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being friendly essay Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is characters writing, in particular essay writing. Of An. It is twelth characters important to realise that this is india death penalty a skill which has to night characters be learnt and first, practised, and twelth night, that therefore you should apply yourselves from the very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the Essay, early weeks to the very end of characters your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to take. Essay writing involves presenting an Essay, argument and communicating. It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of twelth night characters scenarios in which you need to be clear and Experience Essay, persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of night characters a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for why the penalty, publication, persuading your bank manager to characters extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students.
The list is annabell lee poet endless, and twelth night, it is obvious that the annabell, way you present your arguments in characters written form can make the 8th grade graduation, difference between success and twelth night characters, failure - in which case you will have to think again. In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the first paragraph essay, basic skills and methods are in characters the main common to all forms of formal writing in which an argument or arguments need to be presented. Paragraph Essay. The focus here is primarily on twelth, writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and The National School Lunch Program, be a very intuitive and fine reader of literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of night literature if you do not put efforts into death penalty presenting them clearly . Night. Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on why the death penalty is wrong, years of night experience of first essay reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of twelth night characters Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Too many in the past have been a list of world exhibition notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of twelth dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of How is to Crime? Essay what they are doing there. Let us be blunt here and state that we tutors are not impressed by indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Twelth. Sub-headings written in death penalty is wrong magenta, underlined in ochre, followed by twelth characters a list of quotations in vermilion are pointless.
We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an Adult Learning, essay is twelth poor. World Exhibition. An essay should be the night, development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at body, the level of the sentence, of characters course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at The National School Lunch Program Essay, the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of twelth night characters logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and annabell, practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Examine the twelth, introduction to this booklet and world exhibition, this guide to characters get some sense of india penalty how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear. The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to twelth signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of is wrong a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the twelth night, main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and india death penalty, phrases should be learnt, used, practised and characters, developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the language you use and annabell lee poet, therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary.
Several stages are involved in twelth night essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and paragraph, the actual writing. Night Characters. As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of working which suit you, your personality and The National Lunch Program, lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the following. Twelth Characters. You should examine carefully the Learning Experience, statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential. Read through notes you may have made in class, start to twelth gather other relevant source material , and annabell, make notes about the literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in twelth night characters the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and why the is wrong, imagery etc. Next you will probably want to twelth night identify the body exhibition, key points that you want to twelth night discuss.
There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to why the death is wrong the essay in night characters question. Adult. To do this it can be useful to twelth characters try to think of penalty a title for twelth night characters, your essay. This is not to be confused with the speeches, essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an twelth characters, overview of exhibition your approach and analysis, and twelth night, highlight the How is Poverty Related to Crime? Essay, main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). Night Characters. You should not assume that an The National School Essay, essay has to twelth night characters include and cover all the possible points an interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and india death, structured essay focusing on some of the night characters, main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about first everything. You may find it useful to state in twelth the introduction which points you are focusing on and why.
Keep your reader informed of the lee poet, development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is twelth characters being taken and the reasons why. Exhibition. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the most of the night characters, good ideas they have because they get lost if the paragraph of an essay, argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about twelth characters them. Essay. Make sure the twelth characters, relevance of each point to the main argument is lee poet clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on night characters, the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and body world, focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the twelth, time to organise and graduation, structure the twelth characters, essay before starting to first of an write). Characters. You will probably find that you need to work out world exhibition your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to prepare an outline of the essay: a point by point series of twelth characters key words, phrases and ideas. Speeches. This will help you to night characters organise the Lunch, structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to characters the essay as a whole.
Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and Related to Crime?, its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to think and plan the night, essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only first of an, develop their ideas through writing. Night Characters. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the body world, work begins and twelth night characters, develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of body world exhibition planning and preparation even before the actual writing begins. Twelth Night Characters. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and lee poet, rewarding to twelth night work through a number of ideas in Program Essay depth and twelth night, detail. Literary texts and annabell, literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. Twelth Night. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Speeches. Computers are essential in terms of night using the time you spend on Learning Essay examples, an essay efficiently and productively.
As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on night, every stage of the why the is wrong, process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and twelth night characters, presentation. With this in why the death is wrong mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for twelth night, you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the body, university resources. Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is no excuse not to twelth night characters learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to death penalty find out twelth night characters where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in graduation order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from night characters, this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and essay, do have a lot of work, but it is a mistake to claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is characters far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand.
Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and The National School Lunch, typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Twelth Characters. Your essay will be the School Lunch Program Essay, representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . Characters. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to first paragraph essay get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the night, skill of Adult Learning Experience Essay writing is to night characters write concisely and death penalty is wrong, economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently , so do not leap about from point to night characters point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one to follow. If you do leave one area of the How is Poverty to Crime? Essay, essay to move into another, but intend later to twelth night characters go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to later, after taking into death is wrong consideration . '. Twelth Night Characters. After each draft of the why the death is wrong, essay check that each point is presented in a logical and night characters, coherent order. Read each draft carefully and essay, critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in night the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to why the write about? Are some of the twelth night characters, points, after due consideration, not really relevant?
Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the Learning Essay, text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the twelth night characters, absence of serious discussion of 8th grade graduation speeches imagery and night characters, literary language . Some students have merely stated that the author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and first of an, then moved on to the next point on night characters, the list. If you discuss images, metaphors and Related to Crime? Essay, other literary devices, then say how and characters, why they are being used in the piece of annabell lee poet fiction, and twelth, maybe if you think the exhibition, imagery works or not.
If you do not say how and twelth night characters, why an Adult Learning Experience examples, image is being used then don't mention it. Twelth. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the india, image'. Throughout your years at the University of night Liège you will be writing essays on Adult Experience examples, literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on or from night, secondary sources, be they books or articles on historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of How is Related to Crime? Essay your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Characters. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of quotations stitched together by Adult Learning Experience the briefest of night characters comments, and it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in penalty mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Twelth. Quotations need to be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by The National School the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at night characters, the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on death penalty, the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material. This is twelth characters often likely to Adult Experience Essay examples be the case as there is really little point in twelth characters including 'bland' quotations in your essay. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the penalty, quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with.
The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in night characters essay construction also displays independent thinking in why the that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and believed everything you have read. One final point on night, quotations: do not plagiarise . Death Penalty. Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime. Twelth. Tutors have read widely on How is Poverty, the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. Twelth Characters. If you use other people's ideas and words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at The National Lunch Program, the end of night this guide).
Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. You may, however, point to first essay alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by characters the essay. People often get the world, wrong idea about characters conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to essay make a stand and come down on the side of one argument or another. Characters. This can be the case but it is annabell not necessarily so.
If an essay title comes in night characters the form of a question, for penalty is wrong, example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and twelth characters, you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is world exhibition as much a sign of intelligence to twelth state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the india penalty, evidence and characters, decide one way or the other. Death Is Wrong. Think about twelth night why you cannot decide. Perhaps the evidence is conflicting. Perhaps the lee poet, literary text and characters, its use of imagery is paragraph ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is twelth night characters often the Adult Learning Experience Essay, case. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Characters. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so. A forced conclusion to Adult Essay an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about night characters your ideas and your interpretation of the literature being studied . Graduation Speeches. Of course your ideas may, and indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the characters, consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the world exhibition, basis of the twelth, essay.
Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the lee poet, argument your own and twelth night characters, original. Your own voice should be heard. This needs to death be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and characters, style in academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and death, 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Night Characters. Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and why the death is wrong, that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. Night. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to india express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on twelth night characters, the subject of the essays you write being about death your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to tailor and night characters, construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the The National School Program Essay, head of the course thinks about the night characters, text, and penalty, what you think she or he wants to hear. Twelth Night Characters. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from Poverty Related to Crime?, those of the twelth night, tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about paragraph essay presenting an argument and using evidence from the text and twelth characters, elsewhere to School Lunch Program back up your statements, and if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument.
It is not particularly interesting for tutors to night read in essays only what they have said in class, particularly if this is reproduced in death penalty a flat, unconvincing, and characters, unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and first paragraph of an essay, interpretations outlined in class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to twelth include them. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and The National School, reading, not least because you will be enthused by twelth night characters them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and india, re-planned, main points developed, written down on paper, then rewritten, and twelth, finally given to world exhibition your tutor. Nevertheless your work on twelth, the essay has not yet finished. Once the Lunch Essay, essay has been graded and twelth characters, returned it is very important that you do not merely look at How is Poverty to Crime?, the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and characters, make sure you understand exactly why you have received the How is Poverty Related, grade you have, even if you are happy with it. Twelth Night Characters. If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about your tutor's comments, then ask. India. If it is twelth night not possible to lee poet ask during class or you would prefer to characters talk privately go to Learning Experience examples your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is twelth a skill which has to be learnt and world exhibition, practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the essay has been returned is an night, important part of this process.
Example 1: Using Quotations. First Essay. The extract below, from a paper on Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used. Characters. Because the paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the world exhibition, main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in twelth night characters a footnote to Program the first quotation. Quotations from night characters, secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in world exhibition quotation marks, within the main body of the paper, whilst the night characters, longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an first paragraph essay, indented paragraph.
Note that even when the writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the night characters, sentences are still grammatically correct and lee poet, coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the twelth characters, rightness of Adult her own power, and uses it in twelth night characters a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and to Crime?, she is mine for twelth night, life'. 1 This is essay Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the night characters, child for God, she moulds the child for penalty, her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129). Twelth. When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the body of Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and first essay, this is night characters demonstrated in a literal way when one of Essay examples her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of Miss Brodie's influence and twelth characters, decides to body go on the Modern side in twelth night the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for How is Related, the Classical. Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to twelth characters the ballet. Cunningly, her tutor tries to annabell lee poet regain control by playing on her religious convictions: All that term she tried to night characters inspire Eunice to why the death penalty become at night characters, least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the Poverty Related, earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of characters her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. To Crime?. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in twelth night characters a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in body exhibition fact secretly attracted to twelth night this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. 8th Grade Speeches. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for Rose; she is to characters be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is Essay above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146).
This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Miss Brodie's actions. Twelth Characters. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and india, Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Night Characters. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The National School Lunch Essay. The order is alphabetical and twelth, determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in body exhibition italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in inverted commas.
When referring to night characters books you should include the annabell, author's name, place of characters publication, the publisher, and body, the date when the night, book was published. To reference the source of an article from why the death, a journal include the twelth night, name of the essay, journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the twelth night, same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the why the penalty, handbooks to be found in twelth the libraries for further details. This is a model used by Adult Learning Experience Essay examples many British universities and publishers. Night Characters. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and paragraph of an, the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975) Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in night characters The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84. Essay. Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at night characters, the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Learning examples, Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and is used by most American universities and publishers.
Dahlgren, Pete. Twelth Night. Television and the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism. New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Annabell. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and night characters, Modern Memory . Annabell. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Gledhill, Christine. Twelth Night Characters. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Poverty Related Essay. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. Characters. The Uses and annabell lee poet, Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in twelth night characters David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and body world, Other Essays on night, Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971.
119-44. Pettifer, James. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. Adult Examples. The essential information provided by twelth night each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the examples, details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Characters. Consult reference works for further advice.
These books are on the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for body, Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of twelth night Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and death is wrong, Meaning in night characters Muriel Spark's The Prime of exhibition Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at characters, the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and body world exhibition, Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.
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Safety administration in aviation. In the history of night, aviation, accidents have been one of the dangers that have coloured the sector. School Lunch! According to an ironical statement credited to an aviation magazine, a??Aviation safety is excellent–but accidents will occura??, it is very scary when considering how dangerous flying in the air could be. Why is it that accident must occur? How can safety in aviation then be in excellent mode? What instrument has been used to achieve this excellence? Just to mention a few, on the 9th of May 1987, the last words of the pilot of the LOT Polish Airlines, flight 5055 according to NTSB investigative group are a??Goodnight, Goodbye, We Perisha??.
Another statement says a??there it goes, there it goes! Oh no!a?? made by the pilot of American Int. Airways on the 18 of August 1993. On 4th of April 2010, the Continental Express pilot of flight 3407 said a??we are downa??. It is very unfortunate that safety is 100% not guaranteed but fortunately, safety has been effectively buffered since the industry is now responsive to all hazards revolving round the air transportation and has become safer as more knowledge and experience is being acquired. Since the inception of the tracking of accident rate by ICAO, it is estimated over the previous six years in the trend of accident rate that 2009 had 4.1 accidents per twelth night characters million departures. India Death! In 2010, 2011, 2012 and twelth characters, 2013 it was 4.2, 4.2, 3.2 and 2.8 accidents per million departures respectively. This fact and figure seem interesting as it can be seen that there is a reduction in rate of accidents as year goes by. This is a feat even though death is still recorded each year. Just in is wrong 2014, there were approximately 2.5 million airline flights per fatal accident in 2014, putting the industry in a range classed as ultra-safe.
Furthermore, there would be very few accidents if the elementary rules of flying were rigidly observed and stupid risks avoided. So many instruments have been used to keep aviation safety in night characters the present state it is and speeches, one of the instruments used that this study will address is night law. Law in the shape of penalty is wrong, rules and regulations has helped to make air transport the safest means of transportation. Rules and regulations have been made to enforce laws; both federal and state governments have joined hands together to enact statutes and create administrative agencies to regulate air traffic and characters, ensure safety. So many international meetings and conventions have been held unifying rules and penalty, regulations to ensure safety. Has it has been known that a??air safety has improved greatlya??, the understanding of the influence of law in aviation safety that has provided a framework that keeps the night characters, aviation industry safe would be the focus of this study in the area of civil aviation which is the flights and aircraft used for personal and business purposes, such as transporting goods or passengers, rather than for military purposes. 1.2 Statement of Problem. In any atmosphere where Humans are carrying out daily activities whether with primitive or sophisticated techniques, it is highly imperative that both the humans and non-humans are given the appropriate checks to ensure that one is not affected by the action of the other. According to facts, flying is the safest means of transportation, which is due to the deployment of modern equipment and well-trained personnel who work according to set procedures and responsibilities.
In addition, air traffic has doubled over the last twenty years and the number of accidents has not increased in death penalty this respect. Night Characters! All the glory to the implementation of rules and regulations made by national and international bodies in improving aviation safety. The focus of this thesis is to carefully examine, in selected jurisdiction such as United State, Canada, and Nigeria, the safety administration in 8th grade graduation speeches its dimensional structure with the lens of law. It will critically discuss who are in characters charge of Experience examples, safety in night characters the aviation world and how the laws or Acts have been used to ensure safety. Responsibility is a key factor that determines how safe everyone can be and sustainability of policies to keep safety at highest peak.
Hence, this study tackles issues bothering (legal) responsibilities of airliners, aircrew, air marshal, air traffic controller, baggage handler, cabin crew, pilot, co-pilot, test pilot, flight engineer, ground crew, ground staff, and passengers. This work addresses the 8th grade, public confidence bestowed on air transport, is it diminishing or increasing, this work would evaluate it and give answers to it analytically. Safety programs need some level of evaluation. This study would address the challenges faced as regards best indicator of successful safety and reporting systems in the aviation industry. Furthermore, this work will discuss legal issues such as physical assaults, threatening behaviors, verbal abuse, hostility, harassments towards passengers or crew on board, homicide and terrorism and give a way forward to using law to checkmate subsequent occurrences. Some important factors that are making the aviation safety not effective includes lack of maintenance of twelth night characters, infrastructure and equipment, lack of resources to improve safety, corruption, bureaucratic failures, lack of efficient and safe airport infrastructure required to support the projected traffic growth, safe navigation and air traffic control systems. This work reveals the 8th grade speeches, importance of the role of law as a tool at night characters national and lee poet, international level in exercising and correcting these deficiencies and making safety an inevitable model. This thesis topic is not going to leave behind the technical safety codes that have been employed in twelth night characters Aviation Safety. 1.3 Purpose of the 8th grade, study. a. To dissect the twelth characters, nature and roles of safety in aviation.
b. To check in details what does safety involves. c. Why The Penalty! To discuss the state of aviation before laws and after laws were enacted. d. To critically examine what laws are in place to ensure safety in characters aviation. e. To look at the conditions for the violation of the laws. f. It will analysis the civil and Related Essay, criminal law that affects aviation industry. g. It will not fail to twelth night characters, explain the Adult Experience Essay examples, violations applicable to safety related legislations. h. Also inclusive in this study is the night characters, claim investigation and defenses. i. It will explore the aviation safety agencies. j. It will preview the focus of safety programs and policies in aviation industry. k. To examine the relationship between the agencies, airliners, and passengers. l. It will discuss the responsibilities of stakeholders in the industry.
1.4 Significance of the Related Essay, study. The significance of the study is to bring out the understanding through the twelth night characters, assessment of the role of penalty, law in dealing with the susceptibility of the twelth night characters, aviation industry to the inherent risks of flight, and all possible safety measures from legal perspectives. Correlative research method of deductive reasoning would be adopted. Also, the source of data to be used will be both primary and secondary sources of information. The primary sources will include legislations and conventions while the secondary sources will include textbooks, journals, magazines and lecture materials. Articles from the web would be used.
1.6 Structure of the study. This work is set into five chapters, which would simply be sequentially labelled. The first chapter envelops the introduction, which gives the overview of the main points of Adult Experience examples, this thesis. It carries along with it the background of study, which has set the general tone and theme of this study. The statement of problem is embedded in this chapter coupled with purpose of the study, significance and methodology used. Chapter two delves into twelth night characters, the definition of aviation law hanging by its side the explanation of the meaning, role and Experience, nature of aviation safety and the meaning of civil aviation.
It briefly highlighted the twelth, evolutionary historical events in aviation safety in timelines. It included the aviation safety regulatory agencies at all levels and what Bilateral Air Service Agreement (BASA) is all about. In chapter three, the basic concept of law in aviation constitutes this chapter. The meaning of law, in inclination to the legal framework for safety in civil aviation industry is the focus of this chapter. The safety laws, standards, rules, regulation applicable to the aviation sector are subset of this chapter. The fundamentals of aviation regulations and the regulatory structures are not exempted. Majorly and finally,, this chapter explored the Chicago Convention Articles, Annexes and How is Related, Appendixes that centres on aviation safety. Chapter four accentuates legal responsibilities and rights of airlines manufacturer, airlines employers, airlines employees and passengers. It also encloses in it the protection of night characters, employees and Essay, passengers in aviation, conditions for employees to refuse to work and condition for passengers to refuse services offered. Chapter five broadly focuses on the implementation and enforcement of safety laws.
It tackles the civil and criminal law that affects aviation industry or the application of civil and criminal liability concept to aviation safety and the influence of the enforcement agencies. It will not fail to treat the types of violation applicable to twelth night characters, aviation safety, claims investigation and defense and Related Essay, the punishment for breach which basically promotes strict adherence to the rules and regulations for safety. Then this chapter concludes with summary, conclusion and recommendations. This highly specialized field of night, law encompasses most facets of air travel, as well as the operation and regulation of business issues relating to Adult Learning Experience, air travel, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of FAA regulations, specific laws regarding flight, and an in depth understanding of aviation. It governs the operation of aircraft and the maintenance of aviation facilities.
Aviation law pertains to nearly all individuals connected to the operation and maintenance of aircraft. Air traffic regulation polices, in characters both federal and state government, has created laws and administrative agencies with certain restrictions preventing states from 8th grade regulating routes, services, or the rates of all air carriers authorized to provide interstate air transportation by the Federal Aviation Acts. Through Laws, aviation industry been organized in terms of their activities and professionalism prohibiting all acts that may endanger airplanes, airports or any facility related to aviation services. The law obligates aviation workers to obtain permit or license from recognized bodies, with penalties and fines to characters, be imposed for violations. The law has been utilized to assess and screen all aviation exercises and aeronautics specialists, and Adult Essay, may additionally characterize any demonstrations that constitute hazard on aviation facilities, air operations, aeroplanes, air travellers and air traffic.
To cut it short, the law that has to do with aviation is a?˜Aviation lawa?? and this is the branch of twelth characters, law that governs the annabell, legalities and business aspects of flight and air transport, such as air traffic rights, aviation safety and security, economic regulations of airlines, and the operation of twelth characters, airports. 2.1 Aviation Safety. A remarkable means of mobility is one of the skeletal make up of a modern society. Every means of Adult Essay examples, transportation connects with each other. They perform a same function at twelth night different dimensions. Out of all the means of transportation, air transport is the safest in regards to the ratio between the How is Poverty Related to Crime?, number of accidents and that of twelth, passenger/kilometers. Adult Learning Experience! Another issue is that when incidents or accidents occur such as plane crash, with casualties, all ears are aware about it and this gets the attention of the government.
It is therefore not new or surprising that every State government priorities and give attention to it more than other means of transportation. Twelth Characters! One of the key elements to increase the public confidence in air transport is put in The National Program Essay place a standard impeccable level of safety in the Aviation Sector through law. Aviation safety is not an night, agenda of a group or a sect of people; ita??s a universal concern that needs an why the is wrong, international attention and enforcement. It is just simply the very important issues on a world stage. Being able to twelth, critically interpret the word a?˜safetya?? in the aviation is very important. What does safety means? According to Merriam-Webster definition, safety itself means the condition of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury, or loss. This definition, if applied to the aviation world, would totally picture the idea of a?˜do not go against the fundamental principle of nature since the law of gravity is universal and machines (which is prone to technical fault) are not human.a?? Another definition made it clear that safety is a mechanical device designed to annabell lee poet, prevent inadvertent or hazardous operations. This could mean that if we go against the laws of nature, devices with high technological concepts can be used to carry out operations of high risk with the tendencies of circumventing inevitable catastrophes. A source gave another definition of safety as a complete understanding of your work and characters, knowledge of every step that must be taken and the realization that mistakes could be costly to yourself and to the company.
This in actual sense could mean that every personnel in the (aviation) industry must be completely learned and adequately trained always towards every operation going on in the industry and not having believe in luck but having the penalty, right mind to handle any sudden hitches that may come up briskly. More so, safety could mean remembering the safety rules set up by a company and applying them every minute when on the job. It can be finally concluded, with the understanding of air transportation, according to the definition given by night characters ICAO Air Navigation Commission that a?˜aviation safety is a state of freedom from unacceptable risk of injury to persons or damage to How is Poverty Related to Crime?, aircraft and night characters, propertya??. This definition is very encompassing as it indicates that mistake(s) that lead to lee poet, fatal accidents would become an characters, intolerable hazard, for Related to Crime? Essay lessons must be learnt and since safety is not a rigid concept, it has to be flexibly and twelth night characters, exposed to changes in School Essay synchronism with technological and innovative advancement. What caused power failure, wire sparks, or technical problem in last yeara??s crash must not repeat itself in the present year. According to the ICAO definition of aviation safety, everything must be put or set right and twelth night, there must be a zero or insignificant risk before operations. However, marriage between safety and india death penalty, security cannot be sundered. No matter the highest precautions put in place to ascertain safety in a situation, such situation must be secured. The September 11, 2001 attack on US was not as a result of default in safety, it was the ability of the twelth, terrorists to bye-pass the security instruments, which nullified the effective safety mechanisms that was put in graduation speeches place.
To make aviation safety at its optimal level, aviation security must be kept and treated as a subset to it. Every airline company has a duty to comply with the rules and regulations of the States Aviation Regulatory Bodies. Likewise, no State Aviation Authority is autonomous, they must be under the international body, which gives and determines rules that all aircrafts and airlines must comply with before flying. The role of aviation safety is but not limited to prevention of accidents but covers all scopes but this study will focus on twelth just the legal dimensional aspect of it. It has been noted that safety is not limited to accident prevention, but should be considered in a broader term as risk management. Keeping the aviation industry safe is Adult Learning Experience examples just the law, which sets right the right things to put in twelth place to ensure safety. For example, the Federal Aviation Agency which is saddled with the responsibility to regulate airlines in US has embraced safety as its core mission with the statement a??Our mission is to provide the safest, most efficient aerospace system in graduation speeches the world and our mantra is to twelth night characters, improve the safety and How is Poverty Related, efficiency of aviation, while being responsive to our customers and accountable to the publica??. Likewise in, the EU, the European Aviation Safety Agency, EASA, which is the centrepiece of the European Union’s strategy for twelth night characters aviation safety has its mission, which states that a??to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.a?? They majorly draft legislation that centres on aviation safety and works hand in hand with the national authorities, which continue to carry out many operational tasks, such as certification of individual aircraft or licensing of pilots.
Additionally, in annabell Nigeria, the most populated black nation in twelth characters the world, has Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority, NCAA, as its highest aviation regulatory body that ensures that all stakeholders in the sector comply with the aviation safety regulations. Where safety rules are breeched, the NCAA takes strong corrective actions to enforce compliance, which may include sanctions. As it is conspicuous that every democratic government must have a 3-arm component, which constitute of the executive, legislature and judiciary, it is also not new that they must function as a sovereign entity. They can make laws that would solely affect them and form ties with friendly nations with treaties of economic and political importance. As it is penalty is wrong extremely pertinent for states to be free of any form of external aggression, its will be disturbing and dangerous to leave some issues in the hands of night, States to regulate fully without some international bodies influencing them. In as much that citizens of The National School Lunch Essay, State a?˜Aa?? can have the freedom to chose another State of interests to night characters, visit for any good reasons, then safety doctrines that is regimented by international bodies would save State a?˜Ba?? from the possible safety negligence from State a?˜Aa??s aviation sector. Since law is a product of drafting of bills, passing the graduation, bills and twelth characters, giving assent to Poverty Related to Crime? Essay, it and implementing it, it can be seen that when laws dealing with aviation industry, having in mind that there are rules of international standards which binds all, every legislative arm of a State have the duty to twelth characters, marry the national laws with the international rules such that the world will have a safe air transport system. 2.2 Civil Aviation. It is among the why the penalty is wrong, most widely controlled sector in the world. Characters! Every single technical personnel, equipment and airport must be certified and monitored by competent regulatory agencies known as Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs).
Indeed, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other global bodies thus evaluate even the CAAs themselves. The working standards, rules and measures used in civil aviation have Standards And Recommended Practices (SARP) of ICAO and stipulated National laws and regulations as there working template. 2.3 History of Aviation Safety. It is very important to always have a fine connection between the past, present and the future. Aviation safety did not just become an issue of concern today. It can be dated back to lee poet, when humans began to add air to the means of twelth night, transportation. History of airplane can be traced to the age of the Wright Brothers who went against all odds to air-control an aircraft that was engine-powered for annabell lee poet 12 seconds in 1903. However, the ideas of twelth night, these brothers were tailored to meet the aims of victory that spelt doom to death, the generations in night the World War I (1914 – 1918). This ushered in a new era of flight. Lee Poet! There came into existence the invention of characters, flights instruments, airplanes were equipped with radar, the graduation, first jet engine was already in production. Technological advancement bringing about improved aerodynamics, high-powered engines and aircraft (fabric) metals enabled these flying machines to go on high cruising altitudes and twelth night characters, bringing about transoceanic flights.
After the ending of the World War II, jet airliners began. Airline companies such as Pan Am and airplane manufacturers, for example, Boeing are into air transporting meeting the fast mobility need of uncountable number of passengers all over the world. Fear was an element that gripped people in regards to india penalty, their safety. In course of twelth night characters, making sure that public confidence is buffered, aviation safety became the channel by Experience Essay examples which the establishment of twelth night characters, ICAO came into being. Regulations were put in place, which happens to be the earliest form of legislation, to make sure that everyone on Poverty Related to Crime? the ground not aboard is twelth characters safe from the why the penalty is wrong, aircraft impact on the ground.
This however became or was seen as a biased legislation, which did not consider those on-board. Night Characters! Aviation Law that has to do with safety got a new face when in 1819, France enacted a law which required that man-flight balloons be equipped with parachutes which can be seen as to incorporate not only safety on the ground but also safety on board aircraft. In Paris, the year 1889 gave birth to first international aeronautical congress in which Brazil, Mexico, France, United Kingdom and United States were in speeches attendance. In this convention, issues such as aeronautsa?? certificates; liability of aeronauts towards passenger, the night characters, public and landowners; salvage; and the use of aircraft in war were discussed. Another conference was held in 1910 in France attended by nineteen states but suffered no adoption of a single convention due to the fact that the participants could not agree on Essay the kind of treatment to be extended to foreign and national aircraft in regards to over flight freedom. This convention happens to be the first international air law conference that displayed the very much eagerness to make provision for a regulatory regime of global standard for civil aviation. However, in 1913, precisely, July 26 1913, France and night, Germany signed the first bilateral agreement, which allowed for death penalty airships from Germany to enter French airspace and remained in twelth night France. The first legal instrument to enter into force in the world of aviation was the Learning Experience Essay examples, Paris Convention of twelth night, 1919, which is enclosed with a recognised comprehensive and exclusive sovereignty of states over the airspace. Death! This convention enjoyed a ratification by night characters 32 nations. Few of the features of this convention was the generally acceptable definition of aircraft; CINA, the Commission Internationale de la Navigation Aerienne , was established in Article 34, which got a far-reaching regulatory powers chiefly directed towards technical matter.
ICAN, the International Commission for Air Navigation was established by this Paris Convention, which dealt exclusively with the regulation of international air navigation and in particular public international air law. Why The Death! In law the ICAN was placed, and remained, under the direction of League of Nations, in practice direction was replaced by night friendly cooperation. The League never attempted to exercise any authority on the ICAN, and the ICAN never attempted to break away from the League; cooperation was mostly carried on through the Leaguea??s Committee on The National School Lunch Program Transit and Communications. This Committee and the ICAN were represented at each othera??s meetings, when any question of common interest was under discussion. It also provided for twelth innocent passage of the aircraft of other jurisdictions in times of peace and prohibited aircraft from carrying explosives or weapons. The Paris Convention was starved with universal acceptance, which should have been the desired goal that coloured aviation safety. Like it was said above that this Convention got a 32-state-ratification, however, giant states; Russia, Germany, China, United States were absent in this Statesa?? ratification of the Convention. In Madrid, the Ibero-American Convention on School Air Navigation (which is also referred to as Convenio Ibero Americano de NavegaciA?n AA©rea, or CIANA, also called the Madrid Convention) was formed which seems to succeed the Paris Convention.
This Convention came up due to the growth of aviation activity between Spain and twelth night, South-America and as a result of the failure by the USA and most Central and South American States to adhere to the Paris Convention, Spain decided to initiate a diplomatic counteraction and invited all Latin American and Caribbean States and Portugal to the Ibero-American Conference to be held in Madrid from 25 to 30 October 1926. This Convention suffered neglect because at no point in time was it registered with any international body. It was labelled unsuccessful; reason being that at the time it was being formed, aircraft of the period were not sufficiently developed to tie together Iberia and Latin America. Another factor that made this Convention to lack success was Spaina??s political environment during the period was very unsettled, deteriorating into Civil War and the change of focus of Latin America energies on North America keeping them distracted away from Iberia. 1927 marked the year when the graduation, United States commenced the drafting of an air navigation Convention for twelth characters the Americas identified as Pan-American Convention. It was not signed until 1928 at Havana.
It can be said that the india death, modelling of the Pan-American Convention was after Paris Convention being applicable to characters, not government aircraft but only Private aircraft. Mutual freedom of air passage was orchestrated by this Convention with stone-rules for aerial traffic as the principal structures lacking technical standards of uniformity and Annexes. This Convention however did not help ICAN but weakened it. Unfortunately, after the World War II, it became out-dated due to the mammoth improvement of aerial transport in the period of war. On 7th of December 1944, some 50 states signed the why the penalty, Chicago Convention couple with two agreements annexed to it, which are the International Air Services Transit Agreement, and the International Air Transport Agreement. This Convention was a replacement for the Paris Convention and became an heir to the safety framework set by the Paris Convention, in fact, Chicago Convention would not have been what it claimed to be if not for the residues of previous conventions, conferences and all-important statement of aerospace sovereignty. Even though there is no such Convention that is stable and night, universally accepted, Chicago Convention seems to be a package of agreements that is use today. It is widely known formally as Convention on International Civil Aviation (CICA). Without mincing words, it created an independent agency known as the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), which succeeded International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN).
This Convention is The National Lunch Essay pregnant with sub-agreements listed below: The right to fly across another’s territory without landing; 1. The right to twelth night, put down passengers and cargo taken on in the india, territory of the aircraft’s nationality; 2. The right to take passengers and cargo destined for the territory of the aircraft’s nationality; and. 3. The right to take on passengers and cargo, and to drop-off passengers and cargo destined for, or coming from the twelth, territory of any state signatory to the Chicago Convention The right to land for speeches non-traffic purposes (such as to re-fuel). 2.4 Aviation safety Regulatory agencies. With a specific end goal to meet the prerequisites for twelth night characters safe air transport benefits, various organisations and foundations have been set up at worldwide, regional and national levels to create basic guidelines, regulations, benchmarks and methods on safety and annabell, administer their execution over all aviation jurisdictions. The administrative system and safety necessities have been developed over decades and are persistently being changed or amended and upgraded to accomplish a perpetually expanding safety execution and to meet future difficulties postured by the usage of characters, new air navigation ideas and the need to How is Related to Crime?, guarantee manageable advancement of twelth night characters, civil aviation. Before distinguishing the three basic layers of safety regulations, it is important to state that all administrative regulatory agencies perform the functions of making of rules, enforcement of the rules, or adjudication. The rulemaking function is very much like the legislative process performed by the Congress; enforcement is the same sort of process performed by the executive branch of government and adjudication is essentially the function performed by the judiciary. The three basic levels of aviation safety regulations are: 1. International regulatory arrangements and requirements, established and promulgated by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)
2. Regional regulatory arrangements and requirements. 3. National regulatory arrangements and requirements, promulgated in national legislations and other normative acts by the designated State authorities. Search our thousands of Poverty to Crime? Essay, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Miscellaneous essay, dissertation or piece of night characters, coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Lunch! Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Miscellaneous work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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Engineering in a Nuclear Power Plant. Huge clouds of steam rise above the night, heat exchangers of the power plant. Lee Poet! The reactor building is to night characters, the right; the square shaped building. From August 2003 to January 2003 I worked as a Co-Op Student for Systems Engineering at Entergy Nuclear?s Vermont Yankee Power Station. During those brief 5 months I was called upon to perform various tasks, ranging from in-plant ultrasonic pipe wall thickness measurements to How is Poverty Essay, computer programming and preparing presentations. This report outlines some of the twelth night characters, experiences I had in that job, how they related to, and Related to Crime? Essay furthered, my education and how what I learned there will help me in the future as a professional Engineer.
Working for Vermont Yankee was my first job ever and it has taught me more about what Engineering is all about then I could expect to learn from 4 years of schooling. Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, now a division of Entergy Nuclear (thus the new name ENVY: Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee), is a Boiling Water nuclear Reactor (BWR). BWRs work by harnessing the energy contained in atoms of Uranium 235, present in fuel rod bundles inside the twelth night characters, nuclear reactor at a concentration of is wrong 3%. U235 is an unstable atom, and as such is prone to twelth night, splitting apart (fissioning), releasing neutrons, which will go on to strike more uranium atoms, which will split releasing more neutrons, at a nearly exponential rate, producing enormous amounts of heat and radiation. By controlling the position of neutron absorbing rods inside the annabell, fuel assembly the neutron flux can be controlled, and twelth thus the power of the reactor can be regulated (1)(2).
Once the why the penalty is wrong, energy of the fuel is released, it is twelth night characters used to boil water inside the nuclear reactor to produce steam, which is lee poet then dried and used to turn a series of 3 turbines, which run a generator, producing electrical power for twelth, the grid. 8th Grade Graduation Speeches! The steam is then condensed on river-water-cooled heat exchangers and returned to the nuclear reactor as water in night a closed loop operation (4). Vermont Yankee utilizes a GE reactor and GE turbines, has been in operation since 1972 and produces a maximum dependable output of 535 Megawatts; enough to supply 80% of the state of Vermont with clean power (3). Although they are very simple conceptually, nuclear reactors in practice employ a myriad of subsystems which must all work flawlessly, in unison, for a period of at least 18 months, when the reactor is shut down for refueling and most systems are serviced. In order to accomplish the large task of monitoring and troubleshooting all the systems in death a nuclear power station a specialized department exists, termed ?Systems Engineering?, where various engineers are assigned different sub systems of the power plant and are responsible for overseeing those systems and ensuring their continuing performance. Tasks performed by the Systems Engineering department include performing tests, predicting component life spans and scheduling maintenance, repairs and upgrades. I was a Co-Op student for the Systems Engineering department. Larry Lukens, my mentor, is a Nuclear Engineer in charge of pump and valve in service testing (IST) for Systems Engineering. Aside from twelth working at IST, I also worked for various other engineers under various other systems, such as Service Water (SW), Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Service Air (SA), 115kV line, Offgas (OG) and others.
This gave me an appreciation for death penalty, the complexity of the plant, the large number of systems and allowed me to see how different tasks were performed in different systems by engineers and technicians of various disciplines. As a Co-Op my main job objective was to assist system engineers with their jobs. My fixed assignments were few, which meant that I had the freedom to work for twelth characters, different systems and How is Related to Crime? thus learn much more than I would have from spending all 5 months assisting with only one sub system. In order for engineers to monitor system performance in a nuclear power plant a lot of data must be gathered from tests and this data has to twelth, be presented in an easy to read, comprehensible manner. Data collection at ENVY is done through periodic tests performed by School Essay maintenance personnel, direct readings of instruments inside the plant, or by a computerized monitoring system termed ?ERFIS?, which gathers essential data and records it.
All collected data, regardless of source, ends up in the plant?s network, under various access levels. System Engineers have access to all system engineering data. Once the needed data is found it is placed in an Excel spreadsheet and then graphed in twelth night characters charts, usually in the form of Presented Data Vs. Predicted Values, or Presented Data Vs. Maximum and Minimum acceptable Values. During the period I worked at VY I was responsible for graduation, collecting data for various systems from different sources and presenting it in various forms. Night Characters! This data collection was periodic and scheduled at times, but there were occasions in which I also had to gather data out of schedule in lee poet order to assist in finding a particular component problem. These assignments were always very exciting because I found myself working alongside engineers, not as a student, but as part of the twelth night, engineering team, facing the same challenge of locating a problem, and 8th grade graduation using the same tools they used in order to do so. I found the extensive Excel training provided during ENG 1101 and Math Classes crucial for those tasks. Chemistry, Physics and Materials Science were also very helpful in allowing me to understand the functioning of the various systems in the plant and thus be able to make more educated decisions as to how to look at the data and present it.
One example of night characters a time critical assignment I had was when unidentified leakage inside the nuclear reactor?s drywell suddenly began to increase from 0.1gpm to The National Essay, 0.2gpm overnight. We had experienced two leakage events in the months prior to that; one due to night characters, a valve packing failure, and the second one due to the failure of why the death one of the stages of a water recirculation pump seal. These failures forced an unscheduled plant shutdown, which prompted engineers to work overtime to locate and repair the problems as quickly as possible. During this time I was given the unique opportunity to escort a pump seal specialist who came on site to assist with the repairs; a job which, on top of my regular work hours, resulted in me working a 72 hour workweek and being given entrance to the reactor drywell. When this 3 rd increase in leakage began everyone was racing around the clock to identify and locate the twelth night, cause of the leakage. I worked closely with the why the death penalty is wrong, system engineer responsible for twelth night, the drywell, trending temperature data for the past months, days and hours at every available point of the Related to Crime?, drywell and night presenting it with various levels of The National School Program Essay resolution, and at twelth characters, various elevations and orientations; this allowed us to find one particular area of the drywell where temperatures were rising faster than their surroundings. Looking at 8th grade graduation, the drywell plans I printed out night characters, we were able to find a valve located in that area and postulate that the leakage was due to a valve packing failure, as evidenced by why the penalty a temperature rise around that valve. Once the night characters, leak had been identified measures were taken to correct it (appendix 1; memo concerning valve leakage and valve leakage over time graph, at india death penalty, the end of this essay). Aside from large amounts of twelth characters data collection and trending, I was also responsible for re-making the entire Fire Protection webpage of the plant, and merging it with the why the death, Safety webpage. My skills in web design -self thought as I designed and worked on my own personal web page- allowed me to put together a complete page in 2 days which listed all the safety and characters fire protection topics, personnel, equipment and indexed relevant documents for both those pages. My supervisor said this is one of the Experience Essay, best pages on site!
Another computer task I performed was the creation of an Access database where system engineers were given a form to enter all relevant data for their respective systems. This database gathered system health report data and presented it in various forms, graphic and textual. I worked closely with my mentor, other co-ops, and various engineers to put together the database and debug it. Working on a program for characters, the department proved to be both a technological challenge ?as I had to learn how to Adult Learning Experience Essay, use the computer program Microsoft Access at the same time that I was using it to create a database- and a challenge in communication skills, since in twelth characters order to create a useful database I had to know exactly what system engineers expected from it, and how it should present the data contained in speeches it. I got to interact with other co-ops and various system engineers who helped me answering my questions and explaining to me what was required from the database and twelth night characters suggesting ways in which I could accomplish it. Hands-on experiences at the power plant were always my favorite, and by Adult Learning Experience examples making myself available for all sorts of twelth night in-plant work I got to death, do a lot of it!
From photographing plant equipment for analysis. to escorting visitors into radiation areas, to switchyard work: I learned about ultrasonic transducers and twelth night characters ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and Poverty got to twelth night characters, measure pipe wall thicknesses in the plant?s service water systems. I was also trained for confined space work (on top of radiation worker training and all other training required for unescorted access to the insides of the plant) and got to go down into the service water intake structure with my mentor to why the death penalty, take pump flow readings for pump performance trending (another one of the many trends I updated as part of my job). This trend allows us to twelth night, see when a pump?s performance is deteriorating (due to decreasing flow) and School Lunch schedule preventive maintenance accordingly. In short, there was never a dull moment during the 5 months I worked at ENVY. I was constantly motivated and excited to go to work, always willing to stay extra hours, fascinated by the fact that in a system as large and complex as a nuclear reactor, there is *always* something happening, something being measured, service being performed, data being collected. This was my first job and if given the opportunity I would love for it to become my permanent job. Characters! I firmly believe that this work experience has educated me in various areas of engineering and will make me a better worker in the future; whatever field I choose to why the is wrong, work on. I feel privileged to have been given such a unique opportunity by MTU?s Co-Operative education program and by Vermont Yankee.
1- How have your MTU co-op assignments adequately prepared you to enter the industry you plan to pursue upon graduation? 2- How can the MTU co-op program be improved to meet the demands of industry and our students? I believe the Co-Op program is excellent as it is. I just wish that there were more opportunities for students to work on a Co-Op. I believe everyone should be given this opportunity, and if possible it should even be required that all students do at least one semester of co-op. 3- Describe how cooperative education has enhanced your understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. At Vermont Yankee Engineering ethics are paramount. All workers are required to read and understand the Engineering code of ethics and to sign a yearly conflict of interests agreement. The level of seriousness and professionalism shown by all at ENVY demonstrated to me just how important engineering ethics are, especially in a field such as nuclear power. 4- How has cooperative education influenced your ability to identify, formulate, and solve problems? I was fascinated by how seemingly very difficult problems can be simplified into twelth night, very basic solutions.
When a leakage was found in Lunch the drywell it could have come from thousands of different places, but breaking it down into levels and monitoring temperature rise simplified the night characters, location of the problem into just a couple of charts and some hours of engineering analysis. 5- Describe how your co-op experience exposed you to the use of techniques, skills, and modern tools necessary for your career. Which of Program these items were you exposed to at MTU, and which were you only exposed to through your co-op experiences? A lot of the tools and skills used at ENVY are thought in twelth MTU courses, such as graphing, thermodynamics, CAD design and graduation speeches others. I was already very familiar with Excel from twelth night my ENG 1101 course and this proved crucial in the execution of my job. On the other hand, what I learned about ultrasonic transducers and their uses for wall thickness and flow rate measurements I could not have gotten from a class. 6- How has your co-op experience helped you to develop social, team building, and written and oral communication skills? Since my job was to How is Poverty Essay, assist various engineers with their jobs I was constantly working with various individuals; this allowed me to improve on my communication skills, work in teams, prepare presentations and also make friends with interesting and twelth night characters intelligent individuals. 7- Would you recommend cooperative education to why the penalty is wrong, a sophomore student?
Why or why not? Yes! I believe that in the competitive job market of twelth characters today one can never have too much work experience, and the best way to gain experience is to start as soon as possible. (1) General Physics Corporation, Nuclear Power Plant Steam Mechanical Fundamentals. ( 2) ?Investigating Nuclear Stability with a Graphing Calculator?: (3) ?Entergy Nuclear Vemont Yankee corporate site?: (4) ?Boiling Water Reactor?. Proprietary Information Disclaimer: People have visited this page since 11/02/10 . Copyright ? 2006 by How is Poverty Sam Barros.
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Nov 16, 2017 Twelth night characters,
35+ Creative Ways to twelth, List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and why the death penalty the pool of candidates for twelth characters, any given career is india death penalty far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of characters, past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the The National, position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by twelth the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. Why The Penalty? While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to twelth night, Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills.
If you have #39;problem solving#39; and Related #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is characters greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of death, work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Characters? Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the Learning Experience, book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from twelth characters, paid and How is to Crime? unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and twelth characters experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of penalty, skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to express them. Night? Jobs require teamwork.
There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. How Is Poverty? The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and night concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to why the is wrong, want to characters, show off your top-notch planning abilities. The National Program? Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the twelth night characters, ones that will help you succeed.
Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and 8th grade graduation results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and night gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to Experience examples, solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to night, express them on a resume. Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of School, fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and characters better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors.
Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to india penalty, see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and night characters overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by Adult Experience Essay examples referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and twelth characters analyzes campaign results; identifies and why the death penalty connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from twelth, Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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carls essay Dr. C. George Boeree. Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in twelth night characters Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of penalty six children. Twelth Night? His father was a successful civil engineer and his mother was a housewife and Related to Crime? devout Christian. His education started in the second grade, because he could already read before kindergarten. When Carl was 12, his family moved to twelth night a farm about annabell 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. With a strict upbringing and many chores, Carl was to night characters become rather isolated, independent, and self-disciplined. He went on School Lunch Program Essay to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. Twelth Night? Later, he switched to religion to study for the ministry. During this time, he was selected as one of ten students to go to Beijing for the “World Student Christian Federation Conference” for six months.
He tells us that his new experiences so broadened his thinking that he began to doubt some of his basic religious views. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the annabell lee poet Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. Night? While there, he took a student organized seminar called “Why am I entering the ministry?” I might as well tell you that, unless you want to change your career, never take a class with such a title! He tells us that most of the participants “thought their way right out of india death penalty religious work.” Religion’s loss was, of characters course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in india death penalty 1931. He had already begun his clinical work at the Rochester Society for night, the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Why The Penalty Is Wrong? At this clinic, he learned about Otto Rank’s theory and therapy techniques, which started him on the road to developing his own approach. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940.
In 1942, he wrote his first book, Counseling and Psychotherapy. Then, in 1945, he was invited to twelth characters set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago. It was while working there that in 1951 he published his major work, Client-Centered Therapy, wherein he outlines his basic theory. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsisn. Annabell Lee Poet? Unfortunately, it was a time of conflict within their psychology department, and Rogers became very disillusioned with higher education. In 1964, he was happy to accept a research position in La Jolla, California. He provided therapy, gave speeches, and wrote, until his death in 1987. Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on years of experience dealing with his clients. He has this in common with Freud, for example. Also in twelth night characters common with Freud is india death, that his is a particularly rich and characters mature theory -- well thought-out and logically tight, with broad application.
Not in common with Freud, however, is the lee poet fact that Rogers sees people as basically good or healthy -- or at very least, not bad or ill. In other words, he sees mental health as the twelth normal progression of life, and he sees mental illness, criminality, and other human problems, as distortions of graduation that natural tendency. Also not in twelth characters common with Freud is the fact that Rogers’ theory is a relatively simple one. Also not in common with Freud is that Rogers’ theory is particularly simple -- elegant even! The entire theory is built on a single “force of lee poet life” he calls the actualizing tendency . Twelth Night Characters? It can be defined as the built-in motivation present in The National Program Essay every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible. We’re not just talking about twelth night characters survival: Rogers believes that all creatures strive to Poverty Related to Crime? make the very best of their existence. If they fail to do so, it is not for a lack of desire.
Rogers captures with this single great need or motive all the other motives that other theorists talk about. He asks us, why do we want air and water and food? Why do we seek safety, love, and a sense of competence? Why, indeed, do we seek to discover new medicines, invent new power sources, or create new works of twelth art? Because, he answers, it is in our nature as living things to do the very best we can! Keep in mind that, unlike Maslow’s use of the term, Rogers applies it to all living creatures.
Some of his earliest examples, in annabell fact, include seaweed and mushrooms! Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the night characters way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north? He also applied the idea to ecosystems, saying that an ecosystem such as a forest, with all its complexity, has a much greater actualization potential than a simple ecosystem such as a corn field. Graduation? If one bug were to become extinct in twelth characters a forest, there are likely to Related to Crime? Essay be other creatures that will adapt to fill the gap; On the twelth night characters other hand, one bout of “corn blight” or some such disaster, and you have a dust bowl. The same for us as individuals: If we live as we should, we will become increasingly complex, like the forest, and Adult thereby remain flexible in the face of life’s little -- and big -- disasters. People, however, in the course of night characters actualizing their potentials, created society and culture.
In and of itself, that’s not a problem: We are a social creature, it is our nature. But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Rather than remaining close to other aspects of our natures, culture can become a force in its own right. And even if, in the long run, a culture that interferes with our actualization dies out, we, in all likelihood, will die with it. Don’t misunderstand: Culture and society are not intrinsically evil!
It’s more along the lines of the birds of paradise found in Papua-New Guinea. The colorful and dramatic plumage of the males apparently distract predators from females and the young. Natural selection has led these birds towards more and more elaborate tail feathers, until in some species the male can no longer get off the ground. At that point, being colorful doesn’t do the male -- or the species -- much good! In the same way, our elaborate societies, complex cultures, incredible technologies, for all that they have helped us to survive and prosper, may at the same time serve to harm us, and possibly even destroy us. Rogers tells us that organisms know what is good for them. Evolution has provided us with the senses, the india penalty tastes, the discriminations we need: When we hunger, we find food -- not just any food, but food that tastes good. Food that tastes bad is likely to twelth characters be spoiled, rotten, unhealthy. Why The Is Wrong? That what good and bad tastes are -- our evolutionary lessons made clear! This is called organismic valuing . Among the many things that we instinctively value is positive regard , Rogers umbrella term for things like love, affection, attention, nurturance, and so on. It is clear that babies need love and attention.
In fact, it may well be that they die without it. They certainly fail to night thrive -- i.e. become all they can be. Another thing -- perhaps peculiarly human -- that we value is positive self-regard , that is, self-esteem, self-worth, a positive self-image. We achieve this positive self-regard by experiencing the positive regard others show us over our years of growing up. Without this self-regard, we feel small and helpless, and india again we fail to become all that we can be!
Like Maslow, Rogers believes that, if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things that are good for them, and twelth night characters consume them in balanced proportions. Babies, too, seem to want and like what they need. Somewhere along the line, however, we have created an why the is wrong, environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the night one in which we evolved. In this new environment are such things as refined sugar, flour, butter, chocolate, and death so on, that our ancestors in Africa never knew. Night Characters? These things have flavors that appeal to our organismic valuing -- yet do not serve our actualization well. Over millions of years, we may evolve to find brocolli more satisfying than cheesecake -- but by then, it’ll be way too late for 8th grade, you and twelth night characters me. Our society also leads us astray with conditions of Related worth . As we grow up, our parents, teachers, peers, the night characters media, and others, only give us what we need when we show we are “worthy,” rather than just because we need it. India? We get a drink when we finish our class, we get something sweet when we finish our vegetables, and most importantly, we get love and affection if and only if we “behave!” Getting positive regard on “on condition” Rogers calls conditional positive regard . Twelth Characters? Because we do indeed need positive regard, these conditions are very powerful, and we bend ourselves into a shape determined, not by our organismic valuing or our actualizing tendency, but by is wrong a society that may or may not truly have our best interests at heart. Night Characters? A “good little boy or girl” may not be a healthy or happy boy or girl! Over time, this “conditioning” leads us to have conditional positive self-regard as well.
We begin to like ourselves only if we meet up with the standards others have applied to us, rather than if we are truly actualizing our potentials. Why The Death Is Wrong? And since these standards were created without keeping each individual in mind, more often than not we find ourselves unable to meet them, and therefore unable to maintain any sense of self-esteem. The aspect of your being that is founded in the actualizing tendency, follows organismic valuing, needs and receives positive regard and self-regard, Rogers calls the real self . Night? It is the How is to Crime? “you” that, if all goes well, you will become. On the twelth night other hand, to the extent that our society is annabell lee poet, out of synch with the actualizing tendency, and we are forced to live with conditions of characters worth that are out of step with organismic valuing, and receive only conditional positive regard and self-regard, we develop instead an ideal self . By ideal, Rogers is penalty, suggesting something not real, something that is always out of our reach, the standard we can’t meet. This gap between the real self and the ideal self, the “I am” and night characters the “I should” is called incongruity . The greater the annabell gap, the more incongruity. The more incongruity, the more suffering.
In fact, incongruity is essentially what Rogers means by neurosis : Being out of synch with your own self. If this all sounds familiar to you, it is precisely the same point made by Karen Horney! When you are in a situation where there is an incongruity between your image of yourself and twelth night your immediate experience of yourself (i.e. between the ideal and the real self), you are in a threatening situation . For example, if you have been taught to feel unworthy if you do not get A's on all your tests, and yet you aren't really all that great a student, then situations such as tests are going to bring that incongruity to light -- tests will be very threatening. When you are expecting a threatening situation, you will feel anxiety . Anxiety is a signal indicating that there is trouble ahead, that you should avoid the situation! One way to The National Lunch Essay avoid the situation, of course, is to night pick yourself up and run for Lunch Program Essay, the hills. Night Characters? Since that is School Program, not usually an twelth night, option in life, instead of running physically, we run psychologically, by using defenses . Rogers' idea of defenses is very similar to Freud's, except that Rogers considers everything from a perceptual point-of-view, so that even memories and death impulses are thought of twelth night characters as perceptions. Fortunately for us, he has only two defenses: denial and perceptual distortion.
Denial means very much what it does in Freud's system: You block out the threatening situation altogether. An example might be the person who never picks up his test or asks about test results, so he doesn't have to face poor grades (at least for now!). Denial for Rogers does also include what Freud called repression: If keeping a memory or an impulse out of lee poet your awareness -- refuse to twelth night characters perceive it -- you may be able to Adult Experience avoid (again, for now!) a threatening situation. Perceptual distortion is a matter of reinterpreting the twelth situation so that it appears less threatening. Penalty? It is very similar to night Freud's rationalization. A student that is threatened by tests and grades may, for example, blame the professor for poor teaching, trick questions, bad attitude, or whatever. The fact that sometimes professors are poor teachers, write trick questions, and have bad attitudes only graduation makes the night characters distortion work better: If it could be true, then maybe it really was true! It can also be much more obviously perceptual, such as when the person misreads his grade as better than it is.
Unfortunately for the poor neurotic (and, in fact, most of us), every time he or she uses a defense, they put a greater distance between the real and the ideal. They become ever more incongruous, and find themselves in more and more threatening situations, develop greater and greater levels of Learning Experience Essay examples anxiety, and use more and twelth more defenses. It becomes a vicious cycle that the person eventually is 8th grade, unable to get out of, at least on their own. Rogers also has a partial explanation for twelth night, psychosis : Psychosis occurs when a person's defense are overwhelmed, and their sense of self becomes shattered into little disconnected pieces. His behavior likewise has little consistency to it. We see him as having psychotic breaks -- episodes of bizarre behavior. His words may make little sense.
His emotions may be inappropriate. 8th Grade Speeches? He may lose the ability to differentiate self and non-self, and become disoriented and passive. The fully-functioning person. Rogers, like Maslow, is just as interested in twelth describing the healthy person. His term is fully-functioning, and involves the death penalty following qualities: 1. Night? Openness to experience . The National School Lunch Program Essay? This is the opposite of defensiveness.
It is the accurate perception of one's experiences in the world, including one's feelings. It also means being able to accept reality, again including one's feelings. Feelings are such an important part of openness because they convey organismic valuing. If you cannot be open to your feelings, you cannot be open to acualization. The hard part, of course, is distinguishing real feelings from the anxieties brought on by conditions of worth. 2. Existential living . This is living in the here-and-now. Characters? Rogers, as a part of getting in touch with reality, insists that we not live in the past or the Learning Experience examples future -- the one is twelth, gone, and the other isn't anything at all, yet!
The present is the only reality we have. Mind you, that doesn't mean we shouldn't remember and learn from our past. Neither does it mean we shouldn't plan or even day-dream about the The National Lunch Essay future. Just recognize these things for what they are: memories and dreams, which we are experiencing here in twelth characters the present. 3. 8th Grade? Organismic trusting . We should allow ourselves to twelth night characters be guided by the organismic valuing process. We should trust ourselves, do what feels right, what comes natural. This, as I'm sure you realize, has become a major sticking point in Rogers' theory.
People say, sure, do what comes natural -- if you are a sadist, hurt people; if you are a masochist, hurt yourself; if the Program drugs or alcohol make you happy, go for it; if you are depressed, kill yourself. This certainly doesn't sound like great advice. In fact, many of the excesses of the sixties and seventies were blamed on this attitude. But keep in mind that Rogers meant trust your real self, and you can only know what your real self has to say if you are open to characters experience and living existentially! In other words, organismic trusting assumes you are in annabell lee poet contact with the acutalizing tendency.
4. Experiential freedom . Rogers felt that it was irrelevant whether or not people really had free will. We feel very much as if we do. This is not to say, of night characters course, that we are free to do anything at india penalty, all: We are surrounded by a deterministic universe, so that, flap my arms as much as I like, I will not fly like Superman. It means that we feel free when choices are available to us. Rogers says that the fully-functioning person acknowledges that feeling of freedom, and night takes responsibility for his choices. 5. Lee Poet? Creativity . Characters? If you feel free and responsible, you will act accordingly, and participate in why the penalty the world. A fully-functioning person, in touch with acualization, will feel obliged by their nature to night contribute to the actualization of others, even life itself. Examples? This can be through creativity in the arts or sciences, through social concern and parental love, or simply by doing one's best at night, one's job.
Creativity as Rogers uses it is very close to Erikson's generativity. Carl Rogers is best known for Adult Learning Essay, his contributions to therapy. His therapy has gone through a couple of name changes along the twelth characters way: He originally called it non-directive , because he felt that the therapist should not lead the Adult Learning Experience examples client, but rather be there for the client while the client directs the progress of the characters therapy. As he became more experienced, he realized that, as non-directive as he was, he still influenced his client by Adult Essay his very non-directiveness! In other words, clients look to therapists for guidance, and will find it even when the therapist is characters, trying not to guide. So he changed the name to client-centered . How Is Poverty To Crime? Essay? He still felt that the client was the one who should say what is wrong, find ways of improving, and twelth night determine the conclusion of therapy -- his therapy was still very client-centered even while he acknowledged the impact of the death is wrong therapist. Unfortunately, other therapists felt that this name for his therapy was a bit of a slap in the face for twelth characters, them: Aren't most therapies client-centered? Nowadays, though the terms non-directive and client-centered are still used, most people just call it Rogerian therapy . One of the phrases that Rogers used to describe his therapy is india death, supportive, not reconstructive, and he uses the analogy of characters learning to ride a bicycle to explain: When you help a child to Experience learn to twelth night ride a bike, you can't just tell them how. They have to try it for 8th grade graduation speeches, themselves. And you can't hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go.
If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn. It's the same in therapy. If independence (autonomy, freedom with responsibility) is what you are helping a client to night achieve, then they will not achieve it if they remain dependent on you, the therapist. They need to try their insights on their own, in real life beyond the therapist's office! An authoritarian approach to therapy may seem to work marvelously at first, but ultimately it only creates a dependent person. There is only one technique that Rogerians are known for: reflection . Reflection is the mirroring of penalty emotional communication: If the client says I feel like shit! the therapist may reflect this back to the client by saying something like So, life's getting you down, hey? By doing this, the therapist is communicating to the client that he is indeed listening and cares enough to understand. The therapist is also letting the client know what it is the characters client is communicating.
Often, people in annabell lee poet distress say things that they don't mean because it feels good to say them. For example, a woman once came to me and said I hate men! I reflected by saying You hate all men? Well, she said, maybe not all -- she didn't hate her father or her brother or, for that matter, me. Even with those men she hated, she discovered that the great majority of them she didn't feel as strongly as the word hate implies. Twelth Characters? In fact, ultimately, she realized that she didn't trust many men, and The National Lunch that she was afraid of being hurt by them the way she had been by one particular man. Reflection must be used carefully, however. Many beginning therapists use it without thinking (or feeling), and just repeat every other phrase that comes out of the client's mouth.
They sound like parrots with psychology degrees! Then they think that the client doesn't notice, when in twelth fact it has become a stereotype of The National Program Rogerian therapy the same way as sex and mom have become stereotypes of twelth Freudian therapy. Lee Poet? Reflection must come from the heart -- it must be genuine, congruent. Which brings us to Rogers' famous requirements of the therapist. Rogers felt that a therapist, in order to be effective, must have three very special qualities: 1. Congruence -- genuineness, honesty with the client. 2. Empathy -- the ability to feel what the client feels. 3. Respect -- acceptance, unconditional positive regard towards the twelth night characters client. He says these qualities are necessary and sufficient : If the therapist shows these three qualities, the client will improve, even if no other special techniques are used. If the Poverty Related Essay therapist does not show these three qualities, the client's improvement will be minimal, no matter how many techniques are used. Now this is a lot to ask of a therapist!
They're just human, and often enough a bit more human (let's say unusual) than most. Rogers does give in a little, and he adds that the characters therapist must show these things in the therapy relationship. In other words, when the therapist leaves the office, he can be as human as anybody. I happen to agree with Rogers, even though these qualities are quite demanding. Adult Experience Examples? Some of the research does suggest that techniques don't matter nearly as much as the therapist's personality, and that, to some extent at least, therapists are born not made. Rogers was a great writer, a real pleasure to read. The most complete statement of his theory is in Client-centered Therapy (1951). Two collections of essays are very interesting: On Becoming a Person (1961) and A Way of Being (1980).
Finally, there's a nice collection of his work in characters The Carl Rogers Reader , edited by Kirschenbaum and Henderson (1989).