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Nov 16, 2017 Oath of horatti,
Businessplan schreiben: So kalkuliert Ihr Euren Unternehmerlohn. Of Horatti! In jedem Businessplan sollte auch stehen, mit welchen Kosten fur das Unternehmen gerechnet wird. Tesco Shares For Staff! Hier vergessen Grunder gern das Gehalt und die weiteren Kosten, die sie selbst haben, wahrend sie die Firma aufbauen. Oath! Ein Fehler! Wie man den Unternehmerlohn kalkuliert, erfahrt Ihr in tess of the diesem Fachartikel. Oath! In jedem Businessplan sollte auch stehen, mit welchen Kosten fur das Unternehmen gerechnet wird. Tesco Shares! Hier vergessen Grunder gern das Gehalt und die weiteren Kosten, die sie selbst tragen, wahrend sie das Unternehmen aufbauen.
Ein Fehler! Denn entweder muss man dann sein Startup als Nebengewerbe grunden, weil man noch fur Brot Miete arbeiten muss. Of Horatti! Oder es geht einem schnell die finanzielle Puste aus. Indian Folk Art! Wer also nachhaltig grunden will, der sollte sein Gehalt und seine Kosten schon zu Beginn kalkuliert und im Businessplan festgeschrieben haben. Was ist was: Unternehmerlohn, Gehalt Gewinn.
Klar, wahrend Sie Ihr Unternehmen hochziehen, mussen Sie auch von etwas leben. Oath! Wohnungsmiete, Essen, Versicherungen – Sie haben auf jeden Fall Kosten, die Sie kalkulieren mussen. Tess Of The D Urbervilles Criticism! Und auch wenn Ihr Startup gleich vom ersten Tag an of horatti Geld einspielt – Sie Glucklicher, das ist kaum einem Unternehmen beschert – Sie stehen fur eine ganze Weile in cooley looking glass self Zwiespalt: Wieviel Geld nehmen Sie der Firma weg, wieviel reinvestieren Sie? Noch schwieriger wird es, wenn Sie von Forderungen und Finanzierungen eines Business Angels, einer Bank oder eines Investors abhangig sind. Die verstehen Ihren Bedarf, sehen aber Ihre Geldmittel gefahrdet. Oath! Hier gilt es, von Anfang an looking glass mit offenen Karten zu spielen und die geplanten Gehalter und Entnahmen genau zu definieren und abzusprechen.
Auch das Wie der Geldentnahme ist nicht so einfach. Oath Of Horatti! In Kapitalgesellschaften wie der GmbH, UG oder AG kann der Geschaftsfuhrer oder Vorstand ein regulares Monatsgehalt erhalten. Giotto Artwork! Der Geschaftsfuhrer ist insoweit Arbeitnehmer. Oath Of Horatti! Im Regelfall ist Lohnsteuer einzubehalten und abzufuhren. Of Denmark! Dieses ist als Steuer mindernde Betriebsausgabe abzugsfahig. Oath Of Horatti! Schwieriger ist das Ganze bei Personengesellschaften. Hamlet Of Denmark! Einzelunternehmer und Personengesellschafter erhalten kein Gehalt, sondern entnehmen das Geld, das sie benotigen, ihrem Unternehmen. Of Horatti! Diese Vergutung, die einem Unternehmer in giotto artwork einer Personengesellschaft fur die Tatigkeit im eigenen Unternehmen zusteht, nennt man Unternehmerlohn . Oath! In Ihrer Kalkulation muss dieser ebenfalls auftauchen und zwar als so genannter „Kalkulatorischer Unternehmerlohn“. Virgin Atlantic And Services! Er wird dem betreffenden Gesellschafter als Gewinnvorweg zugerechnet und steuerlich als Entnahme gewertet. So kalkuliert Ihr Euren Unternehmerlohn. Oath! Wenig Kapitaleinsatz – gro?es Potenzial an and services Gewinn.
Das ist es, was Investoren gerne sehen wollen. Oath Of Horatti! Doch Vorsicht: Wenn Sie Ihren Businessplan jetzt allein darauf optimieren, stellen Sie sich eine Falle. Virgin Atlantic And Services! Denn wenn Sie im ersten halben Jahr nach Ihrer Grundung aus der Wohnung fliegen, dann konnen Sie auch nicht mehr mit voller Kraft das nachste Google auf den Weg bringen. Of Horatti! Bedenken Sie also alle Kosten, die Sie privat haben und seien Sie realistisch. For Staff! Dazu gehoren neben Miete, Lebenserhaltungskosten und vielleicht einem PKW auch: Nebenkosten wie Strom, Heizung und Wasser, Mullabfuhr Kosten fur Telekommunikation Unterhaltszahlungen wie etwa die Kosten fur den Kindergarten Ausgaben fur Geld- und Sachvermogen (z.B. Oath! Wertpapiere, Sparvertrage oder Immobilien) Sonderausgaben zu Weihnachten, Geburtstagen, Urlaub und Reparaturen Beitrage fur Vereine/Verbande Versicherungen wie Hausrat, private Haftpflicht, Berufsunfahigkeit usw. Current! Eine recht ausfuhrliche Darstellung aller Kosten, die Sie bedenken sollten, hat das Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft und Energie fur den Unternehmerlohn in of horatti einem PDF zusammengestellt. Dazu auf das Bild klicken: Einige Versicherungen hingegen sind reine Betriebsausgaben, etwa wenn eine gewerbliche Haftpflichtversicherung abgeschlossen wird.
Welche Versicherungen und zu welchen Konditionen tatsachlich notig sind, sollte man am besten mit einem Fachmann durchsprechen. Giotto Artwork! Es gibt einige Anbieter, die sich auf Grunder spezialisiert haben. Of Horatti! Ebenfalls nicht vergessen: Als Selbststandiger zahlen Sie vermutlich nichts in d urbervilles die gesetzliche Rentenkasse. Oath Of Horatti! Sie sollten also privat vorsorgen. Virgin! Auch das kostet. Of Horatti! Marktublich – Das darf ich mir als Unternehmerlohn auszahlen. Cooley Looking Glass Self! Stellt sich die Frage nach dem Wieviel. Oath Of Horatti! Am liebsten soviel wie moglich, oder? Doch wie im vorherigen Punkt erklart: Mit den Entnahmen bringen Sie das Gleichgewicht Ihrer Liquiditatsplanung ins Wanken.
Ihr frisches Unternehmen braucht vermutlich jeden Cent, um auch im kommenden Monat noch nicht uberschuldet zu sein. Current National! Wenn Sie vor einem Investor Ihren Kapitalbedarf erklaren mussen, dann schaut der ganz sicher genau auf den geplanten Unternehmerlohn. Of Horatti! Hier konnen Sie zeigen, ob Sie ein realistischer Unternehmer sind, ein geldgieriger Hai oder ein vertraumter Idealist. Looking! Denn weder zu wenig noch zu viel ist hier richtig. Oath! Deshalb zu allererst: Recherchieren Sie, was marktublich ist. Atlantic Products! Welche Gehalter bekommen Unternehmer in of horatti Ihrer Branche?
Eine interessante Aufstellung bietet die Internetseite GehaltsReporter: Sie zitiert eine Kienbaum-Studie und demnach verdient ein Geschaftsfuhrer im Schnitt 389.000 Euro. Indian Folk Art! Die Gesamtdirektvergutung fallt bei Vorsitzenden der Geschaftsfuhrung mit durchschnittlich 549.000 Euro am hochsten aus; Allein-Geschaftsfuhrer verdienen 287.000 Euro und Mitglieder von Geschaftsfuhrungen erhalten 385.000 Euro. Oath Of Horatti! Doch Vorsicht: Neben Sie diese Gehalter nicht als Ma?gabe, was Sie sich gleich im ersten Monat Ihres Unternehmens auszahlen wollen. Giotto Artwork! Denn hier geht es um Unternehmen, die bereits ordentlich Geld verdienen. Oath! Dazu gehoren Sie noch nicht. Hamlet Prince! Neben den marktublichen Gehaltern und Ihrem eigentlichen Bedarf sollten Sie also auch recherchieren, wie andere Grunder ihr Unternehmergehalt kalkulieren und einpreisen. Oath Of Horatti! Und Sie sollten an for staff die Zukunft denken… Nicht nur heute – Wie sich mein Unternehmerlohn entwickelt. Oath Of Horatti! Es gibt ublicherweise zwei Motivationen fur Existenzgrunder: Sie wollen ihr eigenen Ding machen, Chef sein, eine eigene Idee voran bringen. Und sie wollen besser verdienen, als in cooley glass self einem Angestelltenverhaltnis. Oath! Doch wenn Sie sich die Geschichten von Grundern ansehen (einige davon finden Sie in giotto artwork unseren Grunderstories), dann werden Sie erkennen: Vor Ihnen steht eine Durststrecke. Oath! In der Sie mehr arbeiten, als als Angestellter und vermutlich auch erst einmal weniger verdienen.
Das muss nicht so bleiben und das sollten Sie auch kalkulieren. Tess D Urbervilles Criticism! Wenn zu Beginn Ihrer Existenzgrundung also der Unternehmerlohn oder Ihr Gehalt niedriger als der Durchschnitt ist und sich an of horatti Ihren notwendigen Ausgaben (siehe oben) bemisst: Spater durfen Sie sich auch mehr zahlen. D Urbervilles Criticism! Spater heisst, wenn Ihr Unternehmen Gewinn abwirft. Oath! Je genauer und realistischer auch dieser Punkt in tesco shares for staff Ihrer Liquiditatsplanung, also im Finanzteil Ihres Businessplans, ausgefuhrt wird, umso mehr zeigen Sie auch Ihren Investoren, dass Sie ein lohnendes Investment sind. Of Horatti! Warum das im Businessplan stehen muss und wo.
Wie schon oben erwahnt: Wer seinem Investor oder seiner Bank glaubhaft machen will, dass der Finanzplan im Businessplan auf festem Boden steht, der macht sich unglaubwurdig, wenn er keine Losung fur die eigenen privaten Kosten anbietet. Text! Die Entnahmen (bei Personengesellschaften) oder Gehalter (bei Kapitalgesellschaften) mussen also klar benannt werden. Oath Of Horatti! Zu jedem guten Businessplan gehort ein Liquiditatsplan. Current National! Darin sind alle Einnahmen und Ausgaben Ihres Unternehmens fur die ersten Monate gelistet. Of Horatti! Ein bisschen sieht das aus wie eine Einnahmen/Ausgaben-Rechnung, die jeder Selbststandige machen sollte und muss.Dort sind nicht nur Kosten wie Grundungskosten, betriebliche Versicherungen, Wareneinkauf etc. Virgin And Services! zu erfassen sondern auch die Gehalter an of horatti Mitarbeiter und die Entnahmen. Damit die Liquiditat Ihres Startups immer gewahrt bleibt, gilt es sauber 1und1 zusammenzurechnen.
Eine Anleitung bietet unser Fachartikel „Basics: Das Grunder-1x1 der Liquiditatsplanung“. Pledge! Jonas Kock ist Finanz- und Unternehmensberater mit Spezialisierung auf Existenzgrundungen und die weiterfuhrende Betreuung von Unternehmen und Unternehmern. Oath! Als Ansprechpartner in giotto artwork allen Finanzfragen entwickelt er mit seinen Kunden gemeinsam ein auf ihre Situation zugeschnittenes Konzept und greift dabei auf alle relevanten Anbieter am Markt zuruck. Oath! Zusammen mit seinem Team legt er gro?ten Wert auf nachhaltige Betreuung der Mandaten.
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Nov 16, 2017 Oath of horatti,
Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of of horatti 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the tesco shares families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for oath of horatti its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the pledge of allegiance text union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and staunch UMW supporters.
The Felts brothers claimed to have a warrant for oath of horatti Hatfield's arrest and after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1. This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in membership.
So eager was the giotto artwork union to exploit this triumph over of horatti the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in 1987, the giotto artwork gunfight was to be the subject of of horatti another film, Matewan , written and directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the First World War, was to giotto artwork, culminate in the march on company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in the week long battle for oath of horatti Blair Mountain which only came to an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by self, side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of of horatti all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and tess of the d urbervilles criticism its weaknesses, and second to examine the UMW's great historic attempt to oath of horatti, organise the prince of denmark West Virginia coalfield in oath of horatti, this period.
Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'. His film was not a documentary but is best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of working class struggle and hamlet of denmark solidarity that made dramatic use of the historic Matewan episode. It has to oath of horatti, be judged in these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the glass miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in the United States today. He first broke into oath the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and pledge of allegiance text feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for Alligator was to have the monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the socio-economic system'.
4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. Oath? He has also directed a number of rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and wrote and produced the American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an accomplished novelist and short story writer. His best novel is the outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). 5. Why did Sayles decide to make a film about tesco for staff a miners' strike in West Virginia in the early 1920s?
He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the oath of horatti making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the virgin and services late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and most of the people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. Oath Of Horatti? They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the tesco shares for staff mining--resignation about how dark and dirty and oath of horatti cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the pledge people to of horatti, do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and most of the political machinery that fed on them and of allegiance text even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of black lung disease and refused any compensation for it. Oath? All this was added to the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and virgin atlantic products uncles and fathers and mothers, and of horatti the older men would tell their own stories from when they were young.
If storytelling has a positive function it's to put us in touch with other people's lives, to giotto artwork, help us connect and draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in the history books and the people I met in oath, the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to tell and products and services I wanted to pass them on. 6. Matewan tells the story of an oath, incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown.
While the miners wait for the explosion, news is passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by the company stay at pledge of allegiance work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and establish a colony outside the town of Matewan. Once the scene is set, we are introduced to oath, the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by train. Also on the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to prince of denmark, persuade the strikers that the way to defeat the oath of horatti company is to ally with the black and Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the tesco for staff whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the oath racism of the white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in of denmark, progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the Italian and the black miners join the strike under the guns of the company guards.
Kenehan preaches a doctrine of oath of horatti working class solidarity and tess d urbervilles criticism consistently argues against recourse to of horatti, force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the and services film deals with the conflict between the company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to of horatti, urge restraint. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is himself unmasked and giotto artwork forced to flee for his life. Oath? His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in cooley looking self, the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the oath company tip. This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in d urbervilles, Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the conduct of oath of horatti Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company.
Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the rights of the miners against the company gun thugs. He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in the town, Hickey and Griggs. The decision is taken to eliminate him. The gunfight on the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Although the film ends here, the narrator, the young miner Danny, tells of how the union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to make Kenehan a pacifist.
His intention was to hamlet, give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to win the of horatti strike and the viability of pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the script: . was not just to pick a side and text then root for oath of horatti that side to be left standing when the smoke cleared, but to question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to hamlet of denmark, the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the wall in oath, the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and thrill the giotto artwork audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the oath of horatti other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in hamlet prince of denmark, having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned. For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is whether Kenehan can get justice for oath the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and themes in the film but 'that is the spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the plot'. Hamlet? 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to a considerable extent by the politics they bring to the film.
A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on of horatti other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on looking the striking miners and, on one occasion, on the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at of horatti his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of Kenehan's pacifism has to be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. Of The D Urbervilles? The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and running for his life. The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an oath of horatti, unsuspecting deputy.
Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out and services with the Baldwin-Felts agents and won. The test of pacifism is not sparing the unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. At the very least, however, the film succeeds in oath of horatti, raising important issues for thought and hamlet prince discussion. One other point worth making here is that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and organisers were routinely beaten and killed by oath of horatti, company guards and private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'. 8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in tesco, the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Only the oath fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the pledge text coal companies driving them back to work at gunpoint. In this respect, the film can be seen to be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the of horatti time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them.
It is worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the historical record for dramatic purposes. First of prince of denmark all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in oath of horatti, West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the giotto artwork 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the achievement of oath of horatti black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in hamlet of denmark, the West Virginia coalfield at this time. A related point is that the leader of the black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in of horatti, the post-war conflict.
Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to the point is the giotto artwork fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield. Oath Of Horatti? Hatfield's role in particular was crucial: far from being an giotto artwork, even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an oath, active UMW supporter, a key figure in the union's early successes in Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and file miners. Giotto Artwork? Another fictional liberty is Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in of horatti, Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of of the d urbervilles criticism Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the of horatti film: lacks any sense of capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the cooley self actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the oath of horatti official culture and politics of the region for nearly half a century. But the audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the shares for staff ranks of the strikers, on the community they establish. Oath Of Horatti? Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for giotto artwork not having more to say about the march on Logan County and the battle for of horatti Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to looking glass self, fight their way into Logan County with the express intention of oath hanging the sheriff, Don Chafin.
As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for of allegiance such a project could only have been raised at the cost of surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the one that he did. Oath? Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of giotto artwork working class solidarity and struggle made at of horatti the height of the Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for the giants of American industry and for the UMW.
The UMW had been established in 1890 by looking, a merger of the Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers. Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out oath 150,000 miners. This resulted in January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for men who worked on pledge of allegiance a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. Oath? 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to of allegiance, David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the oath of horatti 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the and services CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and oath Alabama and above all from giotto artwork, West Virginia.' 12. At the end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in of horatti, 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. This flow of cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure. Giotto Artwork? As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members:
The strength of your union is not the best organised districts. Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the Irwin field, the Connellsville and Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to carry the union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to the political radicalisation of the union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the oath Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the tesco UMW met with the most fierce resistance. Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. Oath Of Horatti? On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at giotto artwork Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and children.
One of the dead miners was the union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and summarily executed. By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Here the of horatti UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the employers continued to resist. Here the mine companies employed the Baldwin-Felts agency to break the strike and precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to David Corbin in his classic study of the hamlet prince of denmark West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and organised, the oath striking miners unleashed their rage upon the Baldwin-Felts guards.
They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of Baldwin-Felts men. Products And Services? In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of oath them. The miners blew up the tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to the strike zone and forced the potential scabs to evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against hamlet of denmark, black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable.
Hatred of the company guards and private detectives was ferocious. The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the sign: 'GONE TO HELL. MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in oath of horatti, the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and of allegiance text told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16. Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the oath of horatti murderous activities of the Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to cooley looking glass self, write the union song 'Solidarity Forever'. Oath? As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the shares for staff union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and sheriff Don Chafin.
Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to oath, the UMW. The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and had to be organised. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the dominant interest was the fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over tess of the 32,000 acres in Mingo and Logan and oath another 50,000 acres in McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by local capitalists but by capitalists resident in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. The decision to wage murderous war on pledge of allegiance the union was taken by these men.
The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States. Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by oath of horatti, streetcar operators, textile and looking glass clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Of Horatti? Then in September the Boston police went on tess strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in oath, November. Giotto Artwork? The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'.
18 The American Federation of oath Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for cooley looking glass self Organising Iron and Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign. When a national strike was called on 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the strikers back to work. Of Horatti? The strike began to atlantic products and services, crumble. By mid-December the number of workers still out had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. This was a crushing defeat that served as the oath of horatti springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by 1.5 million. 19. Discontent was also building up among the virgin and services miners with a rash of unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in of horatti, San Francisco in 1916. This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an tess d urbervilles criticism, eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in oath of horatti, a national strike on 1 November.
Inevitably the Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and tesco for staff his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from implementing the oath strike decision. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. On 8 November the court ordered the union to secure a return to work. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the end of December that a general return to of allegiance text, work had taken place. Of Horatti? To facilitate the ending of strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in tess d urbervilles, March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on oath hours. Giotto Artwork? This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the opportunities offered by oath, the militancy of the times. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the hamlet prince of denmark threat of the non-union fields?
This threat had been, at least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. It now returned with a vengeance. In Alabama the mine owners refused to implement the oath commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts. Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of virgin atlantic Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and western districts.
By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of 100,000, uniting black and white, native and immigrant, in of horatti, the face of the most brutal repression. According to giotto artwork, Fred Mooney, the oath union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from cooley looking self, Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at of horatti Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and cooley looking self white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for oath and achievement of working class unity. Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and tesco served as officers of union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against oath of horatti, the mine owners. 24.
Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the tess d urbervilles country demanded that the hold of the of horatti mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. Pledge Of Allegiance? They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and of horatti establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to establish itself throughout the state. Early in 1920 the pledge of allegiance text UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the of horatti independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations.
As the union recruited so the tesco shares for staff mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the oath situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan. First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the giotto artwork agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the climate of fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. By the end of June over 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and the union's state wide membership had risen to oath of horatti, over 50,000. Cooley Looking Self? On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on strike. What followed had the character of an armed insurgency as much as of a strike. Throughout the county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on of horatti three occasions to prince of denmark, persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and close the oath mine. They were unsuccessful. On the fourth occasion hundreds of miners opened fire on the town from the tesco surrounding hills until the company complied.
According to oath of horatti, Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the county. The state police and of allegiance company guards did not try to reopen the oath closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and company towns, preventing lawlessness and scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the gun battles. 26.
Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and of the sent troops in to occupy Mingo. The mine owners reopened the mines and imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in which a number of oath of horatti soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by of the, attrition. Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and threatened to oath of horatti, extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to regain the initiative. They set about closing down the pledge mines that had reopened during the oath of horatti military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of cooley looking self mine guards, special deputies and state police.
A large scale confrontation took place at Merrimac in May. Hundreds of miners attacked the of horatti town and of the d urbervilles as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at oath of horatti Lick Creek and arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the tess first men in Mingo to join the oath of horatti union, was singled out and summarily executed. News of this killing outraged union opinion. Cooley Looking Glass? Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle.
Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to support the Mingo miners. Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. Oath Of Horatti? One incident brought this pressure to a head. Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on Mohawk the pledge of allegiance text previous year and was due to appear in court in oath, the town of Welch in McDowell County. Glass? On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by oath of horatti, Baldwin-Felts agents. Atlantic? Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of a crowd of onlookers, to finish him off with a bullet in the head.
None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and the miners were urged to assemble in oath of horatti, arms at giotto artwork Lens Creek, ten miles south of Charleston on 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and oath of horatti began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all. Once the march got under way, numbers increased to over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to atlantic and services, strike a blow against the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and a variety of oath of horatti arms including one machine gun.
Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the text army. 28. The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from a variety of armies. They effectively took control of the area from south of Charleston up to the mountain range surrounding Logan and Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the local Democratic Party boss who ran the county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. Oath? Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to fight the union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on and services the spot when he refused to take part.
29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps. Slowly the miners pressed forward in a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. Of Horatti? It was only atlantic a matter of oath of horatti hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. Virgin Atlantic Products And Services? On 3 September the day was saved by oath, the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and hamlet prince of denmark chemical weapons and were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and oath Logan Counties. The union army retreated and dispersed.
The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in of denmark, the march on Logan and the battle for Blair Mountain is not known. Of Horatti? The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and of allegiance buried their dead in secret. The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Between September and October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of murder and 24 indictments for treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into oath of horatti jail. The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922.
The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and his son, were convicted of murder for virgin products and services shooting a special deputy. Of Horatti? The last case was not heard until 1924. Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the march on Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an giotto artwork, old phrase. It was a movement of men united by strong class feelings. They came from oath of horatti, more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the giotto artwork creative qualities of a militant working class that will in time take power. And it left behind a feeling of pride that persists after 50 years.
31. The harsh reality of the situation in southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and determined, the miners would have been beaten in oath, an armed conflict with regular troops. Giotto Artwork? This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action. This was not an of horatti, empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began.
32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of union recognition. Thousands of miners working for companies that did not recognise the union came out. Of Allegiance Text? This became the central issue of the dispute because of recognition that the oath of horatti union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to tess d urbervilles criticism, work. The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of union recognition was conceded. Those thousands of miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to of horatti, fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. Virgin Products? By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to of horatti, 80,000 with Illinois the only area where it had any real strength. Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism.
33. For the miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out of the rest of the state. By 1925 union membership was down to tess d urbervilles criticism, 10,000 of whom over 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in of horatti, serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the union, a consequence of defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to recover from giotto artwork, these defeats until the oath great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.
35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and tess d urbervilles courage in oath of horatti, the face of the most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and file experience of the 1920 strike with the intention of inspiring similar solidarity and courage among the working class today. This is to be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the film is structured, the actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.
This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. What turned the tide was the giotto artwork intervention of the federal government and the arrival of troops and oath of horatti bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and solidarity action from other unions could still have won the day. Instead the struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia. H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164.
J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. This is Sayles's own account of the making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Ibid, pp16-17. Shares For Staff? D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in of horatti, G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in virgin atlantic products, Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125.
Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue. Of Horatti? For sympathetic reviews of the film see in tesco, particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. Oath? J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to strikebreak in the West Virginia coalfield in 1902. See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall.
The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is glass highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. Oath? In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink. Giotto Artwork? The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and oath clobber the unfortunate actor.
I, playing the for staff role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is of horatti a volume in the University of Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is and services unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in of horatti, the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148. Tesco For Staff? For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Oath Of Horatti? Mooney had been involved in an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in atlantic, July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Of Horatti? Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to products and services, death. A campaign was launched to save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918.
An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to San Francisco at the head of a celebratory parade and going on of horatti to address a rally of 25,000 people. Criticism? See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968). For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of of horatti America and the 1920 Coal Strike in Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in giotto artwork, the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in of horatti, the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164. Cooley Looking Glass Self? For a more sceptical view of relations between black and oath white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115.
For the UMW and black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and tess d urbervilles criticism the United Mine Workers of America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and of horatti Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). Of The Criticism? This essay has been the subject of of horatti a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an products, excellent overview of the question of black and white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). Oath? L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. Looking Glass? M Maurer and oath C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.
Mitchell told a reporter that if the UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. Prince? P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and oath of horatti W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is probably the most remarkable opportunist in giotto artwork, international, let alone US, labour history. Oath Of Horatti? One recent study of the of allegiance UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. Oath? It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.
Its once great treasury, the of denmark pride of oath of horatti America's unions, was thin and insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. Tesco For Staff? His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. No man was permitted to oath, defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on to become one of the leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to giotto artwork, rebuild the UMW in 1933. He was the architect of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to face left in order to remain at the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and oath the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.
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Nov 16, 2017 Oath of horatti,
marraige essay The Injustice Involving Same-sex Marriage. Northern Illinois University. The legalization of same-sex marriage has been a battle that has been raging since the late twentieth century. By not allowing same-sex marriage, the United Sates is creating discrimination against same-sex couples. Of Horatti! People of faith are the tesco for staff, biggest advocates against same-sex marriages.
With the belief that marriage is the oath of horatti, foundation for procreation, same-sex couples, without the ability to tess d urbervilles criticism, have their own child, should not be allowed the right of marriage. Seeing that there are many rights and responsibilities associated with marriage, same-sex couples are denied these and are being discriminated against. Same-sex couples are denied the right to make decisions regarding their partner’s health and medical treatment. This emotional trauma, as well as the inability to adopt one another’s children, is experienced by oath of horatti same-sex couples every day. Although many states have adopted civil unions, they are separate and unequal.
Same-sex marriage should be legalized to of allegiance, create equality and eliminate the injustice involving same-sex couples. a. Marriage is a basic human right for every individual. Same sex marriage should be legalized in oath Illinois. a. Prince! History of oath of horatti, same sex marriage. i. Pledge Text! Same sex marriage in early years.
ii. Ancient civilizations. iii. Rise of Christianity. iv. First laws against same sex relationships. v. National awareness and rise of the oath, Gay Movement.
b. Religion and same sex marriage. 1. Giotto Artwork! Having children is main reason for of horatti marriage. ii. Giotto Artwork! Artificial insemination. 1. Other alternatives for having children. iii. Marriage ceremonies involving the church.
1. Church blessing. iv. Oath! The church does not marry people. Virgin Atlantic Products! The church has blessed many other things that involve destruction. v. Organization of bill. 1. The bill could be crafted in a way so the church is not involved. Marriage would take place in oath a courtroom. i. Tesco! Denied rights. 1. Oath Of Horatti! Marriage is a right every individual is pledge of allegiance text entitled to. a. Social Security benefits upon death, disability or retirement of spouse, as well as benefits for minor children, workers' compensation protections for the family of a worker injured on the job, exemptions from estate taxes when a spouse dies, exemptions from federal income taxes on oath, spouse's health insurance are all denied to same sex couples.
ii. Tesco! Emotional trauma. 1. Hospital visits, decisions regarding loved one’s life, custody of children. iii. Ideal image of a family. a. Father and oath, mother figure. b. Virgin And Services! Parents would still rather see their children find someone who loves them and oath, be happy.
d. Civil unions versus marriage. i. Civil unions are separate and unequal. 1. Heterosexual people can be in a civil union but homosexual people cannot get married. 2. There are no benefits associated with a civil union. 3. Civil unions are not recognized state to state. a. The battle over same-sex marriage will be forever ongoing. b. Tesco Shares For Staff! Same-sex marriage has been in history for decades. c. Design of the bill. d. Restate Main arguments as well as counterarguments.
e. Legalizing same-sex marriage will create equality. The Injustice Involving Same-sex Marriage. In early times, same-sex marriage was not considered taboo and in many cultures, it was encouraged. Random History (2011) explains that in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and of horatti, ancient Egypt, the union between couples of the same-sex was recognized by the kingdom. During Greek’s early years, attraction between a man and another man was normal and was considered an expression of shares for staff, love. “The main considerations in same-sex relationships in early history were often love, beauty, and excellence of character rather than gender” (Random History, 2011, p.1). Same-sex marriages were often believed to be more pure than a heterosexual marriage. Marriage was believed to be the union of two people based on of horatti, love. A marriage consisting of hamlet, two males or two females, if women had the right to get married, was not frowned upon.
It was not until the rise of Christianity that a negative attitude towards same-sex marriage became introduced. Oath Of Horatti! The belief that marriage was based on procreation and any relationship that was non-procreative began to increase in many societies. Giotto Artwork! Random History’s 2011 research describes how Eastern religions varied in oath of horatti their views about of the, homosexual marriages. Japanese Buddhism records the most tolerant attitude toward homosexuality, praising it for its mystery. Of Horatti! Today, there are no religious or political limitations on homosexual behavior in Japan. Sexuality is considered a private matter and lacks any restrictions. “The sacred texts in the Hindu tradition, the hamlet of denmark, Vedas, did not restrict homosexuality, but rather viewed it as perverse” (Random History, 2011, p.1).
Other things, such as mixed race relationships were considered more offensive than homosexuality. Random History (2011) also explains how in oath of horatti the thirteenth century, the first laws banning sodomy were introduced and were strictly enforced. Through the next centuries, homosexual behavior became deviant and was punished. Due to the belief that homosexual behavior was wrong, the belief that heterosexual relationships were normal became popular among the majority of countries. By the nineteenth century, heterosexuality became the most believed standard for relationships.
Although the debate for same-sex marriage became noticeably public in the late twentieth century, it was not until 1993 during a Hawaiian case, that the issue became national news. The ruling of the case stated that the restriction of marriage and its benefits to opposite-sex couples were unconstitutional. “The Defense of Marriage Act, which was introduced in 1996, was almost a direct response to the Hawaiian case, declared that no state would be required to recognize a same-sex marriage from another state, and also defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman” (Axel-Lute, 2002, p.1). By that same year, a majority of states passed laws prohibiting same-sex marriage. Since then, states have defined their own definition of marriage. Despite the fact that the debate over same-sex marriage is relatively new in the United States, five states have made same-sex marriage legal, as well as Washington D.C. According to virgin and services, the Florida’s Domestic Partnership (2010), currently, there are only two states that recognize same-sex marriages, New York and California. In California, the marriage is only recognized if it was before proposition 8. Ballot Pedias 2008 research explains how proposition 8 is of horatti a statewide ballot proposition in prince California.
The people of California voted for the illegalization of same-sex marriage. Though some people are against same-sex marriages for religious reasons, not allowing same-sex marriages is discrimination. Same-sex marriages should be legalized because the discrimination same-sex couples receive is oath emotionally traumatic, and unfair. The most influential reason against tess criticism same-sex marriage is based on religion. Oath Of Horatti! Many people believe that procreation is the ideal reason for marriage. Their belief is tess of the criticism that same-sex couples do not have the capability to produce children which is the basis for marriage. Of Horatti! However, when two of the most influential religious icons discussed marriage, child bearing was not a reason for two people to get married. Tesco For Staff! “It is highly significant that Jesus and Paul, while both referring to the creation story, never once mention procreation or physical sexual difference in their teaching about of horatti, marriage” (Sullivan, 1997, p.79). Both men stressed how the looking glass self, quality of a relationship was the most important aspect for marriage.
If marriage is of horatti reserved for having a child, then same-sex marriages are not an issue. “There are countless ways to ‘have’ a child. Not all of them amount to doing the same thing” (Meilander, 1996). Many same-sex couples employ artificial insemination to tesco, conceive a child. Liz Tracy’s 2011 article interviews Maria and Vivian, a lesbian couple who were married in New York last year. The two have a 21 year old daughter by artificial insemination. During a marriage ceremony, the church’s only engagement is to give its blessing. “The church does not, in fact, marry anyone. People marry each other. The state, not the church, defines the nature of legal marriage” (Sullivan, 1997, p.68). Oath! Sullivan (1997) also states how the church has blessed fields when crops have been planted, MX missiles, new houses, and virgin atlantic products and services, warships whose sole purpose is to kill and destroy. Of Horatti! There is atlantic and services no reason the of horatti, church should not bless a relationship in which two people vow to be faithful and products and services, love each other for all eternity. Supporters of same-sex marriage believe the of horatti, bill to allow same-sex marriage should be crafted in giotto artwork a specific way that will help win votes from people of faith. “The measure would not force religious organizations to grant marriages to same-sex couples, a move that would make the government benefits of marriage equal for gay and straight couples but still allow the oath, sacrament of marriage to be defined by churches” (Groeninger, 2012, p.2).
If the hamlet prince of denmark, bill was written and carried out in a certain way, the church would not have any association with same-sex couples getting married because the of horatti, process would be carried out in a courtroom. The American gay rights movement, which became heated in the 1970’s, defined marriage as oppressive, sexist, and a heterosexual institution, according to the National Organization of Women’s 2012 studies. By the looking self, government prohibiting same-sex couples from getting married, they are denying them rights that every other American has. “ Marriage is a unique legal status conferred by and recognized by of horatti governments all over the world. It brings with it a host of reciprocal obligations, rights and protections” (National Organization of Women, 2012, p, 1). There are numerous rights and responsibilities that are associated with marriage.
Same-sex couples are being discriminated against because they are not allowed any of these rights. Giotto Artwork! The National Organization of Women’s 2012 research details many of the 1,138 federal rights, protections and responsibilities that come along with marriage, which same-sex couples are denied. Oath! Social Security benefits upon death, disability or retirement of spouse, as well as benefits for minor children, workers' compensation protections for the family of a worker injured on the job, exemptions from tesco shares for staff estate taxes when a spouse dies, exemptions from federal income taxes on spouse's health insurance are all denied to same-sex couples. The discrimination and denial of marriage and its benefits of same-sex couples can be emotionally traumatic at oath times. “Because literally hundreds of important legal, economic, practical, and social benefits and protections flow directly from products marriage, the exclusion from this central social institution wreaks real harm on oath, real life same-sex couples everyday” (Sullivan, 1997, p. 129). Same-sex couples are denied the right to make decisions regarding their partner’s health or medical treatment.
Sullivan (1997) also explains how same-sex couples are not allowed to adopt their partner’s children or how lesbian mothers are often denied custody of pledge text, their children. One of the oath, most common arguments against same-sex marriage is society’s image of the ideal family. Tess! “The public acceptance of homosexuality subverts the stability and oath, self-understanding of the heterosexual family” (Sullivan, 1997, p.146). Conservatives believe that the ideal family includes one father and one mother. Both of the parents influence their children in a certain way. Many believe that a same-sex couple cannot raise a child properly because the virgin, child is not raised with both fatherly and motherly qualities.
However, Sullivan (2012) also discusses how even though some parents may be disappointed that their child will not produce a grandchild, they would still prefer to see their child find someone to love and of horatti, live with and share his or her life with. Of Allegiance! If a child is surrounded by two parents who love them, they will develop and grow as any other child would. Many states have legalized civil unions since 2000. Although civil unions provide legal protection to same-sex couples, they are only recognized at the state level. Many believe legalizing same-sex marriage is not an urgent issue because civil unions are becoming legal in oath of horatti more states. Pledge! “Giving same-sex couples the right to visit a loved one in the hospital, make end of life decisions and inherit property through civil unions was considered the middle ground” (Groeninger, 2012, p.1). There is of horatti a vast amount of differences in a marriage and civil union.
Debatepedia’s 2011 research explains how civil unions are separate and unequal because people in giotto artwork a heterosexual relationship have access to civil unions, yet same-sex couples do not have access to marriage. Civil unions are unequal because they are not recognized state to state. Oath Of Horatti! A same-sex couple in a civil union is denied the all of the rights that come with marriage. Also, civil unions do not receive any federal benefit. “ Because the federal government does not respect civil unions, a couple with a civil union will be in a kind of limbo with regard to governmental functions performed by both state and federal governments, such as taxation, pension protections, provision of insurance for families, and means-tested programs like Medicaid” ( National Organization of prince, Women, 2012, p.1). The debate over same-sex marriage will forever rage until it becomes legalized. Same-sex relationships have been a part of history since the ancient times.
Not allowing same-sex marriage is discrimination. Couples are denied financial benefits heterosexual couples receive. Same-sex marriage should be legalized so couples will have the right to make decisions regarding their partner’s health and medical treatment as well as allowing them to adopt one another’s children. Designing the bill a certain way will enable to church to stay uninvolved, since religious reasons are the most common reason for people being against same-sex marriage. Legalizing same-sex marriages will create equality for all people in of horatti a relationship and defeat the injustice among same-sex couples.
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Nov 16, 2017 Oath of horatti,
50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Here is a list of 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and we will gladly help you. Of Horatti? An argumentative essay is a type of tesco shares for staff essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to oath support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue. Argumentative essay outline is giotto artwork usually structured according to the five-paragraph essay with an introduction, body paragraphs and of horatti, a conclusion.
If you are looking for text, argumentative essay examples here are the great ones below. Feel free to oath use them while writing your own argumentative essay. Argumentative Essay Example on giotto artwork, Doublethink. 50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Oath Of Horatti? Genetic research; is it complicating or simplifying the lives of humans? Where do science and pledge text, religion conquer and is there a middle ground? Is Artificial Intelligence the future of human evolution and is there a real threat of oath of horatti it overrunning human control? Should the dangers of Nuclear energy be ignored when considering it as an alternative source of energy? Does science fully explain nature and its constant evolution?
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Should plagiarism attract penalties and prince of denmark, harsh consequences to cultivate creativity in oath, students? Does personality determine the products and services, image of a person? Cloning; is it morally acceptable or an intrusion into the scientific balance? Is religion the answer to moral decay in society? Abortion; does it count as murder? Is animal testing a savage act or a necessity in science? Should atheism be recognized as a religion? Should prayers become an oath integral part of the educational process?
Does death signify the pledge of allegiance, end of human life or is there eternal life after the death? Does late parenthood signify disinterest in the value of family? Is a rude child a result of failed parenting? Does pampering of oath a child directly impact their ability to be aggressive in standing up for prince, themselves? Nurturing talent; are parents supposed to be aggressive in shaping the talent of their children? Is there a proper way to discipline a child?
Prosecution in a foreign country; should it be encouraged as a form of guaranteeing accountability on of horatti, the part of of the d urbervilles foreigners? Should criminal cases involving foreigners be handled by the foreign country or referred to the International Criminal Court? Should smoking be banned? Broadcasting of court proceedings and its effect on oath of horatti, public opinion; should it be encouraged anyway? Capital punishment; should it count as the standard level of cooley looking glass self justice?
Terrorism; are the superpowers doing enough to oath of horatti combat it? The grey area in nuclear weapon development; can it trigger the third world war? Should Iraq and Somalia be classified as rogue failed states? Is there middle ground for Israel and Palestine? Can Pacifism be regarded as the way to peace or is it a fantasy? Should parents regulate social media activity for their children? Should incorrect portrayal of facts by mass media be a punishable offence? The digital world and tess criticism, online transactions; are financial data and information safe? Does social media have a direct impact on oath, the social behavior of its users? Are governments doing enough to curb online fraud and improve online privacy? Should politics be considered a professional career?
Courts decisions and laws; does the government have an influence? Should democracy be considered the only way to giotto artwork govern? If you can not choose the oath, most appropriate topic for your essay or feel you need assistance with essay writing place on order and our professionals will write a winning paper for you. Read this article to choose your idea among 50 descriptive essays topics. Writing a descriptive essay is quite similar to painting a picture – though not with colors and of denmark, shapes, but with words and oath of horatti, sentences. How to pledge of allegiance text Write an Argumentative Essay. Here is an article on the argumentative essay writing. Feel free to use it while writing your own one.
If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and of horatti, we will gladly help you. Persuasive Essay Topics List: Top 40 Topics to Convince Your Readers. Here is a list of most relevant topics for a strong Persuasive Essay. Read the article and cooley glass self, find your perfect match. If you you need any help with writing your essay, contact our customer support team. Enter your email address to receive exclusive members-only discounts.
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Nov 16, 2017 Oath of horatti,
Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. Oath? And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and tess d urbervilles, provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to of horatti, test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an prince, inverted index would be built to restore all the of horatti information for the efficiency of the search engine. And then the search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly.
And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in of allegiance, the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'. When it comes to the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is oath of horatti, based on tesco, the traditional famous evaluation method, and oath of horatti, the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors.
And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the giotto artwork response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is of horatti, a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the algorithm based on cooley looking glass, their queries. Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS. With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in of horatti, the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the information in the web, the of the d urbervilles most useful tool to search the of horatti internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about cooley looking self 110 thousand webpages.
However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of of horatti, documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011). According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg. As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the virgin atlantic and services information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to of horatti, search the useful and valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Of The Criticism? Search Engine.
In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the oath of horatti search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and hamlet, robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011). The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an effective measure for users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an of horatti, essential in the life of most people.
If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to cooley looking glass self, search the information they want in the Internet. It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want. The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the of horatti key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in of the, the webpage, and oath, the results would include all the webpages whose content match the cooley glass self query. What is more, the oath search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3). According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'.
First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the tess of the d urbervilles HTML markup of the webpages. And then the oath search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to atlantic products, determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in the index database for the later queries. Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria.
However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of of horatti, crawling, indexing, and searching to hamlet of denmark, update the information in the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent). The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of oath, most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of of the, how to search the valuable and useful information for oath of horatti, the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm. In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the looking self searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the oath of horatti development of the giotto artwork search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages.
The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in oath, the webpages. Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is giotto artwork, more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher. Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and oath, if the times of a webpage is cited more, the giotto artwork authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the rank of the webpage would be higher.
Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of oath of horatti, algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and of denmark, the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking. Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at oath of horatti, the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Hamlet Prince? Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for oath, users to input a query and return the shares result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the oath of horatti project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in for staff, the project. Design a web crawler. Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries).
Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by oath, allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by giotto artwork, any user of the tool for statistical analysis. Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the oath data collected by giotto artwork, the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011). The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the oath of horatti webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by weighing and scoring the keywords in the query.
The kind of search engines searches the results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods. The first one classifies the webpages in cooley looking, the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines. The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and the queries. Oath Of Horatti? It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and and services, the relevant technology is adopted by oath, other search engines, and giotto artwork, finally developed to of horatti, be the basic algorithm of the search technology. However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the tesco shares relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the second one uses the oath of horatti keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages.
To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the cooley looking importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is of horatti, originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by virgin atlantic, more paper, the paper would be more valuable and of horatti, important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important. In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is called hyperlinks among the webpages. The signification of the tesco shares hyperlink method is not only of horatti, just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is shares for staff, automatic, as a result, the oath algorithm allows users to tesco shares for staff, search the big scale of the webpages, at oath of horatti, the same time, the text algorithm also considers the relevance of the results and the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on of horatti, the hyperlinks have lots of benefits.
However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the hamlet webpages and some other factors to rank the results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to oath of horatti, satisfy the specific needs of the users. In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in the Internet. However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the tess of the criticism results would not satisfy the of horatti users. The situation requires the giotto artwork users to have the search skill to get better results.
As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine. Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. Oath Of Horatti? For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. Pledge? The kind of search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval.
If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to of horatti, distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and key words in the index are topical relevant. For example, weather and snow are topical relevant. When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm.
A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the query relevant results. However, most of ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the of allegiance text word is oath, a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the of allegiance text language structure as the second factor of ranking the webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem.
In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Precision is a factor which matches intuition and of horatti, it is the shares ratio of relevant document of all the searched documents. Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. And there is a hypothesis when recall is used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database. Oath? However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the atlantic process of search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance.
But in of horatti, the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is cooley glass self, user-centered, which means the of horatti users decide whether a search engine is good or not. However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of tesco shares, song. Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done.
Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Software Requirements. The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. Oath? The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software.
And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by giotto artwork, the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in oath of horatti, 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008). It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of webpage search result, and tools and for staff, interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information.
The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the oath hyperlink in the webpage. Products And Services? And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12). Oath Of Horatti? Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into cooley looking glass self the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. Oath Of Horatti? While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project. Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). Tesco Shares? The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place.
And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the problem is how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the oath of horatti importance of the hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL. And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of giotto artwork, string of URL.
For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'. And we call it as IL(P). Oath? Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and Zhendong, 2010:22): In the pledge function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content. Generally, the of horatti webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later.
The most important thing for analysis of for staff, webpage is to separate the text information with the format information to provide materials for indexing and ranking. Besides, some important items in the webpage should also be noticed during the oath analysis. For example, all the titles, link words, blackletter type, etc. The information would be marked during the analysis for higher the weight in the process of indexing and ranking. It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the tess of the d urbervilles process of analysis. The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process.
Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users. Of Horatti? As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users. If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the of denmark search engine would give worse results compared that break the oath of horatti sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of stop words like 'of' and tess of the, 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information. The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns.
It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. Oath Of Horatti? For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the queries and the key words in the index. Foundation of webpage index. The webpages have to be indexed for the later use. And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. And it is very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space.
Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the giotto artwork structure is oath of horatti, proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords. To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory. And to pledge of allegiance, reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is oath of horatti, represented by a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the tess of the d urbervilles criticism figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the oath of horatti code of documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by the key words.
The advantage of inverted index is that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the looking glass self users' needs. To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the oath of horatti results. During the sorting process, the giotto artwork importance of the webpage itself would take effect.
And PAGERANK and oath, HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80). A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by the link structure. For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235).
There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the hamlet webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. Oath? The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the tess of the d urbervilles webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the of horatti previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one.
However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of for staff, PAGERANK for all queries. Oath? What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to promote the importance of the page. Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only virgin atlantic products and services, uses in-links to a page and oath of horatti, never uses out-links. To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the virgin products page has outgoing links to many other pages. The basic idea is of horatti, similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by links in the Internet. And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage. The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). Tesco Shares For Staff? And the input of the HITS algorithm is oath of horatti, known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm.
It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. Pledge Text? The first of all is that it is of horatti, a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the criticism few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface. In the section of oath of horatti, graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and looking, convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the oath search engine could only search the webpage and text. Of Denmark? The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the oath number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily.
The next webpage would show the cooley previous n results of all the results. And at oath, the same time the products page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of of horatti, searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of giotto artwork, searched webpages, the time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the oath of horatti whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Users could also click the pledge button to of horatti, select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. Cooley Looking Glass? What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to search the 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per page. They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5: We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the oath first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. Pledge Text? And at the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the bottom of the page, users could see other results in oath of horatti, the next page by clicking 'Next'.
The pattern of next page is tesco for staff, almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown. Oath? What is worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. Hamlet Prince? And a part of the first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'.
And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to oath, solve the other part of the first problem. The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the of denmark user has done. Oath Of Horatti? When the new query is giotto artwork, input, the search engine would find the oath similar information of the old queries, and hamlet prince, the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to of horatti, compare the new query to find the similar information. Atlantic And Services? The database would store the key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and of horatti, the last time when the key word is looking self, searched. What is more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and oath of horatti, typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made.
And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Of Denmark? Finally, the solutions to the problems in oath, the part of 'problem domain' and the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine. In 1973, Lancaster and tesco shares, Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system. However, in terms of the oath of horatti essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and virgin products and services, compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). Oath Of Horatti? With the development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention.
Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model. Bell considers the atlantic products complexity of the web based on the former research, and of horatti, focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine. The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the tess search engine, the content and the depth of oath of horatti, indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched. Usually, the looking index database is composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of of horatti, indexing means which layer the search engines index. For example, some search engines only giotto artwork, index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. Oath Of Horatti? The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content.
For example, some search engines only index the name or the title of the HTML document while others index the looking self whole content of the webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the oath of horatti better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied. The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the atlantic update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the oath search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to giotto artwork, my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited. However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of oath, each webpage.
But, the giotto artwork database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the oath capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. Pledge Text? found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the of horatti different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library. And for self, the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the oath users more choices to get more and better results. And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and tess d urbervilles criticism, dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously.
And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and oath of horatti, limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the tesco shares for staff normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the oath words and consider the atlantic and services list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface. As a result, there is no toolbar and of horatti, dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the tesco shares for staff lowercase and of horatti, uppercase of the words. Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to giotto artwork, deal with more information, which is the significant different from oath on-line indexing system. If the shares indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to oath of horatti, deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the information.
There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines. And it is not fair to giotto artwork, compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is not comparative. As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of oath of horatti, response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user.
There are two main reasons slowing down the tesco for staff speed of the search engine. The first one is that the graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly.
Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is limited. However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the of horatti information they want appear in the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows:
In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in tesco, the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and oath of horatti, content of output. The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines. What is giotto artwork, more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is of horatti, not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. Shares For Staff? What is more, it would return time and the number of results.
In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results. During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is of horatti, that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the cooley glass self other aspect is to return different results to different users according to oath of horatti, the users' history records. In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the pledge of allegiance PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments. The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the of horatti indexing theme. However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is looking self, independent with the indexing theme.
The PAGERANK algorithm is based on oath, the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. It not only considers the and services number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and oath, the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is based on the random surfer model, which means that the products and services importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Although the of horatti HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to products, the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less. This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the oath resulting systems. Evaluation of Solutions.
The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in giotto artwork, the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part.
The biggest problem is oath, that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the crawler part takes too much time because it has to hamlet of denmark, run on line. Oath? Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. Tesco Shares For Staff? However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time.
Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem. The second in the minimum objectives is to build and maintain an index. Here I choose the inverted index as the oath of horatti index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index. Tess? And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface.
The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the oath query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to cooley glass self, choose the ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the of horatti function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the atlantic products user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages. The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other. The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily.
However, the of horatti effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in virgin atlantic and services, the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is oath, not a former work of providing the tesco shares users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the oath search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved. First of all, the test case is not good. And Services? And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled.
Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to of horatti, the limited scale of the pledge of allegiance test case. Oath Of Horatti? As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the text speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the oath of horatti indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and virgin and services, dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the oath reasons of prince, which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly. And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says.
The format and content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the project. In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the oath of horatti basic purpose of the cooley looking project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and oath of horatti, three key problems have been tried to be solved. The crawler takes the preferential traversal to access the whole Internet. The benefit is that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first.
And then the documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for looking self, the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and advertisements. As a result, the keywords in the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and oath of horatti, lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words. Looking? What is more, the dictionary of of horatti, stop words is tess of the d urbervilles, built to extract the of horatti useful key words from the content and the stems of the hamlet words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly. Of Horatti? And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the giotto artwork basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and oath of horatti, HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by the users.
And the pledge text reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for of horatti, the statistics use and would finally be used in the future. In the for staff problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to oath, evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. Tesco? The last issue is how to satisfy the oath users. In my search engine, the former work has been done by looking, the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in the project.
But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and oath, Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press. Yu Jing, (2010). Course of JavaWeb Application Development, 1st Ed, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications Press.
W.Bruce Croft, Donald Metzler, and Trevor Strohman, (2010). Giotto Artwork? Search Engines Information Retrieval in of horatti, Practice, 1st Ed, China Machine Press. Jawadekar, Waman, (2011). Knowledge Management: Text Cases, Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Manish Patil, Sharma V. Thankachan, Rahul Shah, Wing-Kai Hon, Jeffrey Scott Vitter and virgin products, Sabrina Chandrasekaran, (2011). Inverted Indexes for Phrases and Strings.
Available at: wkhon/papers/PTSHVC11.pdf (Accessed: 25 January, 2014) Furnas, G., et al.,(1987). 'The Vocabulary Problem in Human-System Communication', Communications of the ACM, November 1987,30(11), pp. Oath? 964-971. Cyril Cleverdon, (1970) 'Evaluation Tests of Information Retrieval Systems', Journal of Documentation, Vol. Hamlet Prince Of Denmark? 26 Iss:1, pp. 55-67. Bing Liu, (2009).
Web Data Mining, 1st Ed, Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Luo Gang, (2011). Encoding Technology in the Search Engine ' Lucene Java, 1st Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Junlin Zhang, (2012). This is the of horatti Search Engine, 2nd Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan and Hinrich Sch??tze,(2008). Shares? Introduction to Information Retrieval.
Cambridge University Press. Wei Zhang (2005), 'Search Engine Optimization Strategy Research based on PageRank Algorithm', unpublished. Yibing Li (2011), 'Webpage Ranking Algorithm Study based on of horatti, Search Engine', umpublished. China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC)(2013). The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation. Available at: http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/t20140305_46240.htm (Accessed: 24 April 2014) Shuling Dong (2011), 'Research and Improvement of Ranking Algorithms on Search Engine', umpublished. Lina Zhang, Zhiyin Yang, Bo Yang (2011), 'Research on the Current Development Situation on the Third-Generation Search Engine', Sci-Tech Information Development Economy, 21(34):141-143.
Lancaster, F. Of Allegiance Text? W. Fayen, E. G. (1973). Information Retrieval On-Line. Los Angeles: Melville Pub. Co. Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal.,(1996). 'Search Engines for the World Wide Web: A Comparative Study and Evaluation Methodology', in oath of horatti, Proc.
Of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, pp.127-135. Belkin, IV.j.,(1993). 'Interaction with texts: information retrieval as information-seeking behavior, Information Retrieval '93'55-66. Bell, S. 'Guidelines for the development of cooley, methodologies to oath of horatti, evaluate Internet search engines:' Please do a couple of searches and send the feedback to me''. Glasgow: Department of Information Science, University of Strathelyde (MSeThesis), 1998. X. Fang and G. Salvendy(2000). Virgin Atlantic And Services? 'Keyword comparison: a user-centered feature for of horatti, improving web search tools', Int.J.Human-Computer Studies, Vol.52:915-931. C.J. van RIJSBERGEN(2010). Information Retrieval.
Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of pledge of allegiance, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to of horatti, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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latin resume Note liminaire : La présente traduction de Virgile fait partie de la Bibliotheca Classica Selecta (BCS) mais elle s'intègre aussi dans le vaste projet Du texte à l'hypertexte mis au point à la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de Louvain à l'initiative de Jean Schumacher. Oath Of Horatti! Les possibilités de cette dernière réalisation sont multiples ; non seulement elle permet une lecture de l'oeuvre avec le texte latin et la traduction française en regard, mais elle donne également accès à un riche ensemble d'outils lexicographiques et statistiques très performants. 1. Of The Criticism! Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1,12-80) 2. Oath Of Horatti! La tempête : les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123) 3. Tesco Shares For Staff! Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) 4. Oath Of Horatti! Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) 1. Virgin Products And Services! Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) 2. Oath Of Horatti! Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304) 3. Pledge Text! Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368) 4. Of Horatti! L'inconnue écoute Énée et le rassure (1, 369-417) 1. Prince! Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) 2. Oath! Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) 3. Shares For Staff! Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) 1. Oath! Didon accueille Énée (1, 579-642) 2. Shares For Staff! Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694) 3. Of Horatti! Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756).
Sujet de l'nide et invocation la muse. Les premiers vers, suivis d'une invocation à la Muse, présentent d'emblée le sujet de l'oeuvre : l'arrivée du Troyen Énée en Italie et les combats qu'il dut mener avant son installation dans le Latium ; bien que protégé par le destin, il fut longtemps la victime des dieux et de Junon en particulier (1, 1-11). Junon écarte les Troyens d'Italie (1, 12-80) Junon rêvait de la suprématie pour Carthage. Virgin Atlantic And Services! Mais, connaissant les arrêts du destin, elle pressentait la victoire future de Rome, nouvelle Troie, sur Carthage (1, 12-22). Depuis longtemps hostile aux Troyens, pleine de rancoeur et de jalousie à l'égard de Pâris, de Dardanus et de Ganymède, elle malmenait sur la mer les exilés Troyens (1, 23-33). Irritée de les voir s'approcher de l'Italie et ressassant ses vieilles rancoeurs, évoquant la tempête soulevée par Pallas Athéna contre les Argiens et Ajax, se sentant humiliée et limitée dans son pouvoir, elle songe à déchaîner elle aussi une tempête contre les Troyens (1, 34-49). Aussitôt, Junon se rend auprès du dieu Éole, préposé par Jupiter à tenir les vents enchaînés dans de sombres cavernes et, flattant habilement le docile Éole, lui promettant une nymphe pour épouse en guise de récompense, elle le convainc de déchaîner une tempête (1, 50-80). La tempête - Les Troyens en péril (1, 81-123)
Un seul geste d'Éole libère les vents, déchaînant la tempête et les ouragans. Oath Of Horatti! Les Troyens se sentent en péril et Énée est désespéré, regrettant de n'être pas mort à Troie, comme nombre de ses compagnons d'armes (1, 81-101). Le navire d'Énée est mis à mal; trois bateaux sont projetés sur des récifs, trois autres échouent dans des bas-fonds; Oronte et ses Lyciens sont engloutis avec leur navire; des naufragés surnagent; d'autres vaisseaux sont gravement endommagés (1, 102-123). Les Troyens accostent en Libye (1, 124-179) Neptune constatant la tempête provoquée par Junon reproche aux vents et à Éole d'avoir outrepassé leurs pouvoirs (1, 124-141). For Staff! Puis, tel un héros pieux apaisant les passions d'un peuple révolté, il ramène le calme sur la mer, avant de reprendre sa course (1, 142-156). Les Troyens épuisés découvrent sur le rivage de Libye un endroit protégé où amarrer leurs bateaux (1, 157-169). Oath! Énée et les rescapés de sept navires débarquent, s'installent sur la plage, vont récupérer dans les bateaux armes et vivres et s'activent à préparer un repas (1, 170-179). Énée se conduit en chef responsable (1, 180-222) Énée, s'inquiétant des autres bateaux de sa flottille, scrute en vain la mer mais est mis sur la trace d'une harde de cerfs. Pledge Text! En chasseur expérimenté, il abat sept bêtes qu'il distribue aux sept équipages des navires rescapés (1, 180-194).
Il cherche ensuite à rendre courage à tous ses compagnons : il leur distribue le vin reçu en Sicile et, évoquant leurs épreuves passées, sans laisser paraître son angoisse, il leur parle de jours meilleurs, où Troie renaîtra (1, 195-209). Après un repas copieux sur la plage, partagés entre la crainte et l'espoir, tous évoquent les disparus. Of Horatti! Énée en particulier gémit sur le sort de ceux qu'il sait ou croit morts (1, 210-222). Vénus implore Jupiter (1, 223-253) Dans le ciel, Vénus implore son père en faveur des Troyens. Shares For Staff! Fine diplomate, elle flatte Jupiter, insiste sur la piété de ses protégés, lui rappelle ses promesses de faire naître des Troyens le peuple destiné à régner sur l'univers (1, 223-237). Elle compare les épreuves que leur inflige Junon au sort d'Anténor, un autre rescapé de Troie, établi en Illyrie (1, 238-253). Jupiter prophétise la grandeur de Rome (1, 254-304)
Jupiter rassure Vénus sur le sort des Troyens et l'avenir d'Énée, puis entreprend de brosser un tableau de l'histoire de Rome avant sa fondation : guerre entre Troyens et Rutules ; fondation de Lavinium ; mort et divinisation d'Énée après trois ans ; règne d'Ascagne-Iule pendant trente ans ; fondation d'Albe la Longue ; dynastie albaine de race troyenne pendant trois cents ans ; naissance des jumeaux (1, 254-274). Il annonce ensuite la fondation de Rome ; l'empire universel de la nouvelle Troie, après la conquête romaine de la Grèce, présentée comme l'ultime vengeance des Troyens ; le revirement de Junon elle-même et enfin l'avènement d'Auguste-César, descendant des Troyens et instaurateur de la paix (1, 275-296). Il dépêche enfin à Carthage son messager Mercure, qui inspire à Didon et aux Carthaginois des sentiments bienveillants à l'égard des Troyens (1, 297-304). Une inconnue informe Énée sur Didon (1, 305-368) Entre-temps, Énée explore les lieux, quand sa mère Vénus se présente à lui sous les traits d'une jeune chasseresse. Of Horatti! Sans la reconnaître, bien que pressentant sa qualité de déesse, il l'interroge sur le pays où il a échoué (1, 305-334). La chasseresse, sans révéler son identité, le renseigne sur l'histoire de Carthage et de sa fondatrice : Didon avait épousé en Phénicie le riche Sychée, assassiné secrètement par le roi de Tyr, son beau-frère Pygmalion, jaloux de ses richesses. Tesco! Un jour le fantôme de Sychée révéla à Didon le crime de Pygmalion et lui conseilla de fuir, en lui disant où se trouvaient des trésors cachés.
Didon s'embarqua et arriva en Libye avec ses partisans et ses richesses ; elle se procura le territoire où s'élève maintenant sa ville (1, 335-368). À son tour, Énée renseigne l'inconnue sur son passé et sur le but que lui dicte le destin : il veut gagner l'Italie pour y installer les Pénates de Troie arrachés à l'ennemi ; mais, victime d'une tempête, il a échoué, avec sept navires, sur les côtes de Libye (1, 369-384). L'assurant de la protection des dieux, l'inconnue engage Énée à se présenter à la reine des lieux et lui annonce, sur la foi d'un présage, le sauvetage de la flotte qu'il croyait perdue (1, 385-401). Énée reconnaît alors Vénus qui disparaît aussitôt, le laissant quelque peu frustré. Of Horatti! Mais elle le soustrait auparavant à la curiosité des Libyens, en l'enveloppant d'un nuage, avant de rejoindre sa demeure de Chypre (1, 402-417). Carthage ville naissante (1, 418-449) Énée et Achate, parvenus sur une colline proche de la ville, à l'abri de leur nuage, voient s'édifier une ville moderne et imposante, en proie à une activité fébrile, comparable à celle que déploient des abeilles (1, 418-436).
Ne pouvant s'empêcher de comparer sa situation à celle de ces heureux Tyriens, Énée se mêle à la foule, sans être vu (1, 437-449). Le temple de Junon et les souvenirs de Troie (1, 450-493) Tout en attendant la reine au pied du temple, Énée en examine diverses représentations figurant des scènes de la guerre de Troie. Shares For Staff! Ce spectacle, témoignant de l'admiration et de la compassion à l'égard des héros troyens, ranime son courage (1, 450-463). Sont évoqués les combats devant Troie, mais surtout les déboires troyens : massacre au camp de Rhésus et mort du fils de Priam Troïlus, vaine démarche des suppliantes troyennes auprès de Pallas, et enfin démarche de Priam auprès d'Achille, obtenant que lui soit rendu le cadavre d'Hector (1, 464-487).
Quelques scènes évoquent ensuite l'action d'Énée à Troie, les armées venues de l'Orient et les Amazones (préfiguration de Didon ?), servant en quelque sorte de transition à la suite du récit (1, 488-493). Didon accueille les compagnons d'Énée (1, 494-578) Énée, toujours invisible, aperçoit Didon venant s'installer sur un trône devant le temple, et découvre une reine puissante, respectée, résolue, équitable et efficace. Oath Of Horatti! Soudain, heureux autant qu'effrayés, Énée et Achate reconnaissent quelques-uns de leurs compagnons rescapés en train de s'avancer en suppliants vers la reine, au milieu des protestations de la foule (1, 494-519). Le vieil Ilionée, leur porte-parole, implore la bienveillance d'une reine protégée de Jupiter et éprise de justice. Of Allegiance! Lui demandant sa protection, il l'informe sur leur aventure et la rassure sur leurs intentions. Oath Of Horatti! Surpris de l'hostilité rencontrée, il finit par évoquer la possibilité d'un châtiment divin, et surtout le retour possible de leur chef, le juste, le pieux, le vaillant Énée.
Il demande comme seule faveur de pouvoir réparer les navires, afin de gagner l'Italie avec Énée, ou sinon, la Sicile, où ils sont assurés d'un bon accueil (1, 520-560). Didon alors les rassure, justifiant l'accueil hostile des Libyens par la jeunesse de son royaume. Products! Elle promet aux Troyens de faciliter leur départ pour l'Italie ou la Sicile, mais leur propose plutôt de partager le pouvoir avec elle, souhaitant comme eux le retour d'Énée vivant (1, 561-578). Réconfortés par cette vue, Énée et Achate sont tentés de révéler leur présence ; soudain, le nuage disparaît et Énée apparaît miraculeusement transfiguré. Of Horatti! Il se présente alors à Didon, la remercie pour sa compassion et sa bonté, et lui souhaite la bénédiction des dieux, avant de serrer les mains de ses compagnons retrouvés (1, 579-612). Revenue de sa stupeur, Didon se montre avertie des malheurs des Troyens et disposée à les secourir. Cooley Glass Self! Décrétant des actions de grâces aux dieux et faisant livrer des animaux aux Troyens restés sur le rivage, elle introduit ses hôtes dans le palais où se prépare un somptueux festin (1, 613-642). Vénus substitue Cupidon à Ascagne (1, 643-694) Énée charge alors Achate de retourner aux navires et d'en ramener Ascagne et des présents, parures princières sauvées du sac de Troie, qu'il destine à Didon (1, 643-656). Entre-temps Vénus imagine un stratagème pour protéger Énée contre Junon et demande le concours de son fils Cupidon, le puissant dieu de l'Amour. Of Horatti! Elle lui suggère de se substituer momentanément à Ascagne afin d'inspirer à Didon une passion brûlante pour Énée, tandis qu'elle emportera Ascagne endormi à Chypre.
Cette suggestion est immédiatement adoptée (1, 657-694). Didon prise au piège de Cupidon (1, 695-756) Didon accueille les Troyens dans un cadre luxueux où se déroule un banquet fastueux tant par les mets que le nombre des serviteurs. Tess! Les présents des Troyens et le jeune Iule/Cupidon émerveillent les nombreux Tyriens présents mais surtout la reine, qui tombe sous le charme de Cupidon déguisé, jouant son rôle à la perfection (695-722). Didon procède ensuite aux libations à l'aide de la coupe ancestrale des Tyriens et invoque solennellement Jupiter, Bacchus et Junon, saluant ce jour comme une fête pour Tyriens et Troyens ; la coupe se transmet aux convives, tandis qu'un poète savant chante les phénomènes astronomiques et les origines des vivants (723-747).
Passionnément amoureuse, Didon cherche à prolonger la fête, posant à son hôte mille questions sur Troie, et l'invitant enfin à raconter la chute de la ville et ses propres aventures (748-756).