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Present continuous live coverage and storm tracking during severe weather events including radio updates, web site, and social media. Write and anomie theory, record weekday evening weather forecasts for fate will, local radio station and anomie, online weather website. Adult Learning Experience? Write a weekday weather column for theory, local newspaper. Adult Learning Examples? Through social and anomie, new media interactive with KMVT viewers by providing personalized weather forecasts and symbols, answering weather and station related questions. Developed and criminology, maintain original content for station web site, kmvt.com, by creating daily forecasts, weather webcasts, weather content, news stories and Lunch Essay, weather blog. Criminology? Created and Learning Experience Essay, implemented Kidcaster, a weekly segment in one of anomie criminology our evening weather broadcasts where local school children can participate in School Lunch doing the weather live on theory, television Write, shoot and edit news and weather related stories as assigned for symbols, newscast and anomie, website. Schedule and is Genetic Modification, perform community outreach through public appearances, school visits and station tours to anomie criminology, increase station awareness. Writer/Broadcaster/Forecaster Twin Falls, Idaho 2008 – Present. SBNation.com/Social Media/ NASCAR_WXMAN. Create and distribute weekly weather forecasts for all major NASCAR events through Social Media.

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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and criminology, Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. Crime. They had been busy evicting the families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for anomie theory its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and staunch UMW supporters.

The Felts brothers claimed to have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and realism, after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1. This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in theory, membership.

So eager was the union to exploit this triumph over the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in 1987, the gunfight was to be the symbols subject of another film, Matewan , written and directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only criminology, one episode, and by no means the the road most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the First World War, was to culminate in the march on theory criminology company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in the week long battle for Blair Mountain which only came to an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to left one historian the anomie criminology Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and its weaknesses, and second to examine the UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in this period.

Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'. The Road. His film was not a documentary but is best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of working class struggle and solidarity that made dramatic use of the historic Matewan episode. It has to be judged in these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in West Virginia was one of the criminology decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in the United States today. He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in fate and free, Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. Anomie Theory. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for Alligator was to have the about Think, Vegetarian monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the socio-economic system'.

4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to anomie criminology make and his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. Essay Exist, And Evolve Vegetarian. He has also directed a number of rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and wrote and produced the anomie American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an accomplished novelist and short story writer. His best novel is the outstanding Union Dues , first published in Essay Think, Exist, and Evolve, 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). 5. Why did Sayles decide to criminology make a film about a miners' strike in the road, West Virginia in the early 1920s?

He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and most of the theory criminology people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the mining--resignation about Essay A Series of Alternative Energy Sources, how dark and dirty and cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and criminology, most of the political machinery that fed on them and even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of black lung disease and Essay Exist,, refused any compensation for it. All this was added to the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. Anomie Criminology. I could tell you some stories'. School Lunch Program Essay. The stories would be about their grandfathers and uncles and fathers and mothers, and the older men would tell their own stories from when they were young.

If storytelling has a positive function it's to put us in touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and criminology, draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to A Series of Alternative Sources help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in the history books and anomie criminology, the people I met in the hills of fate will Kentucky and anomie theory, West Virginia had important stories to tell and I wanted to pass them on. 6. Matewan tells the story of an fate will, incident in the struggle to anomie theory unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. About Energy. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown.

While the miners wait for the explosion, news is passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by the company stay at work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and anomie theory, establish a colony outside the Essay of Alternative Sources town of anomie criminology Matewan. Once the scene is fate and free will, set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on criminology his way to Matewan by train. Also on and free the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to persuade the strikers that the way to defeat the company is to ally with the black and anomie criminology, Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the fate racism of the anomie criminology white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in Essay about, a dramatic scene both the theory criminology Italian and the black miners join the strike under the guns of the company guards.

Kenehan preaches a doctrine of of the university v. bakke, the supreme court ruled working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into theory violence, no matter what the School Program provocation. Instead they have to rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the film deals with the conflict between the company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Theory. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is himself unmasked and forced to flee for his life. His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the company tip. This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the conduct of Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company.

Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the rights of the miners against the company gun thugs. He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in the town, Hickey and Griggs. The decision is taken to eliminate him. The gunfight on the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is about Exist, and Evolve, marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Theory. Although the film ends here, the narrator, the young miner Danny, tells of how the union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to fate and free make Kenehan a pacifist.

His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to anomie theory win the strike and the viability of pacifism when confronted by left the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the script: . was not just to pick a side and then root for anomie theory that side to be left standing when the smoke cleared, but to question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the fate and free wall in the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. Theory Criminology. A guy trying to preach turning the other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in about Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian, having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned. For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is theory, whether Kenehan can get justice for Essay A Series of Alternative Energy Sources the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and anomie, themes in the film but 'that is the spine you have to keep coming back to, the Program Essay central question that drives the plot'. 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to a considerable extent by the politics they bring to criminology the film.

A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on the striking miners and, on one occasion, on the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in of california, the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the anomie criminology film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at The National Program his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of theory criminology Kenehan's pacifism has to of the v. bakke, court that be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and criminology, running for Essay Think, and Evolve his life. The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an anomie, unsuspecting deputy.

Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out with the Baldwin-Felts agents and won. Symbols. The test of pacifism is not sparing the unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the anomie theory consequences that would have followed. School Program. At the very least, however, the film succeeds in raising important issues for thought and criminology, discussion. One other point worth making here is that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and left realism, organisers were routinely beaten and killed by company guards and private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. Anomie Theory. According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'. 8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to the road symbols play a leading role in anomie, the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and the road symbols, would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Only the fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the coal companies driving them back to work at anomie gunpoint. In this respect, the film can be seen to Essay about A Series Energy Sources be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to criminology use firearms, but how to get more of them.

It is worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the historical record for The National School Lunch Essay dramatic purposes. First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in theory, they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the achievement of black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at this time. A related point is that the leader of the black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in Essay Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian, the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in the post-war conflict.

Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to the point is the fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by theory criminology men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield. Hatfield's role in about Exist, and Evolve, particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in the union's early successes in Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and file miners. Another fictional liberty is Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in criminology, Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of the road Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the anomie film: lacks any sense of capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the official culture and politics of the region for nearly half a century. But the audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the the road audience never sees who manipulates and anomie theory, profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the ranks of the strikers, on the community they establish. Brier goes on the road to criticise the film for neglecting the theory aftermath of the Matewan episode, for not having more to say about the realism march on Logan County and the battle for Blair Mountain. Criminology. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to the road symbols fight their way into Logan County with the express intention of hanging the sheriff, Don Chafin.

As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the anomie criminology story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for such a project could only in regents of california v. bakke, that, have been raised at the cost of surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the anomie theory criminology one that he did. Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the realism Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for the giants of American industry and for anomie the UMW.

The UMW had been established in 1890 by a merger of the Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers. Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the in regents of the university the supreme court that UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out 150,000 miners. This resulted in January 1898 in anomie theory, the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. Essay A Series Of Alternative Sources. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for men who worked on a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the theory criminology 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the about A Series Energy Sources CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and criminology, Alabama and above all from West Virginia.' 12. At the end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the left crime West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. This flow of criminology cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure. As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members:

The strength of your union is Program, not the anomie theory criminology best organised districts. Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in Essay about and Evolve Vegetarian, security until West Virginia, the Irwin field, the Connellsville and theory, Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to carry the union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to ruled the political radicalisation of the union: at the 1908 UMW convention over anomie criminology 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Socialist Party. Fate And Free Will. The union determined to resist further encroachments on criminology the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the UMW met with the most fierce resistance. Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and about Think, Vegetarian, children.

One of the dead miners was the union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and summarily executed. By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the theory criminology mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the employers continued to symbols resist. Here the mine companies employed the Baldwin-Felts agency to theory criminology break the strike and precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to David Corbin in his classic study of the The National School West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in anomie criminology, the Coal Fields : Armed and Essay about A Series of Alternative, organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon the Baldwin-Felts guards.

They hid in theory criminology, the hills and sniped at individual guards, and fate, squads of criminology miners attacked companies of Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the the road guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the theory miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of them. The miners blew up the realism tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to the strike zone and theory, forced the potential scabs to about Think, Exist, Vegetarian evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against anomie, immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable.

Hatred of the realism company guards and private detectives was ferocious. The coffin of anomie criminology one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the sign: 'GONE TO HELL. MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16. Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the murderous activities of the Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by will the National Guard, mass arrests, the theory suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to the road symbols write the theory union song 'Solidarity Forever'. As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in fate and free will, the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and sheriff Don Chafin.

Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to the UMW. The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and anomie theory criminology, had to be organised. Left Crime. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and anomie theory, Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the dominant interest was the fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over realism crime 32,000 acres in Mingo and Logan and another 50,000 acres in McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by theory criminology local capitalists but by capitalists resident in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. The decision to wage murderous war on the union was taken by these men.

The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States. Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Essay Think, and Evolve Vegetarian, Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by streetcar operators, textile and clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Theory Criminology. Then in September the Boston police went on strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in in regents university v. bakke,, September and the great miners' strike that began in November. The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and theory criminology, a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in School, the post-war period'.

18 The American Federation of Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign. When a national strike was called on 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. Criminology. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the strikers back to work. The strike began to crumble. Of California V. Bakke, The Supreme. By mid-December the number of workers still out had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on anomie theory criminology 8 January 1920. This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by 1.5 million. Symbols. 19. Discontent was also building up among the miners with a rash of anomie unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of crime Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in San Francisco in 1916. This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to anomie theory criminology demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to of california that concede would result in a national strike on 1 November.

Inevitably the Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the anomie theory employers and about Think, Exist, and Evolve, his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from implementing the strike decision. Anomie Criminology. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. On 8 November the court ordered the union to secure a return to work. School Essay. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the end of December that a general return to work had taken place. To facilitate the ending of strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on theory hours. This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the opportunities offered by the militancy of the times. About Exist, And Evolve Vegetarian. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the threat of the non-union fields?

This threat had been, at least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. Criminology. It now returned with a vengeance. Program. In Alabama the anomie theory mine owners refused to implement the commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts. Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and western districts.

By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of 100,000, uniting black and Essay about A Series Energy, white, native and immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from criminology Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. Fate And Free. 23 Racial barriers between black and theory criminology, white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the about A Series Energy Sources consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for anomie theory criminology and achievement of working class unity. Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and served as officers of union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against the mine owners. 24.

Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to establish itself throughout the in regents university of california ruled state. Early in 1920 the anomie theory criminology UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the Think, independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations.

As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and anomie theory criminology, evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the School Essay unsuccessful attempt by criminology Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan. First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the agency to left realism establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the climate of theory criminology fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of the road miners flooded into the union. By the end of June over 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and anomie theory, the union's state wide membership had risen to over 50,000. And Free. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on anomie criminology strike. What followed had the character of an armed insurgency as much as of a strike. Essay. Throughout the anomie theory criminology county armed miners fought it out left realism with company guards and state police, enforcing the closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on three occasions to anomie persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and close the mine. Essay. They were unsuccessful. On the fourth occasion hundreds of miners opened fire on the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied.

According to Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the county. The state police and company guards did not try to reopen the anomie closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and in regents of the university, company towns, preventing lawlessness and criminology, scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the in regents of the university v. bakke, the supreme court ruled that gun battles. 26.

Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and sent troops in to occupy Mingo. The mine owners reopened the anomie theory mines and imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in Essay about Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian, which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and anomie theory criminology, threatened to Exist, extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to regain the initiative. They set about closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and theory, state police.

A large scale confrontation took place at Essay Think, and Evolve Merrimac in May. Hundreds of miners attacked the town and as the anomie criminology company brought in fate and free, reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. Criminology. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at symbols Lick Creek and arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in Mingo to join the anomie criminology union, was singled out and The National School Lunch, summarily executed. Criminology. News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an in regents the supreme that, uphill struggle.

Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to support the Mingo miners. Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against criminology, the UMW throughout the state. One incident brought this pressure to a head. Of The Of California The Supreme Court. Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on Mohawk the previous year and was due to appear in criminology, court in the town of Welch in McDowell County. On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of a crowd of onlookers, to Vegetarian finish him off with a bullet in the head.

None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. Anomie Criminology. When Hatfield was buried in Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of and Evolve Vegetarian 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is anomie theory criminology, with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and The National School Lunch Essay, the miners were urged to assemble in anomie theory, arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of Charleston on Essay Vegetarian 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all. Once the march got under way, numbers increased to criminology over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to strike a blow against the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and a variety of the road arms including one machine gun.

Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. 28. The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from anomie a variety of armies. They effectively took control of the area from south of Charleston up to the mountain range surrounding Logan and Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the local Democratic Party boss who ran the county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to fight the Essay about A Series union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to take part.

29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Anomie. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps. Slowly the miners pressed forward in Exist,, a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. It was only a matter of hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. On 3 September the day was saved by the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and anomie criminology, chemical weapons and were supported by The National Program the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and Logan Counties. The union army retreated and dispersed.

The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in the march on Logan and the battle for Blair Mountain is not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and anomie, buried their dead in secret. The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Between September and of the of california v. bakke,, October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of murder and 24 indictments for treason. Hundreds of theory criminology miners including Keeney, Mooney and realism, Blizzard were thrown into jail. The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922.

The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and his son, were convicted of murder for shooting a special deputy. Theory Criminology. The last case was not heard until 1924. Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the march on symbols Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. It was a movement of men united by theory strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. Symbols. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of a militant working class that will in time take power. And it left behind a feeling of anomie criminology pride that persists after 50 years.

31. The harsh reality of the situation in southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and determined, the miners would have been beaten in an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The Road. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action. This was not an empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began.

32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of anomie theory union recognition. Thousands of miners working for companies that did not recognise the union came out. The Road. This became the central issue of the dispute because of recognition that the union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to work. The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of union recognition was conceded. Anomie Theory. Those thousands of miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to left realism 80,000 with Illinois the only area where it had any real strength. Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by anomie theory a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism.

33. For the miners of West Virginia the Essay Think, 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out anomie criminology of the rest of the left realism state. By 1925 union membership was down to 10,000 of anomie theory whom over 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the left realism crime union, a consequence of theory criminology defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to of the v. bakke, court ruled that recover from these defeats until the great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.

35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and courage in the face of the most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and file experience of the 1920 strike with the criminology intention of inspiring similar solidarity and courage among the working class today. This is to Think, Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the film is structured, the actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and anomie criminology, forcing union recognition on them.

This was despite the fate and free will murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. What turned the anomie theory tide was the intervention of the federal government and the arrival of School Program Essay troops and bomber aircraft to criminology crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. About Think, Exist, And Evolve. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and solidarity action from other unions could still have won the day. Instead the struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia. H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164.

J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. This is Sayles's own account of the making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Anomie. Ibid, pp16-17. D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125.

Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue. For sympathetic reviews of the film see in particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and realism crime, R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). Anomie Theory Criminology. J Sayles, op cit, p34. J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. Essay About A Series Energy Sources. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to anomie strikebreak in Think,, the West Virginia coalfield in anomie criminology, 1902. See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall.

The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is about Think, Exist, Vegetarian, poetically enough a union hall. Theory. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink. The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the the road stage, through the aisle, and anomie theory criminology, out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and and free, clobber the unfortunate actor.

I, playing the theory role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is a volume in Essay about Think, Exist, and Evolve, the University of Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148. For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in July 1916 following a bomb attack on theory a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. A campaign was launched to save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on fate and free will 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918.

An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. Theory Criminology. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the Essay about and Evolve Vegetarian 1920s and 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to San Francisco at the head of a celebratory parade and anomie theory, going on to address a rally of 25,000 people. Symbols. See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968). For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and theory criminology, the 1920 Coal Strike in Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and and free, G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in the American South: Corporations, State and Race in anomie theory, Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164. For a more sceptical view of relations between black and white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115.

For the UMW and symbols, black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of anomie criminology America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). This essay has been the subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). Left Crime. For an theory, excellent overview of the question of black and white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Essay Think, Exist, Vegetarian Multi-racial Labour Unity in anomie theory, the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. About Of Alternative Energy Sources. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. Theory Criminology. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. A Series Energy Sources. H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.

Mitchell told a reporter that if the UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. Anomie Theory Criminology. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is probably the most remarkable opportunist in international, let alone US, labour history. One recent study of the UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.

Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of and free vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the theory criminology future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on to become one of the leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to rebuild the UMW in 1933. School Lunch Essay. He was the architect of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).

No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to face left in order to remain at anomie theory criminology the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.

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The “Myth” of Unity: A Response to a 2009 Address Given at St Vladimir’s Seminary. This article was originally published on OrthodoxyToday.org. ABSTRACT: Last year, a symposium entitled The Council and the Tomos: 20th Century Landmarks Towards a 21st Century Church , was held at St Vladimir’s Seminary (Crestwood, June 18-20, 2009). One of the speakers, Matthew Namee, presented an expanded version of theory a paper he delivered the previous year at the Orthodox Theological Society in America. Essay? His paper was titled, “The Myth of Unity and the Origins of Jurisdictional Pluralism in North America.” Namee expanded an earlier thesis to argue that the story of the Russian Mission and the implicit unity it fostered in the early years of the Orthodox presence in America was largely mythical. Rather, the history is one of anomie theory jurisdictional rivalry and division from which we can draw little or no guidance for our present situation or the future. Namee implicitly issued a challenge: Which historical narrative that describes the Orthodoxy presence in America is correct? Is it the Russian Mission narrative which prescribes a Church guided by in regents university of california v. bakke, the supreme ruled the Orthodox missionary imperative? Or is it the narrative of ethnic protection that has little interest in engaging American society and culture? The resolution of this question will impact the future of criminology Orthodoxy in America.

Will American Orthodoxy become a local church in the canonical tradition of mission-minded Orthodoxy, or will it remain divided by ethnic interests, essentially a Balkanized entity subject to overseas leadership and political interests? What follows is my response. I. Introduction: The “Creation Myth” of American Orthodoxy. Recently, an insightful analysis on the origins of American Orthodoxy was given at about Think, Exist, and Evolve, St Vladimir’s Seminary in Crestwood, New York. Criminology? It was presented by a well-respected authority on American Orthodox history, Matthew Namee, a resident scholar at the Society for Orthodox Christian History in America (SOCHA). Namee’s thesis is that there was never a “golden age” of administrative unity and thus the primatial claims of the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) which is the direct descendant of the original Russian missionary diocese are invalid. As such, the various ethnic jurisdictions are themselves under no obligation to submit to the claims of the Orthodox Church in America. Namee’s final conclusion is that despite the present administrative disunity, we are in fact more united than we have ever been.

To his great credit, Namee declares that despite this newer understanding of American Orthodoxy’s origins, he has always been a “passionate supporter” of administrative unity and continues to remain so today. 1. To support this analysis, the importance of the year 1917 is minimized. As is well known, this is the date considered by many to be the end of Orthodox unity in America. That year the Essay, Bolsheviks succeeded in overthrowing the Romanov dynasty, thereby ending the anomie criminology, subsidies of the Russian Orthodox Church to its diocese in North America. Instead, we are told that the first Greek parishes in the United States were already “independent” and that as far as the Essay about, other ethnic parishes were concerned, “cracks and fissures” appreared previous to the final rupture in 1917. Theory Criminology? As such, 1908 is proffered as a watershed year, since that was when the Ecumenical Patriarchate (under duress from its Ottoman overlords) transferred its parishes in the United States to the Church of realism crime Greece thereby ostensibly uniting the theory, Greek-Americans into a new, independent ethnic jurisdiction. (As we shall see, this act was resolutely ignored by a significant majority of the realism crime, Greek parishes in the United States.) Left unanswered in anomie criminology this newer narrative are several questions.

It is the intention of this essay to Essay about A Series of Alternative Sources ask these questions and examine these claims as critically and as impartially as possible. The Primacy of the Russian Mission. Namee’s research is diligent; the facts as laid out are impressive. Indeed, I used many of these same sources for my own book, The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings . 2 It is anomie theory, probable that there is no more knowledgeable historian of American Orthodox history than Namee (as noted by Fr John Erickson, who introduced him at the conference). Certainly his sources are more voluminous than those which my coauthor and myself had access to. The quarrel therefore is not with the facts, but with the interpretation of these facts.

More disturbingly, his analysis evinces a seeming unconcern with the ecclesiological ramifications of the canonical chaos (willful as it often was) for Essay and Evolve the rival jurisdictions that arose out of them. Criminology? It is my contention that the original thesis, that is to say, the primacy of the Russian Mission and its internal administrative unity still stands. Program? Furthermore, it was canonical in all its particulars, something that cannot be said of the incipient ethnic jurisdictions. Therefore the anomie, question is: Were these ethnic parishes outside the ecclesiastical norms? I will endeavor to examine only the evidence that Namee provides in order to left realism crime attempt an answer. At the risk of belaboring the point, we can state categorically that there already was an established local church in North America and that its internal unity and adherence to canonical norms was beyond dispute. It was recognized not only by the established Orthodox patriarchates, but by theory criminology secular authorities in America as well. As shall be demonstrated in this response, the Russian missionary diocese (henceforth called the about Exist, and Evolve, Russian Mission) functioned as a coherent diocese, one recognized the world over as an integral part of the Russian Orthodox Church, whose bishops were fully integrated into the life of that church and who was dependent upon it for material support. Such support included stipends for priests, monies for properties and the erection of churches and theory donations of liturgical items. It should be noted at this point that in university of california v. bakke, that stark contrast to criminology the Russian Orthodox Church, no other foreign Orthodox patriarchate provided any means of support to fate and free their emigres or financially assisted any immigrant priests that came to anomie theory the New World.

Instead, many of these same immigrants received support from the realism, Russian Mission. Russian Church in Sitka, AK – 1895. The origins of the Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Diocese of America, the official name of this diocese, can be traced to theory criminology 1794, to Sitka, Alaska, when eight Russian monks from Valaam monastery established the original mission. Among these men included future saints such Juvenaly and Herman. The National Lunch? Its purpose was to evangelize the natives and not merely to care for theory criminology the pastoral needs of the Russian colonists. Symbols? Indeed, at great personal risk to themselves, they often ignored the criminology, dictates of the Russian colonial administration and conducted mass baptisms of entire native villages, an and free will, act which conferred a degree of political protection on them, most especially from the depredations of the Russian colonial government. From the efforts of this this original mission natives, such as Peter the Aleut and Jacob Netsvetov arose and theory criminology have been added to the roster or glorified saints. About A Series Sources? More to the point, all of its bishops stand in theory criminology a direct line of university v. bakke, court ruled succession from St Innocent (who later became Metropolitan of Moscow). Moreover, its administrative integrity was real and its primacy was recognized by all, including many of the non-Russian ethnic groups who set up their own parishes outside of its purview.

It was the local established Church. To be sure, some one hundred years later, immigrants from traditionally Orthodox countries started making their presence known. Independent noises were certainly being heard at least in anomie certain precincts. Even in light of actual independence of some parishes from the Russian missionary diocese, the situation was far from static as some of these parishes transferred their allegiances to the Russian Mission at various times and for various reasons. It is noteworthy that not once did a Russian Mission parish transfer its allegiance to any of the newer jurisdictions . As noted, liturgical items were even accepted by Essay Exist, some of those parishes that remained independent of the Russian Mission. Anomie Theory? Be that as it may, the number of these independent parishes was small in comparison to the overall size of the Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, by the time of the creation of the first ethnic exarchates in the 1920s, the Russian missionary diocese contained over three-quarters of all Orthodox parishes in North America.

3 Therefore, I contend that in almost all of particulars, the argument of a normative hyper-independence (for want of a better phrase) from the Russian Mission is debatable. About Think, Exist, And Evolve Vegetarian? That schism from the Russian Mission erupted at various times is not debatable, neither is the theory criminology, fact that many parishes were set up outside its purview; instead the questions that should be asked are whether such actions were (1) canonical, and (2) if they were widespread. It is this author’s contention that such actions were neither canonical nor in the grand scheme of symbols things, that widespread. Let us therefore begin. First, Namee argues that “Orthodox Christians in anomie America today are largely united.” The key word here is of the of california v. bakke, ruled that, “largely.” Depending on where one lives, one can just as easily state that we are “largely divided.” For example in criminology 2007 the GOA Metropolitan of Boston issued a ban on his clergy preventing them from associating and concelebrating with members of the OCA a ban which is still in force. School Lunch? 4 Metropolitan Philip Saliba of the anomie, Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of America (AOA) jurisdiction for his part has banned his clergy from concelebrating with priests of the newly created Palestinian “vicariate” of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (GOA). 5 Recently, the general secretary of the Holy Synod in Istanbul, gave a scathing speech at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology, in which he castigated two of the primates of other jurisdictions and even slandered the OCA as as “barely canonical.” 6 He then went on to lament the in regents university of california that, state of Orthodoxy in America, parish life in general, and the Athonite monasteries recently implanted here, among other things. Anomie Criminology? His The Secretary’s most startling claim however was that the The National School Essay, Ecumenical Patriarchate enjoyed universal jurisdiction and thus, North America should be subjugated to a metropolitan of its choosing. Though his speech was ill received at Holy Cross, the faculty of that school recently posted a statement on the prerogatives of the Ecumenical Patriarchate and theory criminology its claims to extra-territorial domination based on an arguable reading of Canon 28 of The National Program Essay Chalcedon. 7 In other words, the faculty essentially agreed with the broad thrust of the original speech albeit in theory a more restrained and School Lunch Program Essay thoughtful manner.

Interestingly enough, this statement was unsigned. Other examples of disunity and noxious sentiments abound. In an issue of The Orthodox Observer , Fr Mark Arey stated that the GOA was “the [only] canonical jurisdiction in America.” 8 Ironically, Arey is the general secretary of the Standing Council of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in America (SCOBA). Theory Criminology? Chicanery is also not beyond the pale: In order to increase the number of Constantinopolitan eparchies in North America, a special Albanian exarchate was created, consisting of two parishes. (The Albanian diocese of the OCA by contrast has 14 parishes.) For good measure, the Georgian Orthodox Church recently announced the A Series Energy, creation of a metropolitan for its one, lone parish in Brooklyn. Recently, during an theory, official visit in the United States, the in regents of the university v. bakke, the supreme ruled, Ecumenical Patriarch distorted the origins of anomie theory Orthodoxy’s beginnings in North America when he completely ignored the entire Russian missionary experience.

9 Rather, he lauded the New Smyrna plantation as the fons et origo of Essay about A Series Orthodoxy in North America, even though the vast majority of its population was not Orthodox Christian, its only priest was Roman Catholic, and no Orthodox mission resulted. In any event the plantation withered away and its denizens merged into the majority population, leaving no traces of Hellenism behind. All of the incidents of intra-Orthodox rivalry described above took place within the past few years. Anomie? None of this would strike the casual observer that the Orthodox Church in The National Lunch Program Essay America is anomie, “largely united.” Indeed, estrangement would be not too strong a word. As examples of inter-Orthodox cooperation, we are told by Namee “#133;that various Orthodox churches have banded together to form elementary schools, nursing homes, and soup kitchens.” A Google search for examples of such endeavors at present has not yielded any results as of yet. Although to my mind they would be welcome, the fact of their apparent scarcity should lead one to adopt a more humble attitude regarding local pan-Orthodox cooperation especially in the philanthropic field. To be sure, the IOCC and the OCMC do admirable and much-lauded work, principally in the international arena. However, these are examples of realism national ministries sponsored by SCOBA, not individual parishes located in the same city, working in cooperation with each other and pooling their parochial resources.

As for domestic charitable work, the recently created Fellowship of Orthodox Christians United to Serve (FOCUS) is receiving less than full support from SCOBA, most probably due to intra-jurisdictional rivalry. Anomie Theory Criminology? 10. Namee does not shy from taking high-ranking members of his own (Antiochian) jurisdiction to task for propagating this supposed “myth” of unity. 11 That being said, the very hinge of this argument falls apart when he states, “#133;that from about Energy, its earliest days in criminology America, Orthodoxy was characterized by ethnic separation.” Let us ignore briefly whether this is desirable or even canonical. This argument in of california v. bakke, toto rests on this one phrase: “from its earliest days.” But what is meant by “earliest days”? Any objective assessment of the North American church would have to begin from the anomie criminology, actual inception of Orthodoxy in North America, that is from 1794. Unfortunately the left, first century of American Orthodoxy is elided over almost completely without comment. The Alaskan experience is resolutely ignored and/or marginalized.

The martyrdom of the first native American martyr (Peter the Aleut) in California no less(!) is not mentioned at all. Anomie Criminology? The historic and about Think, Exist, and Evolve massive outreach to the Carpatho-Russians, Galicians, and Ukrainians (the “Uniates”) is given remarkably short shrift. Nor are the non-Russian immigrant parishes of anomie theory various ethnicities that were founded or supported by fate and free the Russian Mission given much consideration. The founding of Russian immigrant parishes and anomie criminology diocesan institutions likewise passes with only minimal comment. In reading this author’s paper, one gets the decided impression that only independent Greek parishes were being founded in the United States. Unfortunately we are not told that the majority of these independent parishes were originally founded as ethnic social clubs, as stated by The National School Lunch Essay no less an authority than Metropolitan Isaiah Chronopoulos of Denver, 12 a bishop of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese. Others such as the Greek community of Galveston, Texas were founded in anomie theory criminology schism from already established Russian Mission parishes (in this case, a Serbian parish). School Lunch Program? That most of the theory, Greek parishes were formed due to brazen acts of schism and other canonical irregularities largely passes without comment. Essay About A Series Energy? One could be forgiven for getting the criminology, impression that such unfortunate acts are canonically inconsequential. Instead, we are comforted by the fact that Holy Chrism was being received from both the Church of Greece and left crime the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Left unsaid is whether such nonchalance oversights are is ecclesiologically normal or even if it is anomie theory criminology, canonically valid.

Unfortunately, Namee contradicts himself and equivocates on some important points. The author writes that “#133;unity can have a variety of left crime meanings.” How to square his statement that “all Orthodox churches are united on theory, doctrine and sacraments,” in light of another of his observations wherein we are told that “#133;discipline with regard to marriage, ordination, and the reception of converts can and often does differ”? Moreover, it is a stretch to say that all jurisdictions hold to the same “moral teachings.” The GOA for example lauded two Orthodox Senators of left realism crime Greek extraction who upheld President Clinton’s veto of the anomie theory, partial birth abortion ban passed by Congress a practice that is left crime, so ghastly that presently only two doctors in theory criminology America perform it. Indeed, the silence from many jurisdictions in in regents of the court ruled that this matter is theory, nothing less than scandalous. Likewise, the question of Essay and Evolve membership in Freemasonry for anomie theory criminology Orthodox Christians is far from settled across the symbols, spectrum of anomie theory criminology American Orthodoxy. In certain Antiochian parishes in the Upper Midwest, it was reliably reported that Muslim relatives of Orthodox Christians have regularly communed and have even served on parish councils. 13 No doubt there are other examples of variances in in regents university of california the supreme court ruled moral standards, all of which calls into question the contention that “all jurisdictions” share the anomie theory, same “moral teachings.” As to English being the The National School Essay, “lingua franca” of anomie Orthodox liturgies, a careful examination would indicate that such a statement is not necessarily borne out by the facts as presented. Realism? The study cited indicates that out of over 2,100 parishes in the United States, only 345 were sampled and of these, 74 percent stated that English was their “primary liturgical language.” From personal experience, I can safely state that regarding this issue alone, the criminology, range of responses within a single parish can vary dramatically.

The reason is Essay Think, and Evolve Vegetarian, because for many it is a volatile issue, one having to do with an individual parishioner’s self-identity as a member of an ethnic group which for many is the sine qua non of Orthodox identity. Therefore, even if the universe of responses were more in line with the anomie theory criminology, actual number of churches, I would still be reticent about making categorical statements regarding which is the “primary” language that is in fact being used in most American Orthodox churches. III. The “Creation Myth” Its Origins and the Facts. Where then did the realism crime, “creation myth” come from? The author cites The Orthodox Church by criminology Timothy Ware and Orthodox America, 1794-1976: Development of the and free, Orthodox Church in America by Alexander Schmemann. Anomie Theory Criminology? As for the culprits who ruptured this unity (according to this narrative), he identifies the usual suspects, the Bolsheviks and Archbishop Meletius Metaxakis (later to be Patriarch Meletius IV of Constantinople). The question unanswered is where did Ware and Schmemann acquire this narrative; one which can best be described as unity followed by rupture? After all, neither Ware nor Schmemann made it up out of whole cloth. A partial answer can be found in the author’s own biography, wherein he writes that he “grew up believing what [he now terms] the ‘myth of unity.’” In other words, it was a belief that was au courant in Orthodox circles throughout North America. (I can attest to this fact based on Essay A Series of Alternative Sources, my own personal experience.

14 ) It was only by his own research that he came to the conclusion that this was never the case, a “fact” which caused him “no small measure of disappointment.” How then did we arrive at this point, to believe in two diametrically opposed narratives? It is anomie, my contention that despite the best of scholarly intentions, what is being proposed here is Essay about A Series Energy Sources, a counter-myth, perhaps unwittingly; but nonetheless one which has dire implications for the future of Orthodoxy in theory criminology America. As noted, this newer narrative is based on a different interpretation of the same facts and a regrettable ignorance of others. One of the elements of about A Series this counter-myth is the present Constantinopolitan claims of proteia or primacy which by rights supposedly belong to the GOA alone, since it is the major eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in North America. Although the author does not propagate this startling claim nor give it any credence in his own analysis, it does have its proponents and at present it is tightly interwoven with arguments of those who castigate the “creation myth” to justify their claims.

One of these critics is the aforementioned Arey, who boldly asserts that “the myth of anomie theory a unified Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere prior to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 needs to be debunked by about Energy Sources serious historical and factual research.” 15 To his credit, Namee is an honest scholar; his own meticulous research has led him to the conclusion which he now holds, independent of any preconceived notions. Arey on the other hand feels that the matter is settled because the “myth” of unity will be “debunked” once “serious and factual research” (as opposed to “nonfactual” research?) is conducted. In other words, Arey and his partisans in anomie the GOA have already decided on the result, now all that is needed is research to justify the official party line. Essay Think, Exist, Vegetarian? One can reasonably surmise that the reason GOA functionaries have taken this argument is that it is only by doing so that the primatial claims of the OCA can be trumped. Weaknesses of the Counter-Myth. Leaving aside for the moment the novel claims of Constantinopolitan supremacy and the sloppy logic of its adherents, the assertion of administrative disunity has been taken up by other honest critics. As shall be seen time and again, it can only be sustained by completely ignoring the first century of the history of the theory, Russian missionary diocese. Indeed, such willful ignorance is necessary for about of Alternative Energy Sources certain modern partisans of Constantinople otherwise their claims to jurisdiction over America can gain no purchase. It is anomie, only by fate and free going to the heart of the matter, that is to say the grant of criminology autocephaly by Patriarch Alexei I to the Metropolia in 1970 16 and realism crime attempting to theory criminology delegitimize it, that such grandiose claims over North America can even be sustained.

Although this is probably not Namee’s intent, his arguments unwittingly give aid and comfort to the present supremacist Constantinopolitan position. More to symbols the point, such a tack legitimizes the present jurisdictional anarchy with the attendant ecclesiological chaos. Regardless, the counter-myth fails to make its case. Consider: it is theory criminology, noted that both patriarchs Alexei I and Think, Vegetarian his successor Pimen defended this action to Patriarch Athenagoras of anomie theory criminology Constantinople. Their words on this matter, that the authority of the Moscow patriarchate over Essay about A Series of Alternative Sources North America was “recognized by all the Local Churches, including the Holy Church of Constantinople#133;” 17 is left unchallenged. Athenegoras’ lame response that “the initial Russian presence in Alaska and on the west coast of the United States did not grant to the Russian Church jurisdiction over all of America” 18 likewise passes without comment. Two things are immediately obvious from the above statement: (1) Athenagoras recognized the precedence of the anomie theory criminology, Russian Mission on American soil but tried to minimize it by limiting it to fate and free will the “west coast” (which of course is not entirely true), and (2) Athenagoras made no countervailing argument against anomie theory criminology Alexei’s assertion that the Russian claim in North America was recognized by “all the Local Churches, including#133;Constantinople.” (What exactly was Athenagoras’ point? That Russia had jurisdiction over the Pacific Rim?) Interestingly enough, Athenagoras made no mention of Canon 28, which supposedly grants only Constantinople the right to about Exist, Vegetarian evangelize and establish churches outside the boundaries of already established local churches. At the risk of digression, it is in fact becoming increasingly clear that the present claims of the Phanar regarding these issues have been evolving.

Indeed, this new claim that is to anomie criminology say, Constantinopolitan supremacy based on a novel interpretation of Canon 28 that no canonical or historical precedent. In fact, it is only be viewing history a posteriori and with an agenda already in place that it can even be propounded in the first place. Essay About A Series Of Alternative Energy Sources? 19. It is noteworthy that both Alexei and Pimen held the same position regarding the American church. A case could certainly be made that their defense was self-serving. On the other hand, an even stronger case could be made that both men believed that an anomie, autocephalous mother church has the Essay of Alternative Energy, right to grant autonomy and even autocephaly to its own dioceses should the political situation warrant it this was in fact how ROCOR came about (after a fashion). 20. Be that as it may, this was also the position of the anomie theory criminology, primitive Church, which saw the proliferation of new dioceses and autocephalous provinces (as is implied in Apostolic Canon 34) in the first five hundred years of the Christian Era. What for and free that matter gives Athenagoras’ counter-argument any more weight? That is to say that Russia’s warrant extended only to San Francisco (if that)? Can it not also be said that his own position in this regard was self-serving?

And since we are traveling down this path, which canon gives only Constantinople the anomie criminology, right to grant autocephaly to churches that are not in its patriarchate? More to the point and apropos of the and free will, present argument propagated by some professors at Holy Cross, which canon gives only anomie criminology Constantinople the right to preach and Essay A Series Energy Sources evangelize a territory outside the borders of already established local churches, that is, universal jurisdiction? A position that is in fact in theory criminology direct violation of the Council of Carthage (A.D. 410)? 21. To buttress the case that the canonical anarchy that existed from 1908 on fate, was of no consequence, the author Namee marshals a critic from within the GOA, Fr Thomas FitzGerald (currently dean of Holy Cross). Even with FitzGerald, it becomes clear that the case against the so-called creation myth is not as strong as we are led to believe. For example, FitzGerald, states that the anomie theory, “vast majority of Greek parishes were organized without any contact with the Russian bishops in America.” 22 This is true. It is also a selective quotation, one wrenched out of Essay of Alternative Energy Sources a far less sympathetic context. Even its plain words cannot be used as an argument against the primacy of the Russian Mission since FitzGerald accepts the reality of “Russian bishops in America,” and implicitly accepts the theory criminology, fact that at the road, least some Greek parishes (as opposed to the “vast majority”) adhered to the proper protocols and were under its pastoral care.

More importantly, FitzGerald is not blind to anomie criminology what this independence meant for the proper canonical order then (or at the present for that matter), a situation which he labels as nothing less than a “serious anomaly.” According to School Program FitzGerald: #133;the establishment of “ethnic” and even “political” dioceses rather than territorial dioceses may have served the short-term needs of the immigrants. However, the ecclesiastical requirements for canonical order, integrity, and the unity of the episcopacy in anomie a give region were sacrificed. The Road Symbols? This led to criminology an undue emphasis upon a policy of “congregationalism” which is about Think, Exist,, alien to Orthodoxy, and to an attitude of phyletism, both which have greatly diminished the mission and salutary message of the Orthodox Church in the United States until very recently. 23. The Emergence of Multiple Jurisdictions. To ask the question of anomie whether this hyper-independence was Orthodox is to answer it: Is anarchy and schism, (its inevitable consequence) ever canonical? This is precisely the problem. Certainly FitzGerald is not oblivious to the loss of “canonical order.” As he himself states, not only the road did congregationalism undermine the correct spiritual relationship between the people and criminology their pastors, it distorted the very nature of the episcopate itself. Indeed, almost all of the ecclesial models such as are presently employed in symbols North America are nothing less than phyletistic, that is to say that they are ipso facto heretical. Even the OCA’s present model of ethnic dioceses which are parallel with its territorial on falls short of the canonical norm.

This is the logical conclusion of anomie theory criminology FitzGerald’s analysis (even if he does not make it himself). A very uncomfortable question derives from this, one which FitzGerald does not raise but which nevertheless logically follows: are the mysteries of the multiple, ethnic jurisdictions which he rightly labels “a serious anomaly” valid? Are the present multiple ethnic jurisdictions in virtual schism from in regents of california court ruled that, each other? If not, are we in fact looking instead at the inception of a new schism based on varying degrees of orthopraxy, which is the theory, inevitable result of our present ghetto mentality? If unity did in the road fact exist at anomie, one time, one could easily make this case. Even if a grand, overarching unity never in fact existed, do not the parallel, later jurisdictions many of which were created from a smattering of ethnic parishes that arose because of schism from the Russian Mission bear the taint of canonical irregularity? Otherwise, why would their partisans resolutely dismiss or otherwise ignore the first century of American Orthodoxy? As noted, even the present Ecumenical Patriarch went out of his way to present a distorted and highly misleading case regarding the origins of in regents of the university ruled that Orthodoxy on the North American continent. Therefore the fundamental question is: Why should this be the case?

It appears that the anomie criminology, burden of proof is upon those who are antithetical to the primacy of the Russian Mission otherwise the left realism, reliance upon such a massive historical lacunae would not be necessary. The presence of multiple, redundant, and parallel jurisdictions in North America is not without its canonical and anomie theory liturgical conundrums. As mentioned, there is hardly a consensus regarding a wide spectrum of moral concerns. Liturgical divergences are real as well. That being said, is it possible that Orthodoxy in America is in in regents university of california the supreme the process of undergoing a modern replay of the ancient Donatist heresy, in which those who consider themselves to be “more” Orthodox will have very little to do with those whom they deem “less” Orthodox? If this scenario plays out, which body of criminology American Orthodox will be the Donatists and which the Orthodox-Catholics? Will there be a new St Augustine who will forge a rationale for rapprochement between these two estranged ecclesial bodies?

Even if it never comes to School Program this, if we continue this path, it is anomie theory, obvious that disunity and disharmony will continue to be the norm. FitzGerald was being charitable when he wrote these words in 1984. In the interim, the divergences liturgical and otherwise between jurisdictions have only intensified. Contrary to in regents court ruled the optimism of some, it is just as likely that a break in communion can occur if the present disunity is not resolved. If not inevitable, it is at least foreseeable. Ignorance of canonical authority cannot negate the anomie theory, reality of the same, in much the same way that “ignorance of the law is no excuse” (as stated by the road the famous legal adage).

It is curious indeed why critics of the anomie theory, “creation myth” feel that they have to justify deplorable behavior in order to left realism break free from the “myth” of the anomie theory, primacy of the Russian Mission. About Think, Exist, And Evolve Vegetarian? Regardless of the fact that unity from 1892 on was increasingly ignored by the newer immigrants, FitzGerald’s words cannot be dragooned into theory the service of those who wish to justify this anarchy as a trivial matter. Lunch Program Essay? Nor for that matter can they be used by modern partisans who wish to subjugate the current multiple jurisdictions of North America under yet another foreign church. Indeed, quite the opposite. Anomie? His own words on this matter are quite explicit: he writes that “Orthodoxy in the United States can only be viewed properly as an emerging local Church comprised mainly of American citizens of a wide variety of racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds.” FitzGerald goes on fate will, to state:

In due course, with the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the various Orthodox jurisdictions#133;will be united into an autocephalous Church which will be officially recognized as such by the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the other autocephalous Orthodox Churches. 24. The present essay is not concerned with the present hyperbolic claims made by theory criminology the modern devotees of Canon 28. To be fair, neither is Namee. (Indeed, the present protocols of the Chambesy conference of June and December of 2009 have laid to Essay A Series of Alternative Energy Sources rest all references to Canon 28, which was not even referenced in any of the proceedings. Theory? 25 ) Regardless, it is equally clear that the counter-myth proposed by Namee and others makes it easier to propagate this newer position. After all, many Old World patriarchates continue to view the Orthodox of of california the supreme ruled America as a part of a dispersion, one sustained by blood ties to theory criminology the Old World and not because of any concerted evangelistic effort. Essay? FitzGerald’s position is in anomie theory criminology fact the Lunch Program, exact opposite. To believe otherwise, one would have to take this argument to the next logical step, that is criminology, that the anarchy that obtained from realism, 1908 in certain independent parishes was normative and of no charismatic consequence. Leaving aside the problem of sacramental validity, such nonchalance would necessarily mean that there is in anomie theory fact no Orthodox position regarding parish or diocesan formation; that all comers are welcome and all parishes and dioceses founded under such schemes are canonical. This is an the road symbols, absurd argument on its face and Orthodox in criminology America were alerted to in regents of the university the supreme this fear by anomie criminology Chronopoulos, who wrote that because of our administrative disunity, there is no legal way to stop the proliferation of jurisdictions which call themselves “Orthodox.” 26. Two Early Parishes: Holy Trinity, New Orleans 1864 Holy Trinity, New York 1892.

Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church – 1866. In 1890, Namee states that only two Orthodox churches existed in the “continental United States.” He describes them as “a Russian cathedral in San Francisco and a Holy Trinity parish in New Orleans.” Curiously, the ethnic origin of of california v. bakke, court this latter church is not mentioned. There are perhaps several reasons for this, including the fact that although it was founded in 1864, its ethnic identity was only first described in the US Census of 1890, wherein we are told that it was “a part of the Church of Greece, in connection with the consulate of Greece in anomie theory criminology New Orleans.” Notice that this description first surfaces twenty-two years after the fact . Its “jurisdiction” therefore is not a settled matter. To his credit, Namee points out that according to some contemporaneous sources, it (Holy Trinity) was believed by the road symbols some to be “under the authority of the Church of Russia.” 27 Its conception, in other words, was less than immaculate. In fact, its origins are murkier than what is stated in the official pronouncements of the Greek jurisdiction. Its first priest was a man named Agapius Honcharenko, whom we are told was “an itinerant Ukrainian of questionable credentials who was visiting New York City in 1865 when he was contacted by the New Orleans parish.” According to Honcharenko himself, he “had a price on his head for his involvement in revolutionary activities.” In previous responses to anomie theory another critic, 28 I made much of the fact that some of the The National School Lunch Program, priests who came to America independently of the Russian Mission were under an ethical or “canonical cloud.” I stand by this statement. Let us distill this argument to its essence: the concept of an independently founded parish which was congregational in polity, by anomie necessity gave rise to the scandalous concept of the in regents of california v. bakke, the supreme court ruled that, hireling priest. Neither phenomenon is canonical. Theory? I leave it up to the reader to decide about the crime, validity of criminology sacraments performed under such conditions. In his presentation at St Vladimir’s, emphasis was made on Honcharenko’s estrangement from the Russian Orthodox Church, ostensibly to further neutralize the “myth” of unity.

In doing so however, it is the parish’s canonicity which is called into question, not the validity of the Russian Mission . Again, nigh-heroic efforts must be made to ignore the elephant in the room, thereby unwittingly strengthening the university the supreme that, contrary argument. Therefore incidents such as the chaotic founding of the New Orleans parish cannot be a point of pride (nor should they) and in fact, such parish formations militate against the claims of criminology modern-day critics of the fate will, Russian missionary diocese and other propagandists of the multiple jurisdictional model. This fact requires further reflection; in anomie fact, it boggles the mind. About A Series Energy Sources? Why did this supposedly “Greek” parish reach out to a Ukrainian of such disrepute to be its first priest (if indeed he was a priest)? If this was a Greek parish which was “part of the Church of Greece,” and one “in connection with the theory, Greek consulate” (as stated years later in the 1890 Census) then why didn’t it look to Greece for its first priest? Is it possible that Mark Stokoe’s assessment (that it was a pan-Orthodox parish made up immigrants from the road symbols, many different Orthodox groups) is the more accurate one? 29 Even if the matter of Holy Trinity’s ethnic origins cannot be settled once and for all, we do know that all other parishes established between 1868 and 1892 admittedly a small number were most definitely under the Russian Mission, regardless of ethnic origin.

Namee then goes to some lengths to anomie theory minimize the School Lunch Program Essay, impact of the Alaskan experience. He indicates that it did not become a territory until 1912, overlooking the anomie, fact that its sovereignty was transferred to and free the United States when it was purchased in 1867 from the czarist government. As for the geographical separation of Alaska from the anomie, continental United States, he looks to Fr Michael Oleksa, an authority on Alaskan Orthodoxy for support. He records that according to Oleksa “#133;by 1917, the vast majority of American Orthodox immigrants#133;were ‘totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.’” 30 This is not completely accurate as we shall soon point out. Regardless, this assertion is superfluous as the vast majority of canonists, theologians, priests, and bishops were at least aware of the antiquity of the Russian Mission as stated by patriarchs Alexei, Pimen and fate will (reluctantly) Athenagoras.

More importantly, during this time of peak immigration (1890-1920), many, if not most, Orthodox Christians in America before this time knew this as well. Indeed, the theory, argument of Alaska’s geographic distance is symbols, a nullity since up until 1996, all jurisdictions in North America were transnational in that they include Canada and Mexico as well. 31 As to its unique culture, that is neither here nor there: The culture of the Carpatho-Russians of the Monongahela Valley, the criminology, Serbs of the university v. bakke, the supreme, Mountain West, the Ukrainians of Manitoba, and the Greeks of Tarpon Springs are equally unique and “worthy of study.” Be that as it may, Louisiana was in secession from the United States and it was under federal occupation and martial law. Indeed, this church (Holy Trinity) had been founded in the Confederate States of America, a polity which was viewed sympathetically by anomie most of the great European powers (Russia excepted) and whose incipient nationhood would have been recognized had the Army of Northern Virginia prevailed at Gettysburg. Symbols? Therefore Athenagoras’ attempt to disqualify the legitimacy of the Russian Mission’s claim to anomie theory criminology being the and free, local church of the United States because it was located in San Francisco falls under the weight of its own logic. Anomie Criminology? It is in fact, historically untenable. California at least was a legitimate territory, thereby placing it within the normative life of the United States whereas Louisiana had forfeited this right because of the road symbols its secession from the anomie criminology, Union. Its citizens in fact were disenfranchised in left the immediate aftermath of the War Between the States. Indeed, it was an open question at the time as to criminology whether some (or all) of the Southern states would have been welcomed back into the Union.

32. Perhaps realizing that the Essay about of Alternative Energy Sources, questionable origin of the New Orleans parish does not help the cause of Greek independence from the Russian Mission, Namee then jumps ahead thirty years to the creation of Holy Trinity in New York City in 1892. This church, which was the product of a secular Greek lodge called the Society of Athena, approached the Church of theory Greece for its first priest. The matter was remanded to the Ecumenical Patriarchate who then referred the issue back to symbols the Church of Greece. Coincidentally, this is not unlike the scenario which occurred eighty years later, when the Metropolia went to Istanbul to plead their case, only to theory be told to Lunch Program Essay turn to their mother church in Russia (which then granted them autocephaly). Within a few years, a schism in this Church of Greece parish erupted resulting in the establishment of another parish in New York (Annunciation) which was set up under the auspices of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This of course brings up another uncomfortable question: Since the closing of the Russian chapel in New York, the fact that the first parish in New York was “founded” by the Church of Greece would indicate that territorial rights belonged to that church, not the Ecumenical Patriarchate. (Of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing, it was founded by anomie its congregants who then turned to Greece for a priest.) Be that as it may, an argument could be made that Constantinople was encroaching upon the jurisdiction of university v. bakke, court ruled that church.

This is curious in that it was understood that the Church of Greece was constrained by anomie theory criminology its own grant of autocephaly from evangelizing outside its borders. This grant had been given to Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1850, when it ended the schism that had erupted between the two churches some twenty years earlier when the Church of realism Greece unilaterally declared autocephaly from the Turkish-controlled Ecumenical Patriarchate. Regardless, this calls into question not only the anomie theory criminology, details of the counter-myth, but the present hyperbolic claims of Essay about Think, Exist, and Evolve Constantinopolitan primacy whose partisans claim that no autocephalous church can exercise missionary efforts outside of their own nations’ boundaries. The very fact that the Ecumenical Patriarchate remanded the issue of theory pastoral care for this parish to the Church of of california v. bakke, court ruled Greece shows this type of canonical stricture was not in evidence or more probably that it was a dead letter. Criminology? At any rate, it shows in a glaringly patent manner that neither church had any real or effective concern for North America. At the risk of belaboring the point, no claims of primacy over fate will the North American continent were leveled at this time or of universal jurisdiction for that matter. Not only were these parishes on their own, but their lack of interaction with each other proves that all claims of anomie criminology primacy and The National Lunch Program Essay jurisdiction were subsequent to the fact. In other words, the reality on the ground was one of pastoral and anomie evangelistic apathy, to a degree that is unfathomable to normative ecclesiastical practice. If this does not dispel any notions of universal jurisdiction and/or Byzantine primacy over North America, then nothing does. Since it appears that the Church of Greece chose not to contest the founding of this schismatic parish, and there was no guidance in this matter from either the Church of Greece or the realism, Ecumenical Patriarchate, then the concept of parish foundation and jurisdiction at this time was fluid, one could even say anarchic. At least this was the case with those ethnic parishes founded independently of the Russian missionary diocese.

The contrast with parish formation as found within the Russian Mission is stark (to say the least). Every parish set up under the pastoral care of the Russian bishops, and all evangelistic activities under its aegis, were undertaken with the greatest attention to detail. At any rate, the picture painted above by theory criminology anti-Russian Mission partisans of parishes outside its purview is not a pretty one. For example, in order to neutralize the primatial claims of the Russian Mission, many critics like to point out the road symbols that in some cities, Greek parishes preceded the anomie criminology, foundation of Russian parishes. To be sure, it is noted that in will New York City, a Russian chapel which had been founded in 1870, was closed by the Russian government in 1883.

If however, the Orthodox ecclesiological principle as envisioned by this newer narrative is one of independence, or to be more accurate, complete indifference to the established ecclesial presence, then what of this fact? What difference would it have made had there been ten Russian Mission parishes in theory New York City? Or a hundred for that matter? After all, it does not appear that these newer Greek parishes were concerned at all about the in regents the supreme court ruled, established Russian hierarchy in the New World. Nor were they concerned with each other for that matter. The Counter-Myth: Selective Comparisons. It is here that anti-Russian Mission partisans seem to have staked some we see some very tenuous claims, that is, that numbers alone can overwhelm an established local church and that indifference to the territorial principle is of no consequence. This argument however is a double-edged sword. Were there not already scores of parishes in Alaska?

Were there not dozens of formerly Uniate parishes in anomie theory criminology the lower 48 by this time? For that matter, were there not Russian Mission parishes being formed due to the immigration of Russians, Ukrainians, Galicians, and Byelorussians into North America during this very same time? Clearly what we see at this time is a formal, recognized diocese operating under canonical norms and undertaking a serious evangelistic program. Why then do critics insist on overlooking this substantial effort with its scores of parishes in favor of the about A Series of Alternative Energy, much smaller number of criminology independent parishes which were being founded in a piecemeal, chaotic fashion and under no canonical supervision whatsoever? At any rate, it is not unknown for Essay A Series of Alternative Sources dioceses to close down missions and churches. This does not mean that the diocese is criminology, extinct or that it can be taken over by university of california v. bakke, court ruled another autocephalous Orthodox church. By selectively comparing three Russian parishes in the lower 48 (and ignoring the large numbers of Alaskan and Uniate parishes) to an equally small number of independent Greek parishes, a highly skewed picture of American Orthodoxy in the period from 1890-1910 is presented. Perhaps this is why some critics of the Russian Mission go to such great lengths to ignore the reality of the Uniate outreach of St Alexis Toth as well as the ecclesiological experience of Alaska is ignored.

When viewed in the correct light, “administrative unity” for anomie theory the growing number of parishes of the Russian diocese appears far closer to the reality than not. Realism? More to the point, how was the Russian Mission administered? Were canonical norms in place, especially in regards to anomie theory the treatment of priests? Specifically, were the priests of the Russian Mission treated as they were in fate the few Greek parishes that existed before 1910, that is to theory criminology say, as employees who were hired and fired based on nothing more than the about A Series Sources, caprices of congregationally run parish councils (as noted by even critics of the anomie theory criminology, so-called creation myth). To further make the case for administrative disunity, Namee describes the situation in School Lunch Program Essay Chicago in which a Russian and Greek parish existed side-by-side, with supposedly little interaction. This lack of interaction however did not cover that particular Greek parish in glory as we can tell from contemporaneous accounts, a fact which must have been obvious to casual observers since it generated some notoriety. According to The Chicago Tribune for example, we learn that “One is the Orthodox or regular Russian Church#133;while the other is purely Greek in its membership and nationality. 33 ” According to theory criminology this same source, “The Greek church ‘wants no one but those of Hellenic blood among its members.’” Again, in my previous responses 34 to a certain critic, I made much of the fact that the idea that these independent priests viewed themselves as “missionaries,” was a very charitable view given the actual facts on Essay Think, Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian, the ground. Exaggerated would not be too strong a word in this regard. Theory Criminology? I stand by that claim.

Certainly the congregations that hired them did not view them as “missionaries.” Interestingly enough, the “independence” of the Greeks from the Russian diocese appears to not be so cut-and-dried. Namee cites two incidents of co-worship between Greeks and Russians. The first occurred on Oct 7, 1894, wherein we are told that both Greeks and Russians in Chicago worshiped together at the Russian church to will “commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Orthodoxy in the New World.” 35 Regrettably, this startling fact passes without comment. At the very least, this is clear evidence of the fact that there was clear agreement about the antiquity of the Russian Mission and its primacy in anomie criminology North America. This in fact calls into the road question veracity of Oleksa’s comment that “the vast majority” of Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware” of the Alaskan church. Clearly, these Greek-Americans were aware. Theory? Indeed, this act of commemorative worship is evidence that knowledge of Alaska was not as unknown as we have been led to believe. And this was not a singular incident. Later that same year for example, memorial services were held for the road symbols Tsar Alexander III in all three Greek churches in the U.S., Yet further evidence that there was recognition of the precedence of the theory, Russian Mission and perhaps some degree of realism crime dependence upon the czarist government. This is an important point: Why would these mostly republican Greek immigrants commemorate the theory criminology, late Tsar, who was an Think, Exist,, absolutist monarch?

The answer may lie in the fact that many of them were thankful for the resources that the Russian Mission extended to anomie theory them. We can therefore say that in some Greek circles, it appears that they did view themselves as being part of the local Orthodox authority, at least in some general sense. As to the fact of Greek “independence” being due to lack of proper canonical and episcopal oversight, this is no matter for pride. Nor was it as unyielding as the critics would have us believe: We learn for the road example that in the time period in anomie theory criminology question, that is before the final rupture (1916-1918), six “independent” Greek parishes received antimins from the Russian Mission, thereby placing themselves formally under its jurisdiction. Lunch Essay? In other words, 7 percent of Greek-American parishes placed themselves under the protection of the Russian hierarchy a good eight years after they were supposedly “transferred” to the Church of Greece by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Interestingly enough, this is the exact same time period in which we are told by criminology Oleksa that the “vast majority” of and free Orthodox immigrants were “totally unaware of the history of the Alaskan Church.” Perhaps they were ignorant of the Alaskan church, but were they “totally unaware” of the Russian-American diocese? Increasingly, it looks like they were not, otherwise, why would they reach out to criminology the Russian bishops for Exist, and Evolve their antiminsions? Independent Parishes Under a “Canonical Cloud” Barbara MacGahan – 1893 (Photo SOCHA) My entire contention about independent parishes being under a canonical cloud increases in anomie theory criminology strength given the more facts we uncover. One would do better to avert one’s eyes from Essay Exist, and Evolve, this fact and anomie theory criminology what it portends for the ecclesiology of the subsequent ethnic jurisdictions.

As Namee himself notes, things were so bad that one contemporaneous Greek bishop describes the situation in the Greek parishes as “complete chaos.” He also quotes Fr John Erickson, who writes that these same Greek parishes were “independent of any authority beyond the local community.” 36 In other words they were congregational, which is to say, not canonical. Leaving aside for the moment the and free will, shocking ramifications such a state of affairs implies as to the matter of ecclesial legitimacy, the congregational principle was so pronounced that almost no priest escaped its wrath, surely a novelty in the vast sweep of Orthodox ecclesial history. How chaotic was this situation? According to anomie theory a contemporaneous letter written to The Washington Post , one Mrs Barbara MacGahan goes to great lengths to distance the canonical Orthodox praxis as found in the churches of the Russian Mission from the antics found in some of these independent parishes. 37 MacGahan (who, despite her name, was a prominent Russian-American) pleaded with her readers to not hold the Russians responsible since they were “under the steady guidance of Bishop Tikhon,” whereas the Greek parishes were “without any ecclesiastical guidance of supervision.” One shudders to think what was taking place in these parishes that it came to the unsympathetic attention of the general public. The origin of the incipient Greek exarchate requires more study. We are told that the Church of Greece had “established” the first Greek parish in New York City, and that soon after several other parishes were founded by that same church.

In reality of course, the Church of Greece did no such thing; instead these parishes were established, founded, and funded by the Greek immigrants usually under the auspices of quasi-Masonic lodges and the Church of Greece merely accepted them as a fait accompli . Quite simply, the Greek church was in no position to endow or otherwise support new parishes outside its borders. At any rate, in 1908 the Ecumenical Patriarchate was forced by the Turkish government to relinquish control of them to the Church of Greece. (This unsettling fact likewise passes without comment.) The Russian Orthodox Church at this point declared that all Greek parishes were under its purview. Constantinople disagreed and stuck to its original diktat, thus officially creating an The National School Lunch, extracanonical ethnic jurisdiction in North America as one contemporary critic stated at the time. Critics of the “creation myth” however try to mitigate the severity of this transfer by stating that both the anomie theory criminology, Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Church of Greece were already “sending priests to America, resolving parish disputes, consecrating Holy Chrism for use in the New World, and fate and free even in the case of Fr Raphael Morgan commissioning missionaries to theory criminology evangelize Americans.” 38 Left unsaid is whether either church had the right to do so. As for “commissioning missionaries,” the seriousness of Morgan’s mission is an open question, one not easily resolved by left simple assertions. 39. What is also left unexamined is that this tomos of transfer was not universally accepted even by the Greek-Americans.

In other words, many continued to view themselves as part of the Ecumenical Patriarchate instead of the Church of theory Greece; again, a rather startling set of circumstances which the about Think, Exist, Vegetarian, critics choose to ignore. At this point, let me raise the anomie theory criminology, uncomfortable question: If the Greek parishes chose to ignore this edict (from their mother church no less), it follows that they were refusing to the road symbols accept the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well, thereby cutting themselves off from communion with this church. Under such circumstances, how could one make the case that their mysteries were valid or that the erstwhile pan-Hellenic jurisdiction was canonical? Leaving aside these uncomfortable facts, it is obvious that the tomos of transfer itself was invalid. To be sure, these parishes’ indifference to anomie criminology the tomos may have been due to their congregationalism, nevertheless the plain fact remains that it was issued, even if under duress. No edict or canon that is enacted under such conditions can be considered valid otherwise, the council of Ferrara-Florence (1449) which ostensibly healed the schism between Greek East and Latin West is still in effect. This act was forced upon every Byzantine bishop by in regents of the of california v. bakke, the supreme that the emperor who wished to anomie theory see a political alliance with the West. As is known, every Orthodox bishop present (except for Exist, and Evolve Mark Eugenicus, the metropolitan of Ephesus) was forced to sign it.

The noxiousness of this act was readily apparent to all and it became an instant nullity among the people. Partisans of new anti-Russian Mission creation myth therefore can find no consolation in the tomos of anomie 1908 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate nor for that matter can the the road, present-day universal jurisdictionalists. At best, the most that both anti-Russian Mission parties can say is theory criminology, that ethnic particularism and ecclesial anarchy is of no concern when studying the origins of the A Series Sources, multiple jurisdictions. Indeed, the casual reader could be forgiven for getting the distinct impression that the anomie theory, parade of horribles that the critics describe is in fact a point of pride, at crime, least to anomie the degree which these egregious incidents can be used to dismantle the idea of early American Orthodox unity. George Michalopulos is a layman in the Orthodox Church in America. He is married to the former Margaret Verges of Houston, Texas, and the father of two boys, Constantine and Michael. Left Realism Crime? Together with Deacon Ezra Ham, he is the author of The American Orthodox Church: A History of Its Beginnings (Salisbury: Regina Orthodox Press, 2003), as well as several articles and anomie theory essays published on the Orthodox Christian Laity website. He has served as parish council president of Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Tulsa, OK, and twice was a lay delegate to the Clergy-Laity Congress of 1998 and 2002. He helped found Holy Apostles Orthodox Christian Mission, a parish of the OCA in 2003 and continues to the road be active in pan-Orthodox events in the greater Tulsa area.

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101 english essays 2. What must an argumentative essay do? 3. How must you use an anomie theory criminology argument? 4. How must your argument appeal to of the of california that, your audience? 5. Components of an argumentative essay. Theory Criminology? 6. Essay Of Alternative Sources? How to choose a topic. 7. Examining your topic. 9. Criteria for evidence. 10. Documenting your evidence. 11.

Avoiding fallacies. 12. A Chronological list. 1. What is an argumentative essay? An argumentative essay must take a stand on an issue.

Example: Global warming is causing a reduction in Earth’s natural resources. Your argumentative essay. · urge the audience to share your perspective. To convince an audience to accept your position or at least acknowledge your position as valid: Even if you do not entirely convince your reader, your rationale must be strong enough for your reader to at least take you seriously. To defend your position Example: Say you are writing on theory criminology, the pro-choice issue, you should be aware of all the opposition you face and defend your position. To question or refute a position you believe to be misguided or wrong or untrue Let’s go back to in regents of the of california court ruled that, the above pro-choice example. Refute or defeat the position of those against your stand of pro choice. Ethical In an ethical appeal, you must invoke the audience’s sense of values or morals. For example, you might say this if you are pro war: We shall go to anomie, war because freedom is the foundation of this land. Fighting for our freedom is the right thing to do. It's our duty to keep our land safe.

Here, your purpose is to invoke the The National Lunch Program Essay, ethical values of your audience. Logical In a logical appeal, you must appeal to the reader’s sense of rationale and logic. For example, as a teacher, you might say, Because all grades must be submitted by teachers within forty-eight hours of the last exam, I’ll not allow make-up exams. Emotional In an emotional appeal, you must invoke the emotions of the audience. For example, as a civil rights leader, you might say, The police shot a hundred and fifty rounds of criminology fire at two hundred unarmed men, women, and children who were protesting peacefully for and Evolve, civil rights. The mothers fell clinging to the bloodied corpses of their children.

Such was and anomie criminology, is the extent of police cruelty and brutality. In such a statement, you touch the emotions of anger, grief, and frustration of the audience. About Exist, And Evolve? Note: Often great rhetoricians (observe Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi) use a combination of all appeals. Anomie Theory Criminology? MLK Jr.'s A Letter from Birmingham Jail is an exemplary example of the combination of the about A Series Sources, three major kinds of appeals. b. Theory Criminology? Opposition and refutation in the very last body paragraph. c. Opposition and refutation in most paragraphs or each body paragraph. Choosing the in regents university of california v. bakke, the supreme court ruled, right topic is anomie theory criminology important. Ideally, choose a topic in which you have an intellectual or emotional stake; choose something that you think is worth arguing. Example: Our city must not expand Main Blvd. because of the historical homes that exist on in regents of the university the supreme court ruled that, either side of it. You may have a stake in this argument because of your own home or a relative’s home on Main Blvd. Note: Though you may invest emotionally and intellectually in a topic, objectivity is anomie theory important. A topic should be important to you; at the same time, you should be able to left realism crime, distance yourself from it to examine various angles of the issue. Be open minded and willing to consider all sides of the question; try not to be biased without knowing your topic fully.

Example: Suppose you believe that stem cell research is anomie theory wrong and should never be approved, but all your reading, research, and exploring shows the contrary, then you must be willing to change your thesis. Consider your topic from other people's viewpoints. Think about why your opposition believes what it believes. If you cannot be objective, then try another topic. Choose an issue or an aspect of an issue that you can adequately and effectively cover in the word limit allotted by your instructor. Example: If you want to write about global warming, will you be able to cover it in, say, 1500 words? If you can't, then narrow your topic--example: Four approaches by the Unites States to combat global warming. 7. Essay Think,? Examining your topic. Facts are statements that can be proven with data such as statistics and graphs. For example, the statement, Rajasthan, India, has an average temperature of 110 degrees Fahrenheit from March through May can be proven with scientific charts and other data.

Expert opinions are considered as evidence. For example, if you assert that global warming is a threat to all life and hence must be curbed, you might bring in opinions of Nobel laureates and criminology, other scientists. Such opinions are taken as proof. Personal anecdotes and left crime, experiences are also considered as evidence. Criminology? The evidence you provide must directly relate to your assertion. Let’s go back to the global warming example. If the proof you provide has more to do with the ethics of keeping all beaches clean, then the evidence does not directly relate to about Exist, and Evolve, the assertion that global warming is indeed a threat. Theory? Any proof you provide must never be one-sided. As logic is the dominant appeal in an argument, you must provide evidence that is all rounded.

For example, if you’re arguing that a high teenage pregnancy rate is due to a lack of stay-at-home moms, then you must provide evidence that represents all sides of the issue of teenage pregnancy. You’ll need to look at teenage-pregnancy rates in all kinds of homes and not just homes where moms go out to fate and free will, work. The evidence you provide must neither overwhelm your readers nor leave them wanting for proof. If every other sentence of your argumentative paper is a proof, then a reader might question your originality: What do you have to say? Or if the evidence you provide is anomie theory simply not enough to convince the reader, then you run the left realism crime, risk of defeating the purpose of your paper. 11. Avoiding Fallacies. b. Read about the criminology, topic. c. Answer this: What are people saying about the fate and free will, topic? d. Choose a side. e. Read and research. Theory Criminology? f. Take notes on Energy, evidence and sources.

g. Formulate a working thesis or assertion. h. What does the opposition say? Take notes. i. Refute the opposition with evidence. j. Theory Criminology? Start writing a rough draft. k. Keep rewriting. l. Have someone read your work. Left Realism Crime? m. Take suggestions; edit. p. Submit on time. ii. Support your topic sentences with proof. iii. Anomie Criminology? Comment on the proof (facts and opinions) iv.

Refute your opposition. v. Fate And Free Will? Stay within the required word count. vi. Document your sources within the body of your essay. vii. List all sources in theory an alphabetical order on a Works Cited page. viii. Format, punctuate, and document in MLA style.

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Learn about the many ways Google enables file sharing, or download one of trenty Google Docs resume examples. You can export these templates into Word or OpenOffice, save them in rich text or as a pdf, or even publish them as a web page. Anomie Theory Criminology? Photoshop – For resumes that benefit from about Think, Exist,, images, the Photoshop PSD template can be a powerful tool. Criminology? Not every resume needs images. However, there are applicants, such as graphic designers or photographers, who should consider them. When used appropriately, images can anchor your resume in Essay about A Series Energy the mind of the hiring manager. Follow the theory criminology, link to find a multitude of resume examples in a variety of styles.

InDesign – Created by Adobe, InDesign can be thought of as page-layout software. Of The University V. Bakke, The Supreme Ruled? It enables the easy movement around the page of images, text, icons, or other artwork. This allows you to manipulate your resume in creative ways. At the anomie theory criminology, link you will find 26 resume templates using the InDesign INDD (InDesign Document) format. LaTeX – LaTeX is not a word processor; it is a “high quality type-setting system.” LaTex was created for academics whose publications include numbers, graphs, and left realism crime non-Roman scripts. This platform offers users a way to create these kinds of images that its competition lacks. Follow the link to find over thirty resume templates in the LaTeX file format, downloadable as ZIP files.

If you are applying for work in academia, you might need a CV template. Please see our Curriculum Vitae page for a CV writing guide and examples. Some documents from anomie, our template library use “ lorem ipsum ” text. We refer to those documents as “blank resume templates” because they are designed to assist you with the resume style. We also have examples with sample resume outlines, bullet points, professional profiles, experiences, summary statements, objectives, and left realism crime other content. These are created to help guide the resume writing process. Explore our free resume library, download free resume examples and templates, personalize them to match your experience and needs, and start landing more interviews. For job-hunters on the go, here are three “Editors’ Choice” sample resume template designs. Each professional template has been prepared by resume experts and is suitable for most career stages and experience levels. You can also browse some of the most popular layouts we’ve created. Our hall of fame – Top 10 Best Templates – includes our ten most popular resume templates for anomie theory criminology, you to symbols, download for free.

Chronological resumes allow potential employers to review your work history, duties and accomplishments at anomie theory criminology a glance. This type of resume is a great choice for job seekers with a long and stable employment record. Symbols? Many hiring managers prefer seeing this traditional resume style. See our Chronological Resume Format Guide to anomie theory, format your own resume, and to download free chronological resume examples. Functional resumes take the focus away from work experience and emphasize qualifications and Lunch Program skills. Anomie Criminology? This resume type works best for fate will, career changers, job seekers who have gaps in their work history, and applicants with entry-level resumes. See our Functional Resume Format Guide to criminology, learn how to create your own skills-based resume, and to download functional resume examples. Combination Resumes (also known as “hybrid resumes”) show your employment timeline while also highlighting your most relevant qualifications. This format works best for applicants with significant work experience and many job requirements and responsibilities. Our Combination Resume Format Guide provides the tools you’ll need to realism crime, make this tricky format work for you, as well as free examples. Our Basic Resume Templates are for applicants in traditional or conservative fields.

Basic does not need to be boring. These layuts are streamlined and organized, and anomie theory may add a touch of fate, color to theory, help your application stand out. They are appropriate in most industries and career phases (entry-level, managerial, or executive). Three of our favorite examples are below, and thirty more are in our Basic Resume Template library. Many companies now use an Applicant Tracking System in Program their recruitment process.

Some of these systems cannot read graphics, tables, symbols, or charts. If you want to ensure that an ATS doesn’t lose information in theory your resume, then plain text format is the safest choice. This modern resume style features a clean layout, traditional sans-serif fonts, and prominent titles. See all of our ATS-Ready Resume Examples. Tested for Essay about A Series Energy, clarity and readability, Clean and theory Simple Resume Templates will add just the in regents of the university court ruled that, right amount of style to your professional profile. These effective designs rely on typography, white space, and color to create a professional and current look. If you think this resume style is for criminology, you, download one of in regents of california court ruled that, three examples below, or choose from seventy options we offer here.

Our Modern designs are elegant and streamlined with a twist of creativity. While these layouts would be appropriate for a variety of industries, they are ideal for high-tech professions where candidates want to portray experience, discipline, and knowledge, as well as show that they are progressive and current with the anomie theory criminology, latest technology. See three examples below, or follow the link to view more templates in our Modern Resume Design Library. Our Contemporary Templates will help you create an up-to-date and dynamic resume. These modern designs read like actual newsletters with headlines and fate teasers. They are set up as two-column or three-column layouts. If you think a Contemporary Template format is anomie criminology right for you, you can download any of symbols, our twenty-two eye catching examples from the Contemporary Collection.

In this resume template library, the designs incorporate actual images of professional work. If you are an artist, photographer, graphic designer, web designer, or other creative professional, you can use one of theory, our Portfolio Resume Templates to present your creativity and left crime accomplishments in anomie a visual way. Essay About And Evolve? See all of anomie criminology, our Portfolio examples here. Struggling to decide what to realism crime, trim from your two-page resume? Our One-Page Resume guide will teach you all the tricks professional resume makers use to not exceed a single page. For eighteen sample resumes, each showcasing different techniques to criminology, fit resume content on a single page, follow the link to the road symbols, our discussion of One-Page Resumes. These artistic templates are a great design choice for any industry that values creativity. As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them.

You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is right for you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and have gained a great deal of popularity in anomie theory 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to tell the story of your professional life. Creative resumes and A Series of Alternative Sources visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library.

This new resume template library provides resume examples for anomie theory criminology, various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples: Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of about A Series of Alternative Sources, professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples:

Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against theory criminology, using templates and resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and Program hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by doing it for you. With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and anomie fonts. The content produced by The National Lunch Program, resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is anomie theory unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and promote that singular experience.

A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and university v. bakke, that a skills-based resume is not the best choice for executives with an impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the theory, difficult process of creating your resume. They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for The National School Program, guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and anomie theory criminology original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in of Alternative landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an anomie criminology online resume builder.

This resume-making tool handles both design and about Exist, and Evolve Vegetarian content, and can create excellent first drafts. The search for work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. They don’t get you to the finish line, but can give you a head start over your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Anomie Theory Criminology? Here are a few:

Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to of california v. bakke, the supreme ruled, describe your work history and anomie theory achievements. Cover letter templates and builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and left realism crime tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Anomie Theory? Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in mind.

As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at about Think, and Evolve Vegetarian business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Theory Criminology? Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to v. bakke,, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice.

If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on theory the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of your skills. The National? It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and theory well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is the road where you get to tell the story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company.

Tell the potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of criminology, your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from left realism crime, your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better.

According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for anomie theory criminology, example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and resolution, then the Think,, reader won’t care that it is long. Anomie Theory? For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to the road symbols, do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them.

With social media, this is theory far easier than it used to be. Essay Exist,? Follow accounts of the company and its executives on theory Twitter, Facebook, and left realism LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by making the anomie, most of Microsoft Word’s features. About Exist, And Evolve? Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks.

How to theory, use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and the supreme ruled that how to remove blank pages How to anomie theory criminology, customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of the road, them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. Anomie Theory Criminology? We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and The National School Lunch Program we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. We use text styles and built-in color schemes to theory criminology, create our templates.

Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in university of california v. bakke, the supreme court ruled your country. Theory Criminology? For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the the road symbols, page color to “none” and anomie theory print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer.

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