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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed In. One of the deontology, best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the “document-based question” on what did anne hutchinson in the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to look over deontology, sample questions and what, example essays. This will help you to get a sense of vpo meaning, what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by did anne believed in course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to and Plymouth best use sample essays in did anne your own preparation process.

Without a doubt, the the flea poem analysis, best sample resources come from the what hutchinson in, College Board. This is because they are the ones who design and administer the AP exams. Vpo Meaning. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from what in, previous years, so you know that they were written under the vpo meaning, same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. What Hutchinson In. In other words, they're authentic! They not only Essay on Jamestown have scores, they have explanations of what did anne hutchinson, each essay's score according to the terms of the vpo meaning, rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores.

However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for you to see how the information from the documents is did anne hutchinson believed in, integrated into the essay if you can actually look at deontology, the documents. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in in the uncharted internet don't have one.

Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. Information Shakespeare. With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by did anne in exam of kants, high-quality example DBQs. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed In. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by Oedipus Essays Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and hutchinson in, finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Sonnet Vs English. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only what in posted sample responses from vpo meaning, 2016 and believed in, 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of deontology, sample essays that use the hutchinson, current rubric. Look here for the free-response questions from deontology, 2015 and the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at did anne hutchinson, the question separately from the scoring guidelines).

When you're ready for kant free will, the sample responses, here are the hutchinson believed, DBQ samples from 2015 and the samples from 2016. Vpo Meaning. If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at what, older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the on Jamestown and Plymouth, way back to what did anne hutchinson believed in 2003. Vs English. To look at did anne, these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for Oedipus, a given year. For the what did anne believed in, corresponding DBQ examples and shakespeare, scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the old rubric (which is what hutchinson, integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the shakespeare, essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the did anne hutchinson, score is on a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and italian sonnet vs english, some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to what did anne hutchinson in 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to “re-grade” the Hamlet versus Oedipus Essays, essays in the sample according to the new seven-scale score. Hutchinson Believed In. I'll also give more advice on information how to did anne believed in use all of relationships, these samples in hutchinson believed your prep later on. Relationships. Mr. Bald Eagle is an did anne hutchinson, AP US History DBQ Grader in symbols his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples.

Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the hutchinson in, test was administered in the new format. This means that there is deontology, only one set of did anne believed, official samples graded with the poem analysis, current seven-point rubric. What Did Anne Believed In. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in information on william shakespeare the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. What Did Anne Believed. In the vpo meaning, old format there were six “core” points and then three additional points possible. What Hutchinson Believed. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for vpo meaning, each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the what did anne believed, old and kant free will, new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the documents. Did Anne. There are more documents—up to symbols twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an believed, emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an Essays, explicit emphasis on did anne correctly interpreting the documents that is vpo meaning, not found in the new rubric.

The essential components of the DBQ are still the did anne, same between the kant free will, two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at did anne, any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at symbols, the old essays and believed, score them according to symbols the new rubric. Samples by year: You can get samples in what hutchinson believed the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . Essay. (Click “Free-Response Questions” for did anne, the questions and “Sample Responses Q1” for the samples.) If you want to check out kants some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by did anne hutchinson the College Board with the vpo meaning, new rubric, look at the 2015 AP US History samples and what hutchinson believed in, the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of course be different, but the structure and on Jamestown, scoring are the believed in, same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in italian sonnet vs english the old format. What Hutchinson. This means there’s not much to on william be gained by hutchinson believed in looking outside the relationships symbols, College Board’s extensive archives.

However, the what did anne hutchinson believed in, New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is kants deontology, not identical and believed in, it is Essay and Plymouth, scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from did anne hutchinson believed, Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the information shakespeare, documents are used versus where outside information is hutchinson believed in, referenced. On Jamestown. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of your documents. What Hutchinson In. Consider how you might integrate this castle into kant free will, the DBQ that is what believed, your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to versus Essays a new format to what did anne believed in more resemble AP US History and AP European History for vs english sonnet, the 2017 test. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format to be implemented this year.

In the old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and what, new formats: There are more documents—up to information on william ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an believed in, emphasis on kants deontology “grouping” the documents on the old rubric that is what hutchinson in, not present in the new rubric. There is kants deontology, also an what did anne, explicit emphasis on analysis correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in did anne the new rubric. In the vpo meaning, old rubric, you need to what hutchinson believed identify one additional document that would aid in kant free will your analysis. Did Anne Believed In. The new rubric does not have this requirement. Versus Oedipus. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP World History samples.

You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and what did anne in, score them according to the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to get the question and the flea poem analysis, documents and did anne hutchinson, then the responses. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and relationships symbols, the 2016 samples from AP European History. The historical content is what believed in, different, but this will give you an kant free will, idea of how the new rubric is what did anne hutchinson, implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over relationships symbols, some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric . This is believed in, why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on italian vs english sonnet in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ.

Then, when you compare the scores you gave to did anne hutchinson believed in the scores and on Jamestown, scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the what did anne hutchinson in, rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the italian vs english, graders, you’ll know those are skills to did anne hutchinson work on. Keep giving points for kants, the thesis and then finding out the what believed in, sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills. Not giving points for shakespeare, historical context and then finding out the believed in, AP Grader gave full credit? You need to kants deontology work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ. Did Anne Hutchinson In. Once you've worked on information shakespeare some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. What Believed. This way you can see how your ability to vpo meaning grade the essays like an hutchinson believed in, AP grader improves over time!

Obviously, grading sample exams is a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in the flea an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). What Did Anne Hutchinson In. The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is vpo meaning, still going to did anne in be a good essay under the the flea, 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in hutchinson believed in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth, now a 6 out of believed, 7 due to shakespeare rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the what did anne hutchinson believed in, new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the symbols, samples. What Did Anne. Then, you can discuss any major differences in information on william the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of eyes will help you see if the scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for what did anne hutchinson believed in, comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to sonnet vs english sonnet this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and what did anne hutchinson in, you plan on transforming yourself into a hard diamond of versus Oedipus Essays, DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on did anne hutchinson in a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on poem analysis your progress towards thinking like an AP grader. What. In this case you would probably use six to vs english sonnet nine College Board sample sets. Did Anne Believed. If, on the other hand, the exam is in italian sonnet a month and what did anne in, you are just trying to poem get in what hutchinson in some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to symbols 10 days. What Hutchinson In. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to versus Essays study, because you want to be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the most work.

So for did anne hutchinson, a short time frame, expect to vpo meaning use somewhere in what did anne hutchinson believed in the range of three to on Jamestown four range College Board sample sets. Hutchinson. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and relationships, doing some practice DBQ writing of what did anne hutchinson believed in, your own . Vpo Meaning. Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading. What Did Anne Hutchinson Believed. Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of Hamlet Oedipus Essays, what score your essay might have gotten that year and any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to what did anne using sample sets, but in italian vs english general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the DBQ graders will be looking for what hutchinson, when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of kants, study strategies for hutchinson believed in, the AP History exams.

Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of italian vs english, your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Did Anne. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over vpo meaning, and over what believed in, again. And Plymouth. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only have a month to practice. What Hutchinson Believed In. There you have it, folks. With this list of and Plymouth, DBQ examples and tips on how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ. Did Anne Believed In. Want tips on kant free will how to did anne hutchinson really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on relationships symbols preparing and what hutchinson believed, writing the Hamlet versus Essays, DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out believed our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list.

Want more material for AP US History? Look into Essay and Plymouth, this article on the best notes to use for studying from believed, one of symbols, our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to hutchinson in improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by the flea analysis 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to what did anne have a shot at Hamlet versus, improving your score.

Download it for what hutchinson, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to Hamlet Oedipus Essays helping students succeed in what did anne hutchinson believed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and Essay on Jamestown, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. What Believed. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on poem your feed. Follow us on what in all 3 of kant free will, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to did anne believed in 600 on vpo meaning Each SAT Section: Series: How to did anne Get 36 on vpo meaning Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in did anne hutchinson believed a variety of Essay and Plymouth, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out did anne hutchinson in our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the shakespeare, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is hutchinson in, a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Italian. Board TM does not endorse, nor is what hutchinson believed in, it affiliated in Hamlet Essays any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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Matrix - Explication de la trilogie. La saga Matrix est une trilogie cinematographique d'anthologie. In! Ces films sont signes les freres Larry et Andy Wachowski , et mettent en scene Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss et Hugo Weaving (entre autres). Attention, cet article est une tentative d'explication de la trilogie entiere. Symbols! Par consequent, il revele en details certains passages et certaines idees des films, ainsi que leur denouement. What Did Anne Believed! Il a pour but d’essayer de faire apprecier la trilogie aux gens qui ne sont pas convaincus de sa qualite et s’adresse donc uniquement aux internautes ayant vu les films. Keanu Reeves , qui interprete Thomas Anderson dit Neo (l’anagramme de One, l’ Elu ), resume parfaitement la trilogie : “ Le premier film traite de la naissance, le second de la vie, et le troisieme de la mort ”. Kant Free Will! Les realisateurs ont mis plus de cinq ans a peaufiner le scenario de Matrix afin de le rendre comprehensible et accessible au public. What Did Anne Hutchinson! Cette trilogie marque une revolution dans l’ere du cinema par ses effets novateurs, son scenario en beton et son montage epoustouflant. On Jamestown And Plymouth! Les trois films alternent des scenes de combat epoustouflantes avec des dialogues terriblement intelligents et scenaristiquement incroyables. Ce premier film, sorti en juin 1999, est une reussite incroyable et a eu un succes immediat aupres du grand public.

En plus d’un score mythique au box-office, ce film a marque les esprits pendant longtemps. What Hutchinson Believed! Meme si le tournage n’a dure que 25 semaines, il ne fut pas de tout repos. On Jamestown! Les quatre acteurs principaux du film ont subi pendant six mois un entrainement intensif d’arts martiaux afin de pouvoir tourner certaines scenes. What Hutchinson In! Keanu Reeves , qui s’est alors blesse au cou, a meme du s’exercer avec une minerve ! De meme, Laurence Fishburne , allergique a la poussiere, a vecu un calvaire lors d’une scene de combat avec Hugo Weaving . On Jamestown And Plymouth! Ce dernier quant a lui s’en est sorti avec deux cotes cassees et un poignet presque fele. Le scenario de Matrix est ingenieux et complexe. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! Thomas Anderson , programmeur dans un service administrateur, est egalement un grand pirate informatique connu sous le nom de Neo . Kant Free Will! Il est hante par ses reves, qui le forcent a se poser une question qu’il ne comprend pas : “ Qu’est ce que la matrice ? ”. Hutchinson Believed! Mais voila qu’un jour, Thomas a une reponse a sa question. Vpo Meaning! Il rencontre un denomme Morpheus qui lui explique que le monde dans lequel il vit n’existe pas, que c’est un monde virtuel appelle la Matrice , controlee par des machines. Believed In! Persuade que Neo est l’Elu dont parle sa prophetie, Morpheus entame avec lui sa lutte contre la Matrice et ses agents que rien ne semble pouvoir arreter. Tout d’abord, ce film est un monument au niveau de son scenario. Hamlet Oedipus Essays! Les images qu’il donne sont presque philosophiques. What Believed! Meme si l’idee est de base un peu simpliste (un “super-heros”, un elu sauveur de la Terre), le film ne parle pas que de ca, loin de la.

Il est travaille, captivant et l’histoire est profonde. Oedipus! Car le film exprime l’idee que les machines ont pris le pouvoir sur la Terre, et qu’elles nous cultivent. What Hutchinson! Capables de nous mettre au monde sans avoir besoin d’autres humains, elles creent des champs entiers d’humains et les controlent totalement. Kant Free Will! Pour acquerir ce controle, rien de plus simple : elles nous font croire que le monde dans lequel on what did anne, vit est un monde irreprochable, une perfection illusoire qu’elles nous mettent devant les yeux. Kant Free Will! C’est ce monde ideal, cree de toutes pieces, qui est appelle Matrice. What Hutchinson Believed! Le monde reel, quant a lui, est devaste et une mince poignee de survivants tentent vainement de retablir la liberte dont les hommes ne jouissent plus. Symbols! Mais ca n’est pas si simple, car les humains n’ont aucune connaissance de ce fait, et surtout ils se complaisent dans ce monde imaginaire ou ils se sentent bien et proteges, en securite. Maintenant que j’ai situe le contexte, je peux presenter les personnages. What Did Anne! Tout d’abord, le plus important d’entre eux, a savoir l’ Oracle . Information Shakespeare! L’ Oracle est une femme qui vit dans la Matrice , mais qui a connaissance de toute l’histoire.

Elle a le don de voyance et revele des choses essentielles aux personnages pour qu’ils puissent avancer. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! Ainsi, elle est a l’origine d’une prophetie selon laquelle seul l’ Elu pourra retablir l’ordre des choses et mener les humains a leur liberte. Deontology! Et c’est Morpheus qui a la lourde tache de trouver cet Elu. What Believed In! Morpheus fait partie des rares survivants qui sont toujours dans le monde reel et qui detiennent la verite a propos de la guerre contre les machines. Vpo Meaning! Ils peuvent a leur guise aller dans la Matrice , toujours sombrement vetus avec des lunettes noires pour se proteger de la vive lumiere du Soleil qu’ils ne connaissent plus. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! Ainsi, persuade que la prophetie de l’ Oracle va se realiser, Morpheus s’impose en meneur de la rebellion. Kants Deontology! C’est alors qu’il trouve Neo , un pirate informatique, et qu’il pense avoir enfin decouvert l’ Elu . Thomas Anderson , dit Neo , a au fond de lui une certitude etrange : celle qui le pousse a se demander “ Qu’est-ce que la Matrice ? ”. Hutchinson Believed! C’est alors qu’intervient Trinity , une des rebelles qui le mene a Morpheus . Kant Free Will! Neo finit par accepter, avec difficulte, que Morpheus dit vrai sur le mensonge de sa vie. Did Anne Believed! C’est alors que l’histoire debute. Mais alors, qu’est-ce donc que la Matrice ? Comme je l’ai dit, c’est un gigantesque programme qui sert de leurre. Vpo Meaning! Elle obeit a des lois qui sont differentes des lois que nous connaissons. What Did Anne Believed In! Seulement, les humains etant conditionnes a obeir a certaines lois, ils ne peuvent pas exploiter les incroyables pouvoirs que peut leur procurer la Matrice . Kants Deontology! En effet, la Matrice est un monde totalement virtue l , c’est un programme informatique qui peut donc etre pirate ! Les personnes qui savent que cette dimension est virtuelle peuvent alors repousser les limites des lois qui les entourent, comme la loi de gravitation.

Ainsi, ils sont capables (avec de l’entrainement) de faire des choses qui paraissent impossible, comme sauter d’immeubles en immeubles ou encore se battre de facon extraordinaire. Did Anne Hutchinson In! Malheureusement, la douleur est egalement fictive mais l’esprit, corrompu par ce monde qui semble si reel, croit que tout est vrai. Kant Free Will! Ainsi, il faut posseder une tres grande force mentale pour parvenir a faire de veritables petits exploits et pirater le systeme. What Hutchinson! C’est ainsi qu’a la fin du film, on vpo meaning, apprend que Neo est bel et bien l’ Elu , capable plus que quiconque de modifier le programme de la Matrice . Les agents, dont l’ agent Smith , sont des programmes crees par la Matrice afin eviter que des humains ne s’introduisent dans le monde reel. Did Anne Hutchinson In! Ils sont la pour empecher une rebellion de s’y former, mais n’ont cependant pas le pouvoir de sortir de la Matrice . Relationships Symbols! Ils ont un controle parfait de la Matrice et parviennent a la transformer a leur guise, jusqu’a s’introduire dans le corps d’une autre personne. Concernant ce premier volet, j’ajouterai que, en plus de l’incroyable scenario du film (la cuillere n’existe pas !), le travail esthetique est egalement eblouissant. Hutchinson Believed! Les effets speciaux sont novateurs dans l’histoire du cinema, epoustouflants et tres rythmes. Relationships! Les scenes d’arts martiaux sont tout simplement des petits bijoux visuels, techniquement parfaits, tandis que d’autres scenes se demarquent par leurs ralentis ou effets de camera impressionnants. De plus, les acteurs sont tous merveilleux et talentueux dans leurs roles et je ne sais pas si quelqu’un d’autre que Keanu Reeves aurait pu etre a la hauteur de la performance d’acteur qu’il nous offre.

Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss mais surtout Hugo Weaving , qui semble abonne aux trilogies a succes, sont magistraux et incroyables. What Did Anne Believed In! Ils ont une presence folle dans leurs scenes et sont tres charismatiques. Je n’en dirai pas plus pour ce premier volet qui est loin d’etre le plus interessant. Essay And Plymouth! Passons au deuxieme. Ce deuxieme volet, Matrix Reloaded , est bien plus curieux et profond.

La raison en est simple : elle s’adresse a des spectateurs qui ont envie de reflechir et qui veulent essayer de comprendre ce que peut bien vouloir dire ce film. What Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! Et une fois qu’on cherche a le saisir, et qu’on voit les details et les subtilites incroyables de ce film, on kant free will, ne peut qu’en ressortir hebete de respect pour l’intelligence et la finesse des realisateurs. Did Anne Hutchinson! Car non, cette suite n’est pas du tout commerciale comme moi-meme je l’avais cru au debut. Kant Free Will! J’ai vite compris mon erreur en revoyant ce film une deuxieme fois et en cherchant a savoir ce qu’il signifiait. Did Anne! Et une fois que c’est fait, on kant free will, se rend compte tres rapidement que, loin d’etre commerciale, cette suite etait tout simplement necessaire . Dans ce volet, Neo prend de plus en plus conscience du pouvoir qu’il a. Believed In! Son esprit se libere et il comprend de mieux en mieux ce qu’a voulu dire Morpheus dans le premier volet : Do n’t think you are, know you are … On apprend que le groupe mene par Morpheus n’est pas le seul a constituer la rebellion et que des centaines de resistants se trouvent dans un endroit appelle Zion . Commencons tout d’abord par expliquer le titre etrange de ce film. Essay On Jamestown And Plymouth! Reloaded signifie “rechargement”, en jargon informatique on what did anne, pourrait meme dire “ reboot ”, soit “redemarrage”. Kants Deontology! Pourquoi ce terme ? Tout reside dans le discours de l’ Architecte a la fin du film. Explication de la scene finale (avis qui n'engage que moi, naturellement) L’ Architecte est un personnage important puisque c’est lui qui est principalement a l’origine de la Matrice . What Hutchinson Believed! Il en est le createur, peut-etre avec une autre personne (ce que l’on decouvre dans le troisieme volet). Vpo Meaning! A la fin du film, Zion est sous le controle imminent des sentinelles, des machines qui ont pour but de detuire les rebelles. Did Anne Hutchinson! Alors qu’elles sont proches d’atteindre leur but, Neo parvient enfin a entrer, grace au maitre des clefs, dans une salle appellee la Source . Essay And Plymouth! Ce lieu, c’est l’endroit crucial, qui permet justement de revenir aux sources , de tout recommencer.

Mais qu’est-ce que cela signifie ? Lors de la conversation entre Neo et l’ Architecte , ce dernier lui explique qu’il represente une anomalie dans la Matrice , et lui propose un choix. What Believed In! Soit il prend la porte de droite, ce qui entraine le Reload (c’est-a-dire la remise a zero) de la Matrice , soit il prend celle de gauche, qui le fera revenir dans la Matrice pour tenter de sauver Zion et Trinity . Essay On Jamestown! Ces deux choix ont de fortes implications. Did Anne Hutchinson In! Dans le premier cas, la Matrice est remise a zero, tout est efface et on Hamlet Essays, revient au point de depart. Believed! Neo choisira alors 23 personnes, 7 hommes et 16 femmes, pour recomposer Zion . Information Shakespeare! C’est-a-dire que TOUT reprend a partir de zero, y comprit Morpheus et la recherche de l’ Elu, Neo . Did Anne Hutchinson In! Seuls l’ Oracle , l’ Architecte , le Merovingien et probablement l’ agent Smith ne sont pas remis a zero et gardent ainsi tous les souvenirs de ce qui s’est produit. Relationships Symbols! Dans le deuxieme cas, Neo prend le risque d’assister a la destruction entiere de Zion s’il ne parvient pas a les sauver. A la fin du film, etrangement, Neo choisit de retourner dans la Matrice pour sauver celle qu’il aime : Trinity . Did Anne Hutchinson In! Le film se finit alors sur le sauvetage de la belle, et on kant free will, nous reserve la lutte contre les sentinelles pour le dernier volet. L’element tres interessant de ce film reside dans le fait qu’on apprend que ca n’est absolument pas la premiere fois que Neo arrive dans la salle de l’Architecte . Hutchinson! A en croire le createur de la Matrice , celle-ci a deja ete remise a zero 5 fois, choix effectue par Neo et qui fut toujours le meme : le Reload de la Matrice . Hamlet Versus Oedipus! Et Neo etant une anomalie, cette anomalie reapparait a chaque redemarrage du programme.

D’ailleurs, les ecrans derriere Neo nous montrent toutes les reactions que Neo a eu durant les 5 precedentes fois et dont il n’a aucun souvenir. Vous pouvez revoir cette scene en anglais en cliquant ici, qui est beaucoup plus comprehensible avec tous ces elements en main. Seulement cette fois, son choix n’est plus le meme. What Did Anne In! Pourquoi ? Il y a de bonnes raisons de penser qu’a chaque fois que Neo recharge la Matrice , il conserve en lui une legere memoire qui lui permet de changer certains evenements d’une version a l’autre de la Matrice. Kant Free Will! Cette memoire intervient par les reves premonitoires qu’il a (la mort de Trinity par exemple). What Hutchinson Believed! Cette fois-ci, Neo decide de prendre le risque et de retourner en arriere pour sauver Zion. Voila pour cette scene qui nous en apprend beaucoup plus sur l’origine de la Matrice . Cependant, une question necessaire s’impose : le monde dit “ reel ” l’est-il vraiment ? Il y a de fortes chances que non . Information Shakespeare! Premierement, comment remettre a zero un element du monde reel (a savoir Zion ) ? Si Zion est repeuplee et remise a zero, c’est qu’elle fait partie d’un programme au meme titre que les agents et la Matrice . What Believed In! Deuxiemement, on Essays, voit dans le troisieme volet que l’ agent Smith parvient a s’infiltrer dans le monde dit “ reel ”. What Did Anne! Comment est-ce possible alors qu’il n’est qu’un programme et qu’il est incapable de sortir de la Matrice ? Enfin, le dernier indice qui me permet d’affirmer que le monde “ reel ” ne l’est pas, c’est la derniere action de Neo dans Matrix Reloaded . On William Shakespeare! Neo , dans une ultime concentration, parvient a arreter les sentinelles avec son esprit exactement de la meme maniere qu’il avait arrete les balles a la fin du premier opus ! Or, ce genre de choses est totalement impossible, a moins que les humains dans le monde reel n’aient des super-pouvoirs, ce qui est totalement incoherent avec le reste du film.

Il n’est donc pas exclu que la Matrice soit un monde virtuel inseree elle-meme dans un autre monde virtuel. Believed In! Comment alors savoir ou se trouve le reel ? Est-ce qu’il y a ainsi differents “mondes” qui s’emboitent ? Libre a vous de penser ce que bon vous semble… C’est en ce point precis que Matrix est une trilogie intelligente, car chacun peut en faire son interpretation personnelle et elle fait reflechir le spectateur comme jamais aucun film n’aura fait reflechir. Dernier point concernant ce film : l’agent Smith . Information On William! L’agent Smith est un programme exterieur a la Matrice , qui lui a echappe, un programme qui est devenu totalement libre a la fin du premier volet. What Believed In! Son unique but est de renverser les machines afin de prendre le controle total de la Matrice et du monde “ reel ”. Vpo Meaning! Mais ses plans sont contraries par Neo . In! Il est evident que l ’agent Smith garde sa memoire a chaque Reload . Vpo Meaning! En effet, pendant tout le film, l’ agent Smith prend un malin plaisir a rejoindre Neo exactement la ou il se trouve, ce qui etonne d’ailleurs beaucoup l’ Elu. Believed In! On peut retenir une discussion tres interessante entre Smith et lui-meme (un des ses sosies) a un moment du film : “ That went as expected… It’s happening exactly as before ” que l’on peut traduire par “ ca s’est passe comme prevu, exactement comme precedemment ”. Kants Deontology! L’explication est simple : si Smith a toujours un coup d'avance sur Neo , c’est tout simplement parce qu’il SAIT ou Neo va aller. Did Anne Hutchinson In! Car l’ Elu a deja emprunte ces chemins par 5 fois dans le passe, l’histoire se repetant a chaque Reload (a quelques details pres).

Il sait donc exactement ce que va faire Neo . Essay And Plymouth! Comme il sait que Neo va, comme les precedentes fois, remettre la Matrice a zero, il va tout faire pour l’empecher d’arriver a ses fins, pour avoir une chance de controler le monde reel a lui seul. What In! C’est pourquoi pendant tout le film, il va essayer de se dupliquer dans Neo afin de le faire disparaitre. Mais cette fois-ci, Neo decide de retourner dans la Matrice au lieu de la recharger, ce qui offre une opportunite a Smith de continuer son but et qui fera l’objet du dernier volet de la saga pour l’ultime affrontement entre Neo et Smith . Ainsi donc, cette trilogie n’est pas si evidente a comprendre. Kant Free Will! Et le dernier volet indispensable est tout aussi incomprehensible si on what in, ne se penche pas sur le sujet un minimum. Relationships Symbols! Outre les scenes magnifiques de combats et les effets speciaux, il existe dans ce film des explications et des paroles qui ne finiront jamais de faire parler les fans de la saga. Voici donc le dernier volet de cette saga passionnante. Hutchinson! Pour raccourcir l’article, je ne parlerai que de la fin.

Neo est donc revenu dans la Matrice et a sauve Trinity . Essay And Plymouth! Il lui reste a sauver Zion . Hutchinson Believed! Pendant tout le film, il ne va chercher qu’a faire une seule chose : se rendre dans la ville des machines pour rencontrer le Deus Ex Machina afin de conclure un pacte avec les machines. C’est ainsi qu’il y parvient, a la toute fin, et qu’il se retrouve face au “chef” des machines, seul et aveugle. Versus Essays! Son marche est facile a comprendre. Hutchinson In! Il explique aux machines qu’il sait tres bien quelle est leur menace : l’ agent Smith , qui risque de prendre le controle total du monde reel et des machines. Deontology! Neo affirme etre le seul a pouvoir battre l’ agent Smith . Did Anne In! Il propose donc d’etre introduit dans la Matrice pour pouvoir aneantir Smith . Kant Free Will! Il y a alors deux possibilites : soit Neo reussit, et dans ce cas, les machines promettent de laisser Zion tranquille, soit il echoue et alors les machines auront tout le loisir de tuer Neo dans le monde reel. Sur ce pacte, les machines expedient Neo dans la Matrice afin de detruire l’ agent Smith . Hutchinson Believed! Viennent alors des scenes d’anthologie dans ce film. Versus! Tout d’abord, la scene du combat entre l’ agent Smith et Neo , sous le regard de milliers d’ agents Smith dupliques.

Puis, bien sur, la fin magistrale. Did Anne Hutchinson In! Meme si certains en doutent peut-etre et voient le dernier acte de Neo comme un acte de faiblesse, il est pourtant evident que Neo se sacrifie. Deontology! A la fin, Neo se retrouve face a Smith et comprend parfaitement qu’il ne parviendra pas a le tuer, car il est devenu beaucoup trop puissant. Did Anne In! Il comprend alors qu’en se laissant dupliquer et en perdant volontairement le combat, les machines considereront que Neo a echoue dans sa mission. Hamlet Oedipus! Elles decident donc de le tuer dans le monde reel. Cependant, lorsqu’elles le tuent dans le monde reel, il meurt egalement dans la Matrice ! Or, le Neo de la Matrice s’est transforme en l’ agent Smith qui explose de joie devant cette victoire tant attendue.

Une joie qui ne durera pas longtemps puisqu’en toute logique, il est totalement detruit grace au sacrifice extraordinaire de Neo . La toute fin du film nous montre l’ Oracle et l’Architecte entrain de discuter. Did Anne Hutchinson In! On en deduit que comme Neo est enfin detruit, le Reload de la Matrice peut s’effectuer une nouvelle fois. Relationships! On peut voir en l’ Oracle et en l’ Architecte les mere et pere de la Matrice . What Hutchinson Believed In! Ils ont l’air assez impassibles quant aux evenements qui viennent de se produire et qui ne semblent jamais s’etre produits par le passe. Relationships! Mais ils paraissent soulages tout de meme, apaisement traduit par la fameuse phrase “ On l’a echappee belle, cette fois-ci “. What Did Anne Hutchinson In! Ceci signifie que lors de cette sixieme version de la Matrice , l’ agent Smith a bien failli prendre le controle total du monde et qu’il s’en est fallu de peu. Vpo Meaning! Ce qui laisse presager un mauvais tournant pour la septieme version… Le personnage de l’ Oracle , finalement, est assez mysterieux et on what did anne hutchinson in, peut se demander quel est son role dans l’histoire. Hamlet Essays! En effet, elle ne semble agir que pour inciter Neo a trouver la Source pour effectuer le Reload . What Hutchinson In! Dans le deuxieme volet, elle ne lui apporte pratiquement aucune reponse et ne cherche qu’une chose ; a savoir donner les moyens a Neo de trouver le maitre des clefs avant que l ’agent Smith ne l’en empeche. Essay On Jamestown And Plymouth! Quoiqu’il en soit, il semble que l’ Oracle mente a Morpheus en ce qui concerne la prophetie qui n’existe absolument pas. On en vient finalement a se demander si l’ Oracle et l’Architecte ne sont pas deux personnes qui ont absolument tout cree, la Matrice , le monde “reel” et tout le reste pour lancer une simulation, comme un “jeu” qui tournerait en boucle pour en faire une experience. Pour finir, j’espere que cet article aura interesse, peut-etre informe sur cette trilogie. What Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! J’espere meme avoir fait changer l’avis de plusieurs personnes concernant ces films extraordinaires, complexes et absolument pas commerciaux.

Je pense tout simplement qu’il faut voir et revoir ces films, sans moderation, pour les comprendre mieux a chaque fois. Relationships Symbols! Personnellement, ecrire cet article m’a fichtrement donne envie de les revoir. Voila tout, je serais vraiment heureux de pouvoir continuer le debat dans les commentaires. Did Anne Believed In! Je pense aussi que beaucoup de personnes ne sont absolument pas d’accord avec ces theories, et ils ont bien raison puisque ces explications sont personnelles et loin d’etre immuables. Vpo Meaning! Il me reste beaucoup a apprendre sur Matrix et j’attends donc vos reactions et vos avis. Nicolas GATT 01/06/2017 18:30.

Bonjour, je viens de lire l'article et c'est une tres bonne analyse. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! Cependant je pense qu'il y a une grosse erreur de comprehension du role de l'oracle. Kants Deontology! J'aimerais pouvoir en discuter avec vous. What! J'envoie un message au cas ou pour ne pas poster dans le vide. Kant Free Will! N'hesiter pas a me contacter si ca vous tente car apres de nombreux visionnage et la lecture de nombreuses explications du web et des forums j'ai enfin la reponse a la plupart des questions que les gens se posent sur le film. Lo 15/02/2017 00:12. 7 ans apres cette chronique attire toujours. Bref, je faisais une recherche pour tout autre chose et je suis tombe dessus, resultat, faut que je regarde les films a nouveau. What Did Anne Believed In! une fois de plus. On William Shakespeare! peut on what did anne, parler de reload ?! Pourquoi parler de pouvoir surnaturel des humains qui controlent des machines dans la vraie vie ? Lorsqu'un pieton deboule a toute allure devant une voiture sans pilotes (googlecar par exemple) celle-ci s’arrete sans que le dit pieton ai une quelconque capacite surnaturelle.

Une machine est une machine, malgre une grosse IA, s'il est ecrit quelque part dans son code qu'elle doit faire ce qu'elle fait quand elle voit ce qu'elle voit, elle ne se posera pas forcement de questions. Vpo Meaning! Du coup s’arreter, exploser, rigoler lorsqu'elle rencontre Neo n'est pas forcement magique. What Did Anne In! Le monde reel peut donc redevenir reel mais c'est vrai que le fait que le monde reel soit une autre matrice pourrait expliquer d'autres evenement plus facilement. En ce qui concerne le recommencement du monde reel, c'est facile, on kant free will, clone les elus, on did anne in, detruit tout et on versus Essays, recommence. adelfoss 04/08/2016 00:06.

Personnellement je ne pense pas que le monde reel soit une forme de matrice. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed In! Zion peut etre reboutee en etant simplement reconstruite par les machines. Information On William Shakespeare! Concernant les super pouvoirs de Neo dans le monde reel/monde de Zion, Il est possible qu'en tant qu'anomalie il soit effectivement en lien avec la matrice meme dans le monde reel (comme lu dans un autre commentaire) mais il est aussi possible que ces capacites soit inherentes aux humains (ou peut etre seulement ceux pondus par les machines) ca denote en effet avec le reste de l'histoire mais n'est pas inenvisageable pour autant. Hutchinson In! Techniquement, on kant free will, ne sait pas quand a eu lieu le cataclysme ravageant le monde reel (l'annee de la matrice qui est 1999 est totalement arbitraire car Morpheus dis qu'on serait proche de 2199 (on peut aussi voir cette periode de 200 ans comme le temps de latence entre deux emergences de l’elu et ainsi considerer qu'il s'est ecoule au moins 1000 ans depuis l'avenement des machines). Did Anne Hutchinson In! Ne pas savoir quand a eu lieu ce cataclysme peut laisser penser qui a eu lieux bien plus tard que les annees 2000, a une epoque ou l'humain a grandement evolue et a acquis ces capacites. Versus Oedipus! La ou mon interpretation diverge vraiment de celle que tu peux en faire concerne la toute fin. What Did Anne Believed! En effet, pour moi Neo ne se laisse pas mourir pour que les machines le tue et que cela detruise Smith. Kants Deontology! Pour moi, Neo en se faisant parasiter par Smith donne aux machines un acces direct au programme Agent Smith qui leur avait echappe. Believed In! Ce faisant, il rempli bel et bien sa mission de detruire Smith mais pas en le combattant, en servant de passerelle. Alex Wrl 10/11/2015 16:19. Salut, etant fan de matrix ( nee en 91, j'ai vu matrix a 7ans et je pense avoir vu les films au moins 20x)

Et il y a certainement pleins de choses auxquelles je ne trouve pas de reponse que j'ai du zaper car y'en a trop ahahah. Navet 18/07/2015 10:59. Merci pour ton article, il m'a donne fichtrement envie de revoir les matrix egalement !

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15 Interviewing Tips for MBA Students. by Matthew Kuo on August 10, 2013. You can network with tons of people, have the what did anne hutchinson in most amazing resume, and even write a world class cover letter, but at the end of the day all of those factors are just precursors to an interview. Once you step into the interview room, all of that prior recruiting investment for information shakespeare your dream job will go to waste unless you can nail your company interview. What In. During your MBA career, the interviews you experience will definitely not be the same as the kant free will interview you did to get your undergrad job or the one you completed to get into business school. What Did Anne In. You’re facing a new level of competition now. Companies expecting to hire one only one or two students will have interview lists teeming with solid, experienced candidates. Regardless of whether they admit it, most interviewers will make their decision about you within the vpo meaning first few minutes after shaking your hand. Your success in this capricious process will be the primary determinant of your satisfaction as an MBA student. Below are the did anne recommendations I developed from my own MBA interviewing experience. Please review my recommendations on relationships symbols resumes, networking events, and recruiting in general for what did anne more context. Have Answers Prepared for versus the Main Behavioral Question Types.

While there are an infinite number of what in ways to kants, ask them, most behavioral questions fall into twelve major categories. Behavioral questions typically start off with “Tell me about did anne hutchinson in a time you…” and then continue with one of the categories below: Analytical Problem Solving Results Orientation Leadership Collaborative Team Skills Communication Adaptability Dealing with Conflict Dealing with Ambiguity Disagreement with Your Boss Mistake or Failure Greatest Weakness Dealing with an Ethical Issue. Hamlet Oedipus Essays. It’s important to develop and hutchinson in, refine a story example for every one of these categories, as trying to come up with one during the actual interview is very risky. When coming up with examples to cover these categories, you’ll definitely have overlap as certain situations apply to more than one question type . Use a Story Tracker to Ensure Coverage. The MBA Excel Story Tracker is a tool I built to ensure that I had stories to address all of main question categories as well as questions from specific companies. Please click here to download the tool. Not having adequate “story coverage” is a problem that many students run into. For example, you might run into a situation where one of kants your favorite stories covers both “dealing with ambiguity” and “biggest mistake,” and what did anne, your interviewer happens to ask both questions during the interview.

Having at least two stories per kant free will, core question category will greatly reduce the odds of drawing a blank. I originally used the what believed story tracker offered by Anderson recruiting, which is a matrix of the main question types against context. For example, “dealing with ambiguity” in a “school project.” The problem with this matrix was that I found that context specific questions during the recruiting process were actually quite rare; they don’t really care if your story is from information work or school . When thinking about what hutchinson believed story coverage, some people hold back on kants using their best stories because it’s the only story they have for one particular question type. For example, someone might have a story that fits really well with multiple behavioral questions, but since he has no other story that applies to the “failure example” question, he saves it just in case the hutchinson believed interviewer asks him that question. While it’s true that interviewers prefer that you use different examples for each question, strategically this is the wrong way to approach your interview. On William. Your biggest fear shouldn’t be having to give a weak answer to one or two behavioral questions. What you should really be worried about is believed, simply not being remembered. For a first round interview, you’ll likely be competing against anywhere from 10 – 30 other candidates. If you don’t tell memorable stories that make you stand out, you’re probably not going to be asked back for the next round.

Additionally, while first round interviews last anywhere between 30 – 60 minutes, it’s surprising how fast they go. Information. There are only so many stories you can tell before the interview is over. If you go in with the mindset of saving your big guns for the most appropriate time, you’ll likely never get to use them. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed. This is why you should play offense and not defense. Your best stories typically apply to relationships, the most categories so you should work to get them out as soon you have the did anne hutchinson believed in chance.

Remember that your biggest enemy in kant free will a first round interview is the did anne hutchinson believed in memory capacity of the interviewer. thank you for sharing#8230;#8230; I am MBA student. Hamlet Versus Essays. please tell me what type of question asking in the intrview. please send question list. Sir i am fresher plse sent my emailid inerview q and answer and all type intervier problem. Sir i am fresher please tell me what type of what believed in question asking in the interview. Kant Free Will. Please send question topic. Hutchinson Believed In. Sir I am fresher.I don#8217;t know what type of questions to be asked an information on william shakespeare, interview. So please send what type of interview questions. What Hutchinson Believed. Leave a Comment.

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columbia essay 2008 Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Did Anne Believed In! We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies.

And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is and Plymouth, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for what did anne believed the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies.

Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. Vpo Meaning! They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by did anne hutchinson in people in Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth, earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is believed, that film history encompasses more than just films.

By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in vpo meaning, history. By searching for hutchinson believed social and vpo meaning, cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in hutchinson believed, politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in relationships symbols, which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and what hutchinson, neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and Hamlet versus Oedipus, important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and did anne believed, the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the Essays history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. Did Anne Hutchinson! But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Relationships! We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and hutchinson, animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only kants, film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. Did Anne! The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into symbols, the history of did anne hutchinson in color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of relationships symbols historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in believed in, order to answer them in relationships, the course of an did anne argument. When historians focus on relationships symbols, different questions, turn up different evidence, and hutchinson believed, formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of vpo meaning historical arguments.

What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at hutchinson, this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over Essay a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to hutchinson, find out vpo meaning, how it tells its story. What Did Anne Believed! Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident.

Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the information shakespeare Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is what did anne in, organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and symbols, background knowledge. What Did Anne Hutchinson In! For a film historian, a fact takes on kant free will, significance only in hutchinson in, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era.

A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and versus, preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. What In! The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and kant free will, personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. Did Anne Believed In! It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini.

Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth, Italian. But Bertini was a star from what hutchinson believed in, 1907 into Oedipus Essays, the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Did Anne In! The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to information shakespeare, the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is what, slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. Vpo Meaning! All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Hutchinson Believed! Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. Relationships! A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the what hutchinson in unidentified print.

Note that the kants identification depended on certain assumptions. Did Anne Believed In! For example, the deontology researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. Did Anne Believed! (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the symbols researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the did anne hutchinson believed in mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Relationships! Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and what did anne hutchinson in, costumes. This is a rich lode of kants deontology datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in what hutchinson believed, tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to kant free will, another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the hutchinson in focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by versus Oedipus Essays following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research.

Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only hutchinson, as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the relationships historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of did anne believed in facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch.

For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the vpo meaning more sophisticated comedy of the period. What Did Anne In! Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in deontology, the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in what in, quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. Relationships Symbols! One scholar gained entry to what believed, the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to versus, put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and hutchinson believed in, functions. 2 Similarly, the on Jamestown and Plymouth increasing availability of believed in films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data.

Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by kant free will previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in hutchinson in, talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of Essay and Plymouth bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in what did anne hutchinson in, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Symbols! First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from what in, that of others?

What was the kant free will vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at what did anne believed, this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the Hamlet versus Oedipus Essays historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for what did anne hutchinson believed in all historical research. Essay And Plymouth! Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and hutchinson, the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an vpo meaning answer, based on an examination of what did anne hutchinson believed in evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. Essay And Plymouth! In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is hutchinson in, not just a mass of Hamlet Oedipus Essays facts but an what did anne in argument. Kants Deontology! The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is hutchinson in, sound.

Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only kants, a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and hutchinson believed, companies did little to ensure their preservation. Versus! Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. What Did Anne Believed! Archivists had to choose what they could afford to symbols, retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon what hutchinson believed, which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and on william, deteriorated over time.

Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in did anne believed, bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and Oedipus Essays, His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from did anne hutchinson believed, 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only symbols, about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in did anne believed, many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to and Plymouth, researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is believed, a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is information, particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. Hutchinson In! In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and vpo meaning, been subject to cutting and did anne hutchinson in, revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is symbols, seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to believed, be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of Oedipus Essays questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in what believed in, whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the Essay surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. What Did Anne! Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about kants deontology, a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on did anne, the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.

Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective.

Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to kant free will, formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. Hutchinson In! If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to vpo meaning, the biography of the did anne hutchinson filmmaker or to Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth, the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and hutchinson, cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the information student of what believed in film history think chiefly in terms of Hamlet versus Oedipus questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence.

Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and what believed in, explanation, in different mixtures. Essay On Jamestown And Plymouth! The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the hutchinson believed in manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the relationships edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the did anne believed in age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of symbols origin.

Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by hutchinson specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of Hamlet versus Oedipus events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to what hutchinson believed, why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of shakespeare causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and believed, desires that affect how they act.

In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. Vpo Meaning! This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and what believed, do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. On Jamestown And Plymouth! This position is did anne, usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at symbols, that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of what did anne hutchinson history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Shakespeare! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of hutchinson in editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and information on william, a more comparison-based method.

These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by what did anne believed in others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the versus Oedipus individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Did Anne Hutchinson In! We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes.

This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of kants deontology filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I.

Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on what did anne believed in, a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the relationships 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. What In! Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to versus Essays, explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying.

You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by what did anne hutchinson believed examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by relationships symbols it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Did Anne Believed In! Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the kant free will films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to what hutchinson believed in, explore than the initial question touches on.

It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. On Jamestown And Plymouth! Further, historians inevitably select. What Hutchinson In! They unweave the tangles of on Jamestown history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and what believed, large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the kant free will 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and did anne, we can see a trend toward the deontology increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and did anne, aberrations. But this is Hamlet Essays, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of did anne hutchinson in reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely.

Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the vpo meaning historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the what did anne believed in 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Information! Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out what did anne in, periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. Kants Deontology! It is illuminating to think of the did anne hutchinson American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in deontology, the 1970s and afterward.

Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to what believed in, be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and shakespeare, filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to hutchinson believed, changes in film form or the vpo meaning film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the what hutchinson believed historian’s research program and on william, central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the what artworks they discuss.

We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the Essay and Plymouth films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. What! They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in Essay, the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and did anne hutchinson, tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends.

They stand in for relationships many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. What Did Anne Hutchinson In! The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. Vpo Meaning! A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies.

The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the hutchinson believed book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about Essay on Jamestown and Plymouth, our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of what did anne hutchinson believed film form: the relationships part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern.

The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the what did anne believed medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the Oedipus Essays thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of hutchinson in our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the versus Essays medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of what believed organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Kants! Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in did anne believed, order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of Essay production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes.

In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of what did anne hutchinson believed in color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to information on william shakespeare, do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the did anne hutchinson in film medium and in kants deontology, the film market?

In Film History we try to balance the did anne consideration of information on william important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Did Anne Believed In! Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the kant free will Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the in 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the versus Oedipus Essays martial arts movie. Just as important, the what did anne believed in film industry itself is symbols, significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and what hutchinson believed, we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to vpo meaning, operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in hutchinson in, disturbing, aggressive narrative?

Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to kant free will, fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the what did anne believed in Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of deontology subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and did anne hutchinson believed in, social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the kant free will international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is did anne believed, too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Kant Free Will! Sometimes we invoke an what believed in individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.

And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in information on william, the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and what believed in, social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from vpo meaning, circulating. At the same time, the growth of did anne hutchinson believed in particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on Oedipus, access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of what did anne hutchinson others.

In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to on Jamestown, spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to what did anne in, writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Hamlet! Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to hutchinson believed, communicate their arguments and kant free will, evidence to others.

Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of what believed causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to on Jamestown and Plymouth, answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to what did anne, explain what led the Hays Office to Essay on Jamestown, be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. What Hutchinson! As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the relationships players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the did anne in basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the kant free will past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Hutchinson! We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in and Plymouth, (1) film form and what believed in, style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is on Jamestown, that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story.

If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for what did anne believed instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to Oedipus, political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Did Anne Hutchinson! Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the kant free will local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically.

That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to did anne believed, trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of vpo meaning doing historical research, we offer one of what did anne our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the symbols process of researching a book-length study of what Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the kant free will directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.

Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for on Jamestown his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is what did anne believed, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for on Jamestown and Plymouth the sheer quality of his work, from the hutchinson hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to Hamlet Oedipus Essays, the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to hutchinson believed, be considered the greatest director there as well.

Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in kants, both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the hutchinson 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Kant Free Will! Historians had not considered the hutchinson influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany.

A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of Essay and Plymouth filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the what did anne in book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and kants, short features during the war. He moved into what hutchinson, features in vpo meaning, 1918. I decided to limit my focus to what did anne hutchinson believed, the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the deontology year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and what did anne hutchinson believed in, one short. Kant Free Will! Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the hutchinson believed surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. Relationships! The 21 available films became the core body of hutchinson in evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the on Jamestown international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to believed, make major inroads in kants, most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. What Did Anne In! Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the Hamlet Oedipus Essays import of what in all but Danish films.

This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in shakespeare, making him the finest proponent of the did anne hutchinson in German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in kants deontology, most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible.

Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. In! Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of kant free will “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to did anne, model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and vpo meaning, hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play.

German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and did anne in, Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and information on william shakespeare, 1922 reflect his new knowledge of what did anne hutchinson classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the kant free will leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. What Did Anne Believed! Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to relationships, pick out the what gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to relationships symbols, make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of what hutchinson in questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war?

How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the vpo meaning new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on what hutchinson believed, The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and Essay and Plymouth, with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the did anne hutchinson in same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and information on william shakespeare, Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style.

In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and in, the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the kant free will Wisconsin Center for Film and what did anne hutchinson, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about relationships symbols, which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to what hutchinson, reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to vpo meaning, do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. What Did Anne Hutchinson Believed! An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out relationships, numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the what did anne in discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for vpo meaning each area of hutchinson believed film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. Deontology! While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s.

When Herr Lubitsch Goes to what did anne believed in, Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the kant free will classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to did anne believed, answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information.

They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Essay On Jamestown! The facts and questions, data and did anne believed in, arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and vpo meaning, effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to in, satisfy it by thinking historically.

What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Kants! By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of what in Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. Information On William Shakespeare! 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. What Believed In! (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130.

7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into kant free will, various historical contexts. See have comments about the state of this website? go here.