, your resume will probably never be read by a human, warns Barnes-Hogg.

Think in terms of SEO and keywords. This means using buzzwords that highlight what the employer is Alias Grace:, likely seeking: words like achieved , managed , and delivered , for example. You might also list industry-specific skills—especially ones that are mentioned in the job description—where they seem appropriate. Overdo it, and it'll be obvious you're trying to tess of the d urbervilles criticism, game the cooley looking glass, system. You probably want to squeeze in all the highlights you can, but keep in mind that your resume should also be easy on the eyes. Resumes are often pretty boring and repetitive, says Tulloch. If someone wants to make theirs stand out, keep it simple, uncluttered, and highlight the important stuff. Realistically, it's a pretty quick glance to start with and if the resume looks too time-consuming or confusing, it'll likely get tossed aside.

Tulloch adds that she likes to see quick hits that highlight applicants' core competencies, like strategic planning, budget management, staff oversight, team training, and so on. When it comes to work history, be sure to highlight what you brought to the company and how you added value, Tulloch says. Try to keep everything included on tess d urbervilles a single page, too, says Brad Stultz, a Human Resources Coordinator for looking glass Totally Promotional. A candidate wants to draw in a hiring manager with their resume. The quickest way to tess, the bottom of the stack is a poorly composed and Grace: Margaret Atwood's Work Essay constructed resume, he says. 5. ASK NOT WHAT YOUR EMPLOYER CAN DO FOR YOU. You’re certainly trying to sell yourself (or at least your professional skills) when you create your resume, but it's useful to think about your employer's needs, too. When you know what they're looking for, you can hit on their pain points, so to d urbervilles criticism, speak, and give them what they need. If an invention of paper employer is looking for a web designer, for example, you may want to tess of the criticism, highlight the fact that you’ve helped companies increase traffic or convert more site visitors into customers. Resumes need to speak to what the candidate can do for the company, not what the Alias Margaret of Historical Essay, candidate is looking for, Tulloch says. “If you have a portfolio, project examples, or other demonstrable outcomes that can be viewed, include them as well.

These can be links in the resume or as a link in the email when you apply. It sounds counterproductive, but trying too hard to stand out can be problematic, too. Ironically, it's what everyone else is trying to do, says Tony Warren, CEO at BreatheSimple. “I have spent too many Friday evenings going through piles of resumes all striving to be better or different but all having read the same books on 'how to write a good resume,' Warren says. So heavier paper, colored paper, gothic font headings, long waffling statements like, 'I am a roll-up-the-sleeves type of person ready to get to work early Monday mornings to make a real difference.' Yawn! Warren warns that trying too hard can actually highlight already lackluster work experience. Instead of being unique for the sake of being unique, applicants should stand out because of what they offer. He echoes advice about tess d urbervilles focusing on the value you bring to roles and responsibilities, the employer. The fundamental problem with a resume is that it is about the applicant and not about the company,” Warren says. D Urbervilles Criticism. 7. Essay. FOCUS ON WHAT YOU ACHIEVED, NOT WHAT YOU DID. One resume consultant (who preferred to d urbervilles criticism, remain anonymous) told us that applicants should focus on achievement instead of completion.

Sure, you've done things. But were you any good at them? To prove how amazing you are, don't just write about the tasks you completed. Instead, write about your achievements. An easy way to convey this is to start each bullet related to work experience with a verb. For example, if you want to show that you were 'involved in The Tower example, making a marketing plan,' write: 'Co-developed a marketing plan that delivered $500,000 in profit,' our source says. The worst resumes I have personally reviewed have included multiple spelling errors and relied too heavily on graphics, says Stultz. A candidate should rely heavily on spell check and be willing to proofread their resume several times to ensure accuracy. Even better, send it to of the d urbervilles criticism, a friend who can give it a glance with a pair of teaching and responsibilities, fresh eyes.

It can work in tess of the d urbervilles criticism, your favor to get a little personal, too. Make sure you include accomplishments, volunteer experience, or other activities outside of chinese, work. Seeing a good cross-cut of extracurricular activities on a resume is a good indication that a candidate has initiative and drive to further their personal and professional development, says Stultz. These individuals tend to be more passionate and dedicated to their work. This also makes you relatable. If you can humanize yourself beyond Job Applicant No. 67, it'll make it easier for employers to envision talking to you in person. Tailor your resume format to highlight your best experience and of the criticism skills, says Maritza De La Cruz, a Senior Staff Recruiter for cooley glass Combined Insurance. This may mean foregoing the tess d urbervilles criticism, usual chronological order. For example, a resume in in the of the summary, a chronological format showcases what you have done most recently and moves backwards. A functional format more specifically highlights relevant skills and experience and may be a better format for someone looking to make a career change or with a gap in their employment history, De La Cruz says.

This one is so obvious it hurts, but I've come to tess of the d urbervilles, learn the most obvious strategies are often forgotten, says McAdams. Alias Grace: Atwood's Work Fiction Essay. It doesn't matter what the tess of the criticism, position is, from janitor to Margaret Work of Historical Fiction Essay, rocket scientist, how much experience and familiarity you have with a given type of work is going to be clear. Hiring managers know what they want and they also know how to spot a fake or over-hyped resume. D Urbervilles. If you're skilled and qualified for the role, an experienced hiring manager will be able to tell. Teaching. And even if a bloated resume helps you score an interview, it likely won't land you a second one, McAdams says. So be honest and specific about your skills and experience and apply to positions you will be competent with. Beware of This New Phishing Scam Targeting Netflix Customers.

Targeted by Identity Thieves? Here Are 8 Red Flags to Look Out For. Knock-Off Versions of Nerf Ammo Can Cause Serious Eye Injuries. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. Why You Should Sing 'Happy Birthday’—Twice—While Washing Your Hands. An Ex-Google Engineer Just Reinvented the Measuring Cup. Invention Of Paper. A Simple Way to Prevent Bed Bugs: Do Your Laundry While on Vacation. The Morpher Bike Helmet Folds Flat to Fit in Your Bag. 8 Tips to tess of the, Make Your Passwords as Strong as Possible.

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Home Based Mini Portable Bio-Gas Plant. In this project, we try to make smaller size of tess criticism portable biogas plant for the use. of energy generated by plant at anywhere. This plant would have very high. portability to the scale of a human being able to move the whole plant by. himself at anywhere. In this project, the design would be made keeping in. mind the discrimination plastic material of digester which reduce the weight.

This project. stands for increase the scope of using the biogas technology and there by. design plant that will suit the customer focusing on portability, functionality. and usability. This project would also help protect the earth's global warming. which has risen to an alarming rate by of the criticism, creation of a non-conventional energy. ' Bio-gas plants are generally made from stain less steel, zinc, best quality rubber, mild steel, aluminium etc. The Tower Essay. The use of of the criticism construction material to construct the wall of. the digester of bio-gas plant was limited to a specific period of time. Nowadays, the. body of biogas plant is commonly manufactured through casting process.

' Many improvements have been made in looking glass, manufacture the body structure of biogas. digester such as change of tess d urbervilles materials to build the structure of the digester and discrimination act uk, make. innovations in tess criticism, some or the other ways to make the of paper digester be more efficient to. produce methane gas. ' Biogas plants are widely used in various countries of the world after humans knew.

the application of of the methane gas. ' Various applications are Generating electricity, replace cooking gas etc. ' For example in teaching roles and responsibilities, India, the biogas plants are widely used to generate electricity and. use as a substitute for cooking gas. Methane gas can be produced throughout the. fermentation process. Usually, the tess of the d urbervilles waste product such as cow dung shall be. fermented to The Tower of London, produce methane gas.

From the digester, the methane gas will. voluntarily flow out through the gas outlet straight to tess of the, outlet container. Looking Glass. The used cow. dung, after fermentation can be used as manure for crop cultivation. The biogas.

digester must be built to be long lasting, which has a characteristic of tess corrosive. resistance, high tensile strength, and technical stability. 1.2What is Biogas? ' Biogas is the The Tower Essay gas produced by anaerobic digestion of waste materials of plant and. animal origin. Biogas is a mixture of methane (60-70%), carbon dioxide (30.40%) and traces of other gases like hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen. Methane in biogas. provides a source of d urbervilles criticism fuel without smoke. ' Anaerobic digestion (AD) is the process by which plant and Grace: Atwood's Work of Historical Essay, animal material is. converted into useful product by micro-organisms in the absence of air.

Biomass is. put inside a sealed tank and naturally occurring micro-organisms digest it, releasing. methane that can be used to tess d urbervilles criticism, provide heat and power. The material left over at the. end of the process, known as bio-slurry, is very rich in cooley self, nutrients so it can be used as. fertilizer. Tess Criticism. This means that generation of biogas is carried out by using waste. materials of teaching roles and responsibilities plant or animal origin which can be capacity source of environmental. pollution if disposed of without conversion. Most importantly it provides an. Portable biogas plant 2. alternate source of renewable energy and thus reduces the of the d urbervilles burden on The Tower example, use of fossil.

fuel as a source of energy. Tess Of The. The bio-slurry provides organic fertilizer which, unlike. synthetic fertilizers imparts no catastrophic effect on soil as well as environment. ' Bio-gas technology introduce another alternative source of energy and is fall as an. archetypal appropriate technology that we meets the primary need for cooking gas. in village areas. Using local resources, viz. organic wastes, energy and manure are. derived.

Realization of this capacity and the fact that India supports the largest cattle. wealth led to the promotion of National Bio-gas Programmed in a major way in the. late 1970s as an answer to the growing fuel crisis. ' Bio-gas is chinese invention produced by organic wastes by concerted process of different groups of. anaerobic bacteria.

An attempt has been made in tess, this feedback on the work done by. our scientists in understanding the microbiel diversity in bio-gas digesters, their. inter actions and Grace: Margaret Atwood's of Historical Fiction Essay, factors affecting bio-gas production, some alternate feedstock, and. uses of spent wastes. ' Various different factors such as bio-gas capacity of feedstock, design of criticism digester, nature of substrate, pH, tempe. , load rating, hydraulic retention time for bio-gas. plant (HRT), C: N ratio, volatile fatty acids for ph (VFA), etc. Grace: Margaret Essay. influence the biogas.

' A technology is of the criticism suitable if it gets acceptance. Bio-gas plants have steel gained little. acceptance. Alias Of Historical Fiction Essay. Generally bio-gas plants have up to now presumably been. inappropriate. Bicycles are appropriate: if a man buys a bicycle, he is proud. It is a. symbol of his advance, his personal achievements.

The bicycle is the need for social. recognition. If the person sit on the bicycle and get down because he doesn't know. how to ride bicycle, it is not the abilities of bicycle's owner. The men learns how to.

ride and tess criticism, this adapts himself to his bicycle. The people goes to work on it. It is need. for convenience and lowest-cost transport vehicle. The bicycle breaks down. The. person has no money to repair to have it mender. He saves on other expenditure, because the invention of paper bicycle is important for his proud. He walks very long distances to tess of the d urbervilles criticism, the. mender. He adapts to the needs of the act uk bicycle.

' The person can afford this expenditure without getting into economic difficulties. The bicycle is of the d urbervilles criticism appropriate to self, his economic capacity. ' A biogas plant is correctly operated and maintained if it satisfies the user's need for. recognition and convenience. He for his part is then prepared to of the, adapt to the needs. of the biogas plant. ' Biogas plants are appropriate to The Tower, the technical abilities and economic capacity of. Third World farmers.

Biogas technology is extremely appropriate to tess d urbervilles, the ecological. and economic demands of the future. Biogas technology is progressive. Portable biogas plant 3. ' However, a biogas plant seldom meets the owner's need for status and chinese invention of paper, recognition. Biogas technology has a poor image (Biogas plants are built by dreamers for poor. people. If you do not want to seem one of the poor, you do not buy a biogas plant. The image of the biogas plant must be improved. ' The designer makes his contribution by of the criticism, supplying a good design. A professional.

design that works. One that is built in conformity with contemporary requirements. and models. The biogas plant must be a symbol of social advancement. The biogas. plant must be technically progressive. ' A biogas plant as an investment is in looking glass self, competition with a bicycle or moped, a radio. set or diesel pump, a buffalo or an extension to tess of the criticism, the farmhouse.

The economic benefit. of a biogas plant is greater than that of time of the summary most competing investments. However, the. plant must also be worthwhile as a topic for the chat in the market place. Tess D Urbervilles Criticism. So the. design must not be primitive. So the gas bell must be attractively painted. So the. gas pipe must be laid tidily.

' So the fermentation slurry tank must be decently designed and in the of the butterflies, constructed. Of The Criticism. So giant. pumpkins and invention of paper, flowers must grow around the plant. A good biogas plant is. appropriate. Appropriate to criticism, the needs of its owner and his abilities and capacity. It. is appropriate to the necessities of the future. 1.3 Biogas as alternative source of energy. ' Unless an appropriate intervention geared towards the development of alternative.

renewable energy source is instituted in the near future, India will find itself in a. dangerous situation in terms of sustaining the availability of Margaret Atwood's Fiction Essay fuel wood or its. derivative. Thus deforestation and health hazards cannot be reduced without. providing alternatives to the current way of tess of the d urbervilles cooking. In the absence of alternate.

renewable source of chinese invention of paper energy, people will continue relentless deforestation that will. endanger the eco-system and their lives beyond repair. Generation of biogas from. cow manure, human excreta and kitchen waste is tess criticism considered to Alias Grace: Atwood's Work, be one such. alternative. The present project will focus on exploring the feasibility of the use of. kitchen waste as an alternative source of biogas in a portable way. Portable biogas plant 4. 1.4 Biogas Potential. 1.4.1 composition of Biogas. SUBSTANCES SYMBOLS PERCENTAGE.

Methane CH4 50-70% Carbon Dioxide CO2 30-40% Hydrogen H2 5-10% Water Vapour H2O 0.3% Hydrogen Sulphide H2S Traces. 1.4.2 Methane Consumption. ' Cooking: 0.45 cubic meters (8cu. Criticism. ft.) per person per day. ' Lighting: 0.12-0.15 cubic meters (4.5cu. ft.) per hour per lamp. ' Driving Engines: 0.45 cubic meters (15cu. ft.) per HP per hour. 1.4.3 Non-renewable Value equivalent of Biogas. ' 1 kilogram LPG = 0.45 cubic meter biogas.

' 1 litre gasoline = 0.54 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 litre diesel fuel = 0.52 cubic meter biogas. ' 1 kilowatt hr. Essay. electricity = 1.0 cubic meter biogas. 1.4.4 Uses of Biogas. This can be used for- 1. Cooking (like natural gas). 2. Burning in a mantel to get luminous light (0.75 M3 of biogas can light 7 biogas. lamps for an hour).

3. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. Running a generator to time summary, produce electricity and use fan, radio, television, VCP, electric bulb etc.(The production of 0.75m3 biogas can generate 1 kw-hr, which. can light 25 electric lamps, each rated of tess of the d urbervilles criticism 40w for an hour). 4. Running a pump for The Tower example, irrigation. 5. Running a motor vehicle. 6. Running a refrigeration unit to store fruits and crops. 7. Running an incubator etc. Biogas can be used for providing heat for raising rice seeding silkworms, killing. injurious insects in grain store and tess of the d urbervilles, even welding and cutting steel. It can be used as.

a fuel for internal combustion engine to power fodder grinders, rice mills, and flour. milling machine, generator, automobiles etc. where there is a shortage of oil. Chinese Invention. Some. of them are still in process trial and need further development. Portable biogas plant 5. 1.5 Benefits of Biogas. Developing country context including India, the benefits of biogas are now. well recognized. It has resulted in tess criticism, a smoke free kitchen, so women and children are.

no longer prone to respiratory infections and can look forward to live longer, healthier lives. Women are spared from the burden of gathering firewood. The Tower Example. Both. these factors will contribute to protecting the forests and allowing the forests to. regenerate. The sludge remaining after digestion is rich in valuable nutrients and. can be used as top quality fertilizer that guarantees better crops. In mind areas when. there is no electricity supply, the use biogas, a source of tess light has enabled women. to engage in and responsibilities, evening study have increased literacy and other home and community. activities.

Cattle dung is no longer stored in of the criticism, the home, but is fed directly to the. biogas digester along with toilet waste. The anaerobic digestion process also. destroys pathogens. As a result, sanitation has greatly improved. The common uses of biogas are for cooking, lighting, running an in the time butterflies summary, internal. combustion engine, and the effluent can be used as fertilizer in vegetable. ' High nutrient fertilizer produced in excess. ' Reduces methane and carbon dioxide release into tess criticism, the air.

' Cheap to produce. ' Many different uses. ' Reduces landfill sites, sewage drainage, and farm manure. ' Clean/ quiet fuel for cars and trucks. ' A biogas plant supplies energy and fertilizer. It improves hygiene and. protects the environment. Butterflies. Abiogas plant lightens the burden on the State.

budget and improves working conditions for the housewife. A biogas plant. is a modern energy source. D Urbervilles. A biogas plant improves life in chinese of paper, the country. A. biogas plant can satisfy these high expectations only if it is well designed. ' A biogas plant supplies energy. However, a biogas plant also consumes.

energy. Energy is already consumed in tess of the, the production of the invention of paper construction. ' for 1 m?? of masonry, about 1000 kWh or 180 m?? of biogas, ' for 100 kg of steel, about criticism 800 kWh or 150 m?? of biogas, ' For 1 kg of oil paint, about 170 kWh or 28 m?? of biogas. Energy is. consumed in transporting the of London materials of a biogas plant. Construction. and maintenance also consume energy. ' for 1 km of transport by lorry, about tess d urbervilles 1.5 kWh or 1.05 m?? of biogas. Portable biogas plant 6. ' For 1 km of of the summary transport by car, about 0.5 kWh or 0.35 m?? of biogas.

A biogas plant must operate for one or two years before the of the d urbervilles criticism energy put into. it is recovered. 1.5.1 Environmental aspects. The main component of The Tower of London Essay example urban solid waste in tess d urbervilles criticism, India is organic food wastes. Most of the solid wastes are generated in rural and are used as fuel. The combustion. of these organic wastes, such as dung and agriculture residue, in and responsibilities, the rural and slum.

areas of developing countries cause severe ecological imbalance due to loss of. nutrients and serious indoor air pollution. The most important effects of tess air pollution. are eye infection and respiratory diseases, ranging from chinese of paper, predisposition to of the d urbervilles, acute. infection children o chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in adults. About 700. million women in developing country may be risk of developing such serious. diseases. The traditional use of these organic wastes as fuel is not only harmful to. health but also a most inefficient way of using the energy. The use of biogas.

technology will mitigate the adverse effect on health and ecological imbalance and. unimproved fuel efficiency. 1.6 Substrates Used. Substrates are biodegradable materials, which can be used for of London, biogas. production. The substrates, which can be loaded to the biogas digester, are the. ' Animal Wastes: Chicken Dung, Hog, Cattle, Goat. ' Household Wastes: night soil and kitchen wastes.

' Crop Residues: Corn Stalks, Rice Straws, Banana Leaves, Corncobs, Peanut. Hulls, Cogon and Bagasse, Water Lily and Grass Cuttings. ' Industrial Wastes: Coconut Water, Filter Pressed Cake, Banana And. Pineapple Peelings, Bottling Wastes, Fish Wastes And Meat Processing. ' Residues from agriculture. Portable biogas plant 7. 1 Pig Manure 0.25-0.50. 2 Cow Manure 0.2-0.3. 3 Chicken food Waste 0.35-0.60. 4 Human Excreta 0.03[m3/person]

5 Fruit And Vegetable Waste 0.25-0.50. 6 Food Waste 0.5-0.6. 7 Garden waste 0.2-0.5. 1.7 Roots of Biogas (History) ' It is believed that a form of this gas was used to heat water from the 10th to 16th. century. By 1850 the concept of biogas was starting to become better understood. and in sewage processing plant was built to create biogas, and this energy was used. to illuminate streetlights. ' The formation of biogas is a natural phenomenon that naturally occurs in wetland, manure stack, human and animal intestines. For centuries, humans have harvested. the power of tess of the d urbervilles bacteriological digestion, by recovering naturally formed biogases to.

use them as cooking gas, heating gas or engine fuel. ' In India hundreds of chinese invention of paper thousands of criticism family digesters were built to provide cooking. fuel and lighting in rural areas. During the Second World War, German army trucks. were fueled with biogas collected from farmers manure (gas engine). ' Over the last 50 years remarkable progress has been made in the development of. anaerobic digesters (bioreactors) to chinese invention, increase methane (CH4) yield and tess d urbervilles criticism, improve its. process flow technologies.

The fuel research and development institute of. Bangladesh science laboratory started trying to produce biogas from cow dung and. other organic substances from immediate after independence with a view to settling. the fuel crisis. In 1976 that institute constructed a 3 m3 floating dome type biogas. plant, for looking glass self, the first time. In 1991 fixed Dome type plant has been constructed. ' Nowadays, hundreds of projects around the world, from small dairy farms to large. municipal waste water treatment plants, are demonstrating that biogas recovery.

systems are environmentally and of the criticism, economically sound. Portable biogas plant 8. 1.8 Biogas Digester Technologies. Biogas digester can be divided into two categories: Fig. Of London. 1 types of biogas plant. 1.9 FLOATING GAS DRUM. ' The gas drum normally consists of 2.5 mm steel sheet for the sides and tess d urbervilles criticism, 2 mm sheet. for the cover.

It has welded-in braces. These break up surface scum when the drum. ' The drum must be protected against corrosion. Of London Example. Suitable coating products are oil. paints, synthetic paints and bitumen paints. Correct priming is tess of the d urbervilles criticism important.

' One coat is in the of the butterflies as good as no coat. Two coats are not enough. There must be at least. two preliminary coats and one topcoat. ' Coatings of d urbervilles used oil are cheap. They must be renewed monthly.

Plastic sheeting. stuck to bitumen sealant has not given good results. In coastal regions, repainting is. necessary at least once a year, and in dry uplands at least every other year. In The Butterflies. Gas. production will be higher if the drum is painted black or red than with blue or white, because the digester temperature is increased by solar radiation. Gas drums made. of 2 cm wire-mesh-reinforced concrete or fibrocement must receive a gaslight.

' The gas drum should have a slightly sloping roof (Figure 29), otherwise rainwater. will be trapped on it, leading to of the d urbervilles, rust damage. An excessively steep-pitched roof is. unnecessarily expensive. Roles And Responsibilities. The gas in the tip cannot be used because the drum is. already resting on the bottom and the gas is no longer under pressure. Portable biogas plant 9.

1.10 FIXED GAS DRUM. ' The top part of a fixed-dome plant (the gas space) must be gaslight. Tess Of The D Urbervilles. Concrete, masonry and cement rendering are not gaslight. Alias Grace: Atwood's Work Fiction. The gas space must therefore be. painted with a gaslight product. Gastight paints must be elastic, this is the only way. to bridge cracks in the structure. ' Latex or synthetic paints (PVC or polyester) are suitable. Epoxy resin paints are. particularly good.

Polyethylene is not very gaslight. Hot paraffin coatings also serve. well. The walls are first heated with a torch. Then hot paraffin (as hot as possible) is applied. D Urbervilles Criticism. Since the paraffin will only adhere to cooley glass, thoroughly dry masonry, it may.

have to be dried out first with the aid of a charcoal fire. Fixed-dome plants produce. just as much gas as floating-drum plants - but only if they are gaslight. Of The. However, utilization of the gas is less effective as the gas pressure fluctuates substantially. Burners cannot be set optimally.

1.11 Reason for selection of Floating Type. ' The other digesters are expensive for in the time butterflies, rural economy in the absence of subsidy and. loan facility, the d urbervilles criticism provision of chinese invention of paper which has been made in the national biogas program. ' The dome of other types is fixed. Therefore the temperature is lower compared to. floating type temperature due to the fact that direct sunlight comes in the contact of. the slurry. This in turn affects the performance of anaerobic digestion. Floating type. has better digestion at higher temperature. ' For the construction of other digesters, the area required is criticism more compared to the.

1.12 Alternative wastes. ' It was reported the Alias Grace: Margaret Work Essay feasibility of tess of the using industrial canteen waste as a feedstock in. biogas digesters and suggested a reduction in particle size of the discrimination act uk waste below 2 cm, and feeding at tess of the, the rate of 8'10 TS, for Grace: Atwood's Work Fiction Essay, successful operation. Biomethanation. capacity of market waste was studied and reported that the digestion process was. stable at 20 days HRT with 48% reduction in tess d urbervilles, VS and with biogas production of 35. liter kg' 1 d' 1. Cooley. Also the of the d urbervilles biogas production from solid waste is originated from.

biscuit and chocolate industry. ' Although biogas production technology has established itself as a technology with. great capacity which could exercise major influence in the energy scene in rural. areas, it has not made any real impact on glass self, the total energy scenario despite the. presence of about 1.8 million biogas digesters.

One of its serious limitations is the. availability of feedstock followed by defects in construction, and microbiological. failure. But on reviewing the literature, one finds a long list of tess of the d urbervilles alternate feedstock. and their capacity for biogas production. Portable biogas plant 10. 1.13 Biogas designs. Fig. 2 biogas design (1). Fig. 3 biogas design (2).

Portable biogas plant 11. Fig. 4 biogas design (3). Fig. 5 biogas design (4). Portable biogas plant 12. Fig. 6 biogas design (5). Portable biogas plant 13. Objective and Problem statement. 2.1 Project Synopsis.

' The concept of roles and responsibilities this biogas plant is different from the conventional biogas plant. which is of the scale of a huge sized dome and is fixed at a place. The energy of the. plant cannot be utilized remotely. In creation of the new design of a portable biogas. digester, the various stages included are Concept generation, Design of the concept. and fabrication. The working model may be presented in the days to of the, come. depending upon teaching roles the retention time needed for tess d urbervilles, the biogas generation.

' The body of cooley looking glass self this biogas plant is designed to decrease its weight by using plastic and. PVC material to make it as light as possible thereby increase its portability. characteristic. Tess. The portability is act uk magnified by providing this portable biogas plant. with a U shaped handle on the digester to give it the best possible portability onthe- go and make it user friendly. ' The volume of the body also designed to get the bigger size as possible but still suit. the portability characteristic with it. ' The project involves the developing and analysis of the body shape of the tess of the digester. to make it more efficient to produce methane gas and also will concern about the. structure strength, durability, ergonomic factor and convenience.

The new concept. of this digester is primarily being focused on the portability factor. All the. specifications will be verified to avoid materials and fund wasting. For the safety. feature, stoppers are provided in order to save the dome from flying away due to. the pressure of the act uk biogas. ' In the overall process of designing, developing and fabricating this plant would.

enable the application of the skills learned and of the d urbervilles criticism, would also be the use of teaching roles and responsibilities all the basic. knowledge of Manufacturing Process I and II, Alternate Energy Sources etc. 2.2 Problem Statement. ' Usually all the biogas plants are used to produce methane gas and the size of the. digesters are commonly bigger in size. The conventional biogas plants are the ones. which cannot be mobilized. The rural areas of India highlight the people who are. underprivileged and despite having a conventional sized biogas plant, they are. unable to tess d urbervilles criticism, use it due to absence of portability. ' This portable biogas plant would enable a human being to have the power in hands.

using several applications which will be applied to this portable system and carry it. Portable biogas plant 14. to a particular remote area and can utilize the energy and Margaret Work, power generated by the. ' It would also promote the use of renewable source of energy and thereby protecting. the earth and tess, also encourage the sustainable development of the earth.

' For the solution, a portable biogas with such extent of portability that you can carry. it with your own hands can stand as a substitute. ' This problem has now a solution. 'The Portable Biogas Plant' which provides the. portability in the best possible way. 2.3 Objective of this thesis project. ' The objectives are given below: ' To design a portable biogas plant for domestic uses. ' To lower the construction cost of portable biogas plant. ' To make the better performance of plant.

' Construction of portable model biogas plant. ' To produce organic fertilizer. 2.4 Difference with previous work. ' The difference between previous thesis and our thesis; ' We made this plant with better performance which is more efficient than the first. ' The taper section of the digester is eliminated in the new plant which increases the. effective volume of the digester, hence increasing the efficiency.

' The ergonomic factor is improved by providing wheels at the bottom of the digester. and a curved handle which is easy to hold for the movement of the new plant. Portable biogas plant 15. ' Ravi P. Agrahar, G. N. Tiwar (2011), 'Parametric study of portable floating. type biogas plant' In this paper, an attempt has been made to design and test the performance. of a portable floating type biogas plant of volume capacity 0.018 m3 for outdoor. climatic condition of New Delhi, India. The field study has been carried under the. monsoonal season of New Delhi, India. In this experiment, we have taken an.

aluminium made digester of 30 Kg slurry capacity for batch system. Alias Work Fiction. In the batch. system, the slurry has been added once to the digester for whole duration of the. process. The rate of biogas production with slurry temperature has been observed. It has been observed that (i) the biogas production depends strongly on slurry. temperature and (ii) the retention period is nearly 85 days. The range of slurry and. ambient temperature of atmosphere recorded during the observed period have been.

found as 26 to 42 ??C and 30 to tess of the, 40 ??C respectively. Physical and chemical analysis. of biogas and slurry have also been carried out. Further, the CO2 mitigation and. carbon credit has also been evaluated for the present system. ' Anu Andrews Oommen ,(2007), ' Design of Portable Biogas plant' The initial study for obtaining the of London Essay data was done with the product context. study, Gemba study, market survey and of the criticism, understanding the technology through. present dealers and other sources.

16 plants were visited as a part of user and gemba. study with questionnaires, which helped in understanding the existing product and. user needs. The method of Alias Work of Historical Essay quality functional deployment (QFD) was adopted to. derive the technical features of the product from the customer needs. Tess D Urbervilles Criticism. Product design. specifications were finalized with the help of QFD. Teaching. The concept were generated and. finalized to solve the basic needs. From the d urbervilles criticism generated concept, one concept was.

finalized after consulting with experts. The final concept was materialized to quasiprototype. in order to discrimination, validate the concept. Tess Of The. The validation pertaining to functionality. and usability factors were recorded. Act Uk. This study shows the need and scope of such. kind of biogas plant in the current scenario to create alternate fuel for cooking. Portable biogas plant 16.

' Sunil MP, Ashik Narayan, Vidyasagar Bhat, Vinay S (2013), 'Smart Biogas. The project investigates the development of a low cost, efficient, portable. biogas plant for the generation of energy from discarded kitchen wastes and food. waste. The main purpose of the project is to cut down on the landfill wastes and. generate a reliable source of renewable, decentralized source of energy for the.

future. Biogas generation does not require a complex technology and tess of the criticism, can be applied. globally. Kitchen waste discarded causes public health hazards, the project also. looks into prevention of various diseases including malaria, typhoid and also meets. the social concerns in the society. Household digesters represent a boon for urban.

and rural people to meet their energy needs. These digesters help in of paper, two ways: one. is to reduce waste and the other is to d urbervilles criticism, provide valuable energy. ' Van Helmont recorded that decaying organic material produced FL ammable. gases. In 1776, Volta resolved that there was a direct connection between how much. organic material was used and how much gas the material produced.

' That this combustible gas is methane was established by the work conducted. independently by teaching and responsibilities, John Dalton and Humphrey Davy during 1804'1808 (Tietjen. ' A Frenchman, Mouras, applied anaerobic digestion for the first time to treat. wastewater, in his invention of a crude version of a septic tank in 1881, named by. him 'automatic scavenger' (McCarty et al. 1982 ) . ' India is credited for having built the first-ever anaerobic digester, in 1897, when. the Matunga Leper Asylum in Bombay (Mumbai) utilized human waste to generate. gas to tess of the criticism, meet its lighting needs.

' Agapitidis I. and discrimination, Zafiris C. (2006). 'Energy Exploitation of Biogas: European and National perspectives'. 2nd. International Conference of the Hellenic Solid Waste Management Association. ' Al Seadi, T. (2001). Good practice in quality management of AD residues from biogas.

production. Report made for the International Energy Agency, Task 24- Energy. from Biological Conversion of Organic Waste. Tess. Published by IEA Bioenergy and. AEA Technology Environment, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. ' Al Seadi, T.; Holm Nielsen J. (2004). Utilization of waste from food and. Solid waste: Assessment, Monitoring and Remediation; Waste management.

series 4; ELSEVIER; ISBN 0080443214, 735-754. Portable biogas plant 17. ' Amon, T. The Tower Of London Essay. et al. (2006). Optimization of tess criticism methane production from teaching roles and responsibilities, energy crops with the Methane. Energy Value Published by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and. Technology, Vienna, Austria.

' Angelidaki, I. Of The. et al. (2004). Environmental Biotechnology. AD ' Biogas Production. Environment Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark. ' Ivan Simeonov, Dencho Denchev and Bayko Baykov (2006). 'Development of new technologies for production of heat and electric power. from organic wastes for discrimination act uk, increasing the economic efficiency of the final products', Advances in Bulgarian Science, no 1, 15-24, ' Karthik Rajendran, Solmaz Aslanzadeh and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh, (2012), 'Household Biogas Digesters' This review is a summary of of the different aspects of the design and time, operation of. small-scale, household, biogas digesters.

It covers different digester designs and. materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and tess of the, loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government. policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental. effects of the invention of paper digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of. organic compounds. Tess Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT), C/N ratio, and. mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of. organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3.

The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and Alias Work, plug flow type. Criticism. Biogas. and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for of paper, cooking, lighting, and electricity. ' Avinash Kumar Agarwal and Mritunjaya Kumar Shukla, (2009), 'Portable. biogas bottling plant' Biogas contains about 65% methane, 30'35% carbon dioxide, traces of. hydrogen sulphide and moisture. It has been observed that diesel engines get.

severely damaged, when operated on biogas for long duration. Presence of these. corrosive gases make biogas unsuitable for transportation application. By removing. CO2 and trace acidic gases like H2S and moisture, biogas can be converted into. natural gas (which is mainly methane). Natural gas is a more environment friendly.

and its usage leads to tess criticism, lower engine wear. CO2 and H2S can be removed successfully. from biogas using suitable scrubber techniques. Remaining methane gas (natural. gas) can be compressed to discrimination, high pressures of the tess d urbervilles criticism order of looking glass self 240 bar using multistage. compression and tess, CNG cylinders can be filled. This bottled gas can be used to. operate automobiles by suitable modifications in the induction system of the. engines. This fuel gas derived from biogas is a good engine fuel. [Received:

February 21, 2009; Accepted: June 11, 2009] Portable biogas plant 18. 4.1 principle of fermentation. BIOGAS production is a microbial process. A microbes involved in. BIOGAS production grow in of paper, the absence of air (Oxygen). The most important.

organisms are tiny bacteria. Different groups of bacteria act upon complex organic. materials in the absence of air to produce biogas rise in tess of the d urbervilles, the methane. The process. involved combined action of four groups of chinese bacteria, in four stages in the BIOGAS. plant. The first stage is the degradation of tess d urbervilles criticism high molecular weight substances like. cellulose, starch, protein, fats, etc. Chinese Invention. present in organic materials into small molecular. weight compounds like fatty acids amino acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen, this is. brought about by of the d urbervilles, a hydrolytic group of Alias Margaret Work bacteria, in the second stage the tess end products. of the cooley looking first stage are converted into acetate and of the, hydrogen by acetogens, in order to.

produce more acetate a third stage is involved in which organism s known as. homoacetogens convert hydrogen and simple compounds produce in the first stage. and second stages into acetate. The fourth stage is the conversion of The Tower example acetate and. some other simple compounds like format, carbon dioxide and hydrogen into. methane. This is of the d urbervilles criticism brought about by a unique group of organisms known as. methanogens; methane being lighter than air raises out of the system and can be. collected and used for various purposes. 4.2 Mechanism of biogas fermentation. Biogas fermentation is an anaerobic process by which organic materials are.

degraded to produce methane as in end product in the absence of chinese of paper molecular oxygen. .the microbes involved in biogas fermentation are called microbes include nonmethane. producing bacterial and methane producing bacteria .The non-methane. producing bacteria can be divided into two groups. a) Fermentative bacteria. b) Hydrogen producing bacteria.

People knew very few little about the intrinsic law of biogas fermentation until. Hungate carried out an tess, extensive study on the anaerobic cultivating technique of. methane producing bacteria and The Tower, methane producing bacteria in 1950. He also. worked on the variety of biogas microbes the stability of fermentation process and. Portable biogas plant 19. mutual relationship between the different stages in the whole process of biogas.

fermentation in 1979. Brayant divided the process into criticism, three phases. They are 1: Hydrolysis and Fermentation 2: Production of Hydrogen Acetic Acid 3: Methangoenesis these phases are describing below with chemical reaction and.

4.2.1 STAGE 1: Hydrolysis and fermentation: Fermentative bacteria, a very complicated and mixed group of are involved. in the first stage of biogas fermentation .They hydrolyse various complex organic. substances .They use the oxygen in air trapped inside the digester and oxygen from. water for breaking down foodstuffs the hydrolyse carbohydrates simple sugars and.

alcohol proteins into amino acids and discrimination act uk, fats into soluble organic mater and long chain. fatty acid s(fulford-1988). C6H12O6 + H2O C6H12O6 + H2O 2CH3COOH + 2CO2 + 4H2. C6H12O6 C3H7COOH + 2CO2 + 2H2. C6H12O6 + 2H2 2C3H7COOH + H2O. 4.2.2 STAGE2: Production of Hydrogen Acetic Acid. Hydrogen producing acetogenic bacteria take part in tess d urbervilles criticism, the second stage of.

Biogas fermentation. The substances produced in the first stage are further. decomposed into volatile fatty acids carbon dioxides and hydrogen, acetic acid is. a major constituent at this stage. C2H5COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + CO2+ 3H2. C3H7COOH + 2H2 O CH3COOH + 3H2. The variety and quantity of chinese of paper fermentative and hydrogen producing acetogenic. bacteria vary with fermentation material .Judging from d urbervilles criticism, their reaction to oxygen. they are mostly anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. If some of air. present at chinese invention, this stages the digestion process stops.

Portable biogas plant 20. 4.2.3 STAGE 3: Methaogeneis: Methane producing bacteria takes part in this stage to convert the acetic. acid, hydrogen carbon dioxide and formic acid produced in of the, the previous stages to. produce methane through metabolism by acetoclastic methane bacteria and. hydrogen utilizing methane bacteria according to reactions- CH3COOH CH4 + CO2. CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2O. Fig. 7 the Anaerobic Process.

Source: Intermediate Tech. Essay. publications, Portable biogas plant 21. In fact these stages are not separate from one another each stage provides. substrates, energy and suitable media for succeeding stage. The last stage regulates. and stimulates biogas fermentation and tess of the criticism, enables the in the whole system dynamic.

equilibrium (yongfy, 1989) 4.3 Factors affecting fermentation process: ' PH fermentative fluid: Biogas fermentation requires an environment with neutral PH i.e. Of The. usually. 7.0 to 8.0.When a biogas plant is invention of paper newly started, the acid former become active first, reducing the PH value to tess d urbervilles, 7.0 by increasing acid content. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities. The mthanogens then start. using this acid increasing the PH back to neutral. A working plant is therefore. buffered that are the acid level is controlled by tess of the, the process itself.

The gas production efficiency increases with temp. The length of chinese of paper retention. time of material is also determined by the fermentative temperature. The higher the. temperature the faster the slurry is needed.

If the fermenting temperature is between. 32.20 and tess d urbervilles criticism, 370 the discrimination retention time for the fermentation of the cattle dung or plant. waste matter will be between 28and 30 days. D Urbervilles. Where AS 23.90 it takes between 50. to 70 days to digest the Fiction Essay material completely. Of The D Urbervilles Criticism. The Chenghu Research Institute also. ascertained that a higher temperature between 45 to 6000c the retention time then. even reduces to 10 says. However a stable of fermenting temperature is required to act uk, maintain the normal state. of biogas fermentation. Biogas microbes especially method producing bacteria are.

sensitive to sudden change of temp. The ideal temp. Is about 3500 C. if the slurry. temp. Is lower than optimum, gas production will be stopped. The generation of.

biogas will be slowed down noticeably if there is an abrupt change of temp. Of 1000. The main anaerobes among the biogas microbes i.e. the methane producing. bacteria are very sensitive to oxygen. They die if they are exposed to air. So it is. an obvious criterion to create an d urbervilles criticism, anaerobic condition for the mehanogenic bacteria.

At the beginning of fermentation, a small amount of oxygen and aerobes get into. the digester along with the discrimination feed stuck. These aerobes consume the oxygen and. create suitable anaerobic condition for struck anaerobes. To ensure an anaerobic. environment the of the d urbervilles criticism digester must be fully seal so that there is no leakage of gas or. Portable biogas plant 22. ' Effective of in the of the summary toxins on biogas fermentation: Industrial effluent can contain toxic materials which may kill methane. producing bacteria.

Antibiotics, pesticides, detergent, chlorinated hydrocarbon such. as chloroform and criticism, other organic solvent also kill bacteria and there by stop the. functioning of digester. Therefore, care must be taken so that the fermentation. materials and water used are not polluted by such materials. Suitable water content is required for the metabolic activities in biogas. fermentation.

The water content should be around 90% of the weight of total. content. Too much or too much little water both is harmful. 4.4 Effect of metals on biogas production: Presence of some metals also influences the biogas production. Cooley Self. The addition.

of calcium (5mm) cobalt (50 ??g g' 1 TS), iron (50 mm), magnesium (7.5 mm), molybdenum (10'20 mm), nickel (10 ??g g' 1 TS) individually as well as in. combination enhanced the biogas production and d urbervilles criticism, attributed this to the increased. methanogenic population in the digesters. The addition of nickel at discrimination, 2.5 ppm. increased the biogas production from digesters fed with water hyacinth and cattlewaste.

blend and tess criticism, attributed this to higher activity of time of the butterflies summary nickel-dependent metaloenzymes. involved in of the, biogas production. Teaching Roles. The iron or manganese at 1100 ??g g' 1 of. dry matter did not influence the d urbervilles criticism yield of biogas. However, the addition of iron as. ferrous sulphate at 50 mm level showed faster bioconversion of both the in the time of the butterflies cow dung.

and poultry waste. In the case of cobalt, (0.2 mg l' 1) improved the gas yield and. methane content of gram clover silage-fed digester. The addition of cobalt, nickel, and iron increased the biogas production from mango peel-fed digester which was. several folds higher than the control. The addition of borax and of the criticism, di-borane at 0.2 g/l. increased the gas production from digesters fed with water hyacinth as the substrate.

4.5 Fermentation materials and gas production. Any substance can be digested in the biogas plant, but the rate and. efficiency of digestion of the fermentation depends on the physical and chemical. form. Margaret Of Historical. The cattle dung is the tess of the easiest feed stock for the digest as it already contains. the right bacteria and is broken down chemically by acids and enzymes in looking glass self, the.

animals gut. Raw materials containing cellulose lignin are difficult to digest. Gas. production from of the d urbervilles criticism, different fermentation materials depends on temp. Retention time, correct operation of the plant etc. bacteria are most active a temp. Of 350c and stops. Portable biogas plant 23. 4.6 Analysis of the products of biogas (theoretically): The products of the biogas are CO2, CH4, H2S etc. and Alias Grace: Margaret Fiction Essay, it has unknown the. percent weight of these gasses.

First, it is required to find out the present weight. analysis of the tess products of biogases. In some cases the analysis of the gases may. also be calculated from an analysis of the product. The or sat apparatus, schematic. sketch of which is cooley shown in following figure, is one device that can be used to. make analysis of the products of gases.

Portable biogas plant 24. 5.1 work history. The step by step work done during this entire term for the conduction of tess d urbervilles this. dissertation is described below. The various activities are listed below. Existing biogas problem of portability. Creation of idea of a home base mini portable biogas plant. Referred internet and The Tower of London Essay example, books for theory of biogas plant for statistics and of the, the. current biogas plant scenario. Of The. The basic of biogas studied. Review the type of biogas plant.

' Select final concept. The fixed dome type biogas plant was selected for the creation of a portable. ' Design specification and material selection. Calculation based on digester design carried out. Material selection plastic and PVC. done due to ease of d urbervilles portaility. 5.2 Various Parts of Grace: Margaret Fiction our Portable Biogas Plan.

' Outlet gas pipe. Portable biogas plant 25. Part Diameter (m) Height Length (m) 1 Inlet pipe 0.0508 - 0.4. 2 Outlet Pipe 0.1016 - 0.25. 3 Digester 0.3012 0.6069. 4 Air Gap 0.0040 - - 5 Gas Valve 0.02 - - 6 Gas Tube 0.02 - 1.0. 5.3 Raw Material Specifications. The basic raw material we will be using in the digester will be cow dung. Furthermore, after the complete start of of the yield of the biogas, other raw materials.

may be used. The raw material specifications of the of paper cow dung are provided below: C, 1 Kg of dry dung gives 0.186 m. of gas. The ratio of dry dung. to water in dung is 1:4. Normally 1 Kg of of the d urbervilles wet dung is mixed with to get the slurry. The duration of each cycle depends upon the ambient temperature. Hence if the. gas requirement and duration of cycle are known, then the discrimination amount of the water and. dung required can be estimated. The volume of the slurry is equivalent to the 50%of the tess of the volume of the.

digester. Act Uk. Hence the slurry would be kept at the half level of the digester. Portable biogas plant 26. 6.1 Shape and static loading. ' A biogas plant should be watertight. The gasholder must be gaslight. For this reason.

a biogas plant must have no cracks. But structures of masonry or concrete always. crack. One can try to keep the cracks small. And one can determine the position. where the cracks are to arise. ' Cracks always arise where the d urbervilles criticism tensile stresses are highest. Tensile stresses arise. from tensile forces, flexure, displacements, and discrimination act uk, settling and of the criticism, temperature. fluctuations.

When mortar or concrete sets, shrinkage cracks also form. Stresses are. high where the external forces are high. External forces are earth pressure, dead. weight and applied load. Stresses are highest where the internal forces are highest. Internal forces are flexural, normal, gravitational and torsional forces. The. external forces can be reduced by favourable shaping of the structure. The liquid.

pressure and earth pressure are less in a low biogas plant. This is because both. depend directly on teaching roles and responsibilities, the height. ' The internal forces can also be reduced by favourable shaping of the structure. If. the external forces can act in one direction only, high internal forces arise. If, however, the external forces can be distributed in a number of directions, small. internal forces arise. This is the case with all curved surfaces or shells. ' Slabs will support a heavier load than beams for a given thickness of material.

A. curved shell supports more than a flat slab. A shell cuned in more than one. dimension supports more than a shell of simple curvature. Tess Of The Criticism. Curved structural. components are more rigid; the stresses are smaller in them. Just imagine how thick. the shell of looking glass a hen's egg would have to be if it were shaped like a cube! Cracks arise. where stresses are high. Particularly high stresses - peak stresses - arise at points. where the stress pattern is disturbed.

Such disturbances occur at edges, angles, corners and under concentrated, applied or other loads. Disturbances arise along the. line of intersection of surfaces. Cracks form at these points due to peak stresses. Peak stresses always arise at the edges of angular structures. For this reason the gas.

space of a fixed-dome plant must never be angular. ' Cracks arise owing to tensile stresses. If a component is under compression, it is. free from cracks. The gas space of a fixed-dome plant should therefore always be. Portable biogas plant 27. under pressure at every point. D Urbervilles Criticism. The liquid pressure of the fermentation slurry is. directed outwards. The earth pressure is directed inwards.

If the two forces balance. reliably, the load on the structure is relieved. In a vaulted shape' the external loading. is obtained even if the earth is stiff and cracked owing to drought. A round shape is. always a good shape, ' Because a round shape has no corners. Because its load pattern is more favourable.

And because it uses less material. A round shape is often easier to build than an. angular one. Teaching Roles And Responsibilities. The rounder the better! 6.2 design specification. ' The volume of the digester Vd in m3 is given by: Where Vf = volume of the Slurry Fluid in m. Tr = Retention Time in days. ' The volume of the Slurry Fluid Vf in 'm. ' added per day is given by:

Where mo = Dry Mass of Slurry in kg. rm = Density of dry mass ( ' The Dry mass weight mo' of biomass added per day in 'kg is given by: ' The volume of biogas generated in tess d urbervilles criticism, m3 is given by: Where C = Biogas/Dry mass. Portable biogas plant 28. TO find the volume of the in the time butterflies summary digester Vd in 'm' Average Diameter D in m = = (0.1524+0.45)/2. Volume of Tank Vd = Pi/4 D. H; Where H=Height of Digester Tank. The Retention Time Tris estimated using the ambient temperature of the process of. fermentation which is criticism 14-15 Days at 30-35. To find the volume of the Slurry Fluid Vf (m3.

Volume of Fluid Vf =Vd / Tr; Where Tr= Retention Time. To find the dry mass weight of of London Essay biomass = mo'(kg) Dry mass Weight mo (kg) = Vf X rhom; Where rhom= Density of dry mass. Portable biogas plant 29. To find the Volume of Biogas generated. Volume of biogas Vb in m3 =C Xmo; Where C= Biogas/Dry mass. Hence it is tess d urbervilles criticism estimated that the biogas generated per day will be 0.5 m3.

Portable biogas plant 30. Advantages of our portable biogas plant. over other plants. 1 Portability Easily. Polyethylene Bricks and. 3 Space required 1 m2 /- 6.25 m2 10 to 100 m2. Very less Moderate Large. 5 Gas pressure Constant Constant Vary. 6 Maintenance None None High.

Very less Less Large. 8 Investment Negligible Less High. 9 Payback period 1 month 2 years 3-4 years. 10 Installation Easiest Moderate Cumbersome. Portable biogas plant 31. 7.2 Required Area Comparison. The area occupied by our portable biogas plant compared with conventional biogas plant. as well as other portable ones is shown below, Portable biogas plant 32. There are several results obtained by teaching roles and responsibilities, this dissertation: ' The volume of the biogas that will be generated per day for biogas plant is calculated. and found out to be 0.05 m3/day.

' The volume of the slurry fluid for biogas plant is calculated and found out to be. ' The dry mass of the biomass to be added per day for biogas plant is calculated and. is found out to be 0.24 kg/day. ' The retention time of the tess d urbervilles whole process is estimated as 15 days at about 30-3500 C. Portable biogas plant 33. ' We conclude from this dissertation that the biogas plant developed is highly. portable in Margaret Atwood's of Historical, nature and can be remotely taken to of the d urbervilles, any place and the energy. generated from the plant can be utilized portably. ' Several applications of this biogas plant can be made which would further.

increase the usability of the plant. ' This portable biogas plant can also be used in the application of PETROMAX. which provides a light and not a flame. ' This application can be useful to the rural Indian people who work at night in the. farms to make their ends meet. Portable biogas plant 34. ' www.google.com ' for finding some knowledge about it.

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Engineering essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on of London Essay, hand, waiting to help you. Of The D Urbervilles. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Engineering work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Engineering essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of invention this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Home Based Mini Portable Bio-Gas Plant . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/engineering/mini-portable-bio-gas-plant.php [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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