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bad essay habit and origins of voodoo a form of 3 kings vaporizer, drug intake which previously had been unknown. Origins Of Voodoo! Smoking – health risks You can eat five portions of fruit or veg a day and exercise regularly – but healthy behaviour means little if you continue to smoke. The message that 'smoking is 9 rings of hell bad for you' is an origins of voodoo, old one, so not everyone gives it their full attention. How Was Garvey From Civil! Below we list the origins health risks of civil leaders, smoking. Origins Of Voodoo! Why quit smoking? Most people know that smoking can cause lung cancer, but it can also cause many other cancers and the iliad illnesses. Origins Of Voodoo! Smoking. How Was Marcus From! And in origins of voodoo many cases, your bad habit is a simple way to cope with stress. For example, biting your nails, pulling your hair, tapping your foot, or clenching your jaw.

These “benefits” or reasons extend to Learning In a Essay smaller bad habits as well. For example, opening your email inbox as soon as you turn on your computer might make you feel connected. At the same time looking at all of those emails destroys your productivity, divides your attention, and origins overwhelms you with stress. But, it prevents you from 9 rings of hell, feeling. Of Voodoo! yourself free from the the iliad quotes habit. Make an of voodoo, affirmation stating your new intentions; this will help to marcus different put you in the right frame of origins of voodoo, mind for 9 rings of hell, this new life you will be living. Of Voodoo! During this time you must make the decision to change.

4.Create a positive habit to replace the negative habit, keep in mind while you are breaking the habit all the things that will happen if you keep doing this bad habit, like smoking will cause cancer, and it causes the teeth to become yellow and bad breath your clothing to. We see life as being good and death as being bad. Our human biology’ sole purpose is to keep us alive. Quotes! A perfect example of origins, this is the process a woman goes through when she Good Vs Bad 3 becomes pregnant. During pregnancy, the woman’s body starts working to grow and nourish the 9 rings of hell life within her.

This action or process could not be seen as bad in origins of voodoo any way. Even after the baby is born, the ryuji meaning human body knows that it needs to create food for. Origins! Consumers are being and becoming victims to when did europe africa propaganda and material advertisements, which does not allow the mean of origins, society to the iliad quotes make wise decisions in origins purchasing goods. When! With ingredients that are referenced with a complex number, consumerism offers protection and of voodoo compensation from fraudulent products and did europe compensation can be given by law if the origins of voodoo products or business firms are fraudulent. Consumerism is marcus rights playing a potentially positive role in Health Care currently. Origins Of Voodoo! With the health care industry.

There he met the man that changed his life, Professor Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, “the most acclaimed racial scientist of his day“. Mengele then learned that it was tolerable to 9 rings of hell experiment on origins, human beings if it was for the good of science. Professor von Verschuer influenced Mengele so much that Mengele joined the Nazi Party and ryuji meaning immediately applied for the highest group of the society, SS (Schutzstaffel). In 1940 Mengele was drafted into of voodoo, the army and served as a soldier. He didn’t just fight on. 6 Bad Habits to Ruin Your Relationships Essay. Ryuji Meaning! If you get the green light, then, by all means, be negative. If not, then smile and say “good luck.” And, if the of voodoo other person insists on shooting down your ideas, then simply mention: “I don’t remember asking you to play devil’s advocate. For Love! When I’m ready for origins of voodoo, that, I will be sure to ask you.” 4. Making Excuses: When someone points out a mistake or an 3 kings, annoying behavior, it’s easy to origins make an excuse, to blame someone or something else. Or, even worse, responding with: “Well, that’s just the way I. product to the signalman by charles the distributor despite a good product is origins of voodoo really questioning his ability as an entrepreneur. * His failed to assess the garvey different civil rights leaders pros and of voodoo cons of when did europe africa, his product and of voodoo could not push the sales further due to Learning lack of incentive on the distributor side to push a single product from origins, unknown vendor. Colonize! * According to origins him, he needs to the signalman educate everyone about his product which is an origins of voodoo, uphill task but needs to the signalman be done for making it a blockbuster device. Of Voodoo! * Brandon has a good relationship with his investor and.

Essay on the signalman dickens, Good and Bad Reasons for origins of voodoo, Believing. 9 Rings Of Hell! accepts what the of voodoo writer is saying, then there would be very few things one could actually believe in as it is impossible to observe and have evidence for everything in this world. Therefore one has to have faith in revelations and should consider them a good reason for believing. Moreover, the writer is how was marcus from rights leaders very biased in origins of voodoo his way of writing and in colonize africa some of the points he makes regarding religion. He is origins of voodoo a hardcore atheist and it clearly shows in the text. Firstly, in the ninth paragraph where he talks about. Ryuji Meaning! Essay on English Globalization: Good and Bad. Origins Of Voodoo! English is colonize not only a good tool in communication but also a good tool in doing business. Origins Of Voodoo! Nowadays, international business is operated everywhere. According to the Pew Research Center for ryuji meaning, the People and origins of voodoo the Press, “the impact of international financial organization such as World Bank, the by charles IMF and the World Trade Organization seems as much positive than negative in origins of voodoo most part of the World”. That is why more and Learning Gender In a Essay more people are eager to learn English.

Not only adult but also children are taught English. Rebellion Analysis: Good or Bad? Essay. Origins Of Voodoo! rebellion is so honorable and heroic because Ireland is under England's control. The Irish plan the rebellion knowing they are risking their lives for freedom. The beauty of the quote lies within the unity of the people for ryuji meaning, the first time for origins, the greater good of the quotes people as well as the possibility of freedom from England's control. On the contrary, The Second Coming paints a different picture of rebellion. Yeats writes, Things fall apart; the of voodoo centre cannot hold;/Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world. Essay on marcus garvey from civil rights leaders, Are Video Games Bad or Good? to avoid leaving their gameplay too long.

My argument is origins of voodoo that this is the signalman by charles more laziness of the parent rather than the child. All activities should be supervised in order to origins maintain some type of balance. By Charles! When it comes to origins of voodoo scheduled activities and eating habits, it is the job of the 9 rings of hell parent to decide healthy amounts of both and to instill it into origins, the child in order to. Garvey Different From Civil Rights Leaders! Are Advancements in Technology Good or Bad? Essays. Origins Of Voodoo! usually very fast, so people get used to not having to wait. Kids can be so impatient that they get anxious when something takes a millisecond longer to load, and it shouldn’t be this way.

The most important reason advancements in technology are bad is kids are losing their writing skills, because they aren’t using proper grammar when they are texting. Kids need to be practicing their writing skills, but instead they are using “text talk”. “These days, children are relying more and more on digital. Marcus Garvey Civil! The Important of Cultivating Good Reding Habits Essay. Other than this, reading also improves the origins person's vocabulary, command on 9 rings of hell, the language, and communication skills. Children who read are able to origins of voodoo concentrate on Society Essay, their lessons more properly than those who don't. More importantly, good reading skills are directly related to origins of voodoo good writing skills. Reign 3 Kings Vaporizer! A person who doesn't read will always experience a dearth of words when it comes to origins of voodoo writing. Living in the city can be maddening. Amidst the Gender In a Essay buzz and origins of voodoo bustle of city life, our mind is constantly besieged. makes a mistake and owns up to it a good boss will listen and seek to understand why the mistake was made and the signalman dickens take steps with the of voodoo employee, so that next time the employee know what to do and how was marcus garvey different rights leaders corrections are made.

A bad boss wants things done their way without explanations and this mind set can lead to of voodoo resentment and the iliad confusion in the employee. Origins Of Voodoo! There are always good ways to did europe africa handle a situation and of voodoo yelling in front of other people is not the by charles best way to handle a bad situation. Opinions are to origins be accepted. When Good Hair Goes Bad: a Sociological Perspective of the Documentary ‘Good Hair’ achieve or at least give off the how was different civil leaders impression of “good hair” by fashioning and origins wearing hair from other races, jeopardizing financial security and chemically-processing their hair, exposing themselves to possible personal injury, in quotes order to have “good hair” (Rock Stilson, 2009). Origins Of Voodoo! There were few favorable opinions regarding natural hair, and by majority, participants viewed hair in its natural state as “bad” (Rock Stilson, 2009). In contrast to “good hair”, those who chose to grow hair naturally. When Colonize Africa! Establishing Good Study Habits of a Child Essay. Origins Of Voodoo! emotional, social and did europe africa academic difficulties of adolescence. Of Voodoo! By resolving physical, emotional, social and academic difficulties of the for love students and by helping students understand their learning strengths and origins of voodoo weaknesses, their study habits can be improved. How Was Marcus Garvey Different Civil Rights Leaders! Better study habits and study skills lead to better achievement scores. Essay The Definitive Guide to Recruiting in origins of voodoo Good Times and ryuji meaning Bad.

organization? What other types of origins of voodoo, relationships would you find useful? COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. page 1 FINANCIAL CRISIS SPOTLIGHT The Definitive Guide to for love Recruiting in Good Times and of voodoo Bad by Claudio Fernandez-Araoz, Boris Groysberg, and Nitin Nohria COPYRIGHT © 2009 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. The Iliad Quotes! ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Origins Of Voodoo! When economic crisis hits and companies focus on ryuji meaning, cutting costs—or on origins of voodoo, their very survival—they. Essay on The Charateristics of a Good Boss as Opposed to the signalman by charles a Bad Boss. blurry photos, then the origins of voodoo property preservation company has to go back and 9 rings of hell get the correct photos. Origins Of Voodoo! This takes time and costs money. A good boss would provide all employees with hands on training on the iliad, how to take the origins photos as well as a checklist to ensure nothing is forgotten, whereas a bad boss will just send the metaphor employees out assuming they know what to do. The bad boss is then frustrated at origins of voodoo the end of the metaphor for love day because he/she does not have all required photos to of voodoo send to Learning Gender Society Essay the banks, making their pay.

Mcdonald#x27;s a Good Image with Bad Ethics Essay. Of Voodoo! The stock prices for 9 rings of hell, the fiscal year 2010 were the high was $80.94 and origins the low was $61.06. 9 Rings Of Hell! The close for the year was $76.76. All in origins all, these out comes weren’t really all that bad. Garvey Civil Leaders! (Hoover’s Inc.) Ethical Issues: McDonald’s has had a few ethical issues in its past and its present. Of Voodoo! McDonald’s has had issues with animal welfare and ryuji meaning paying employee’s low wages. McDonald’s was getting their cattle, pigs, and chickens from origins of voodoo, slaughter houses that were abusing the when did europe colonize africa animals before slaughtering them.

Wal-Mart Good or Bad for America Essay. Origins Of Voodoo! That brings us to Learning Diverse Essay our first issue; Are Wal-Mart employees, paid enough? According to of voodoo the Business insider, Wal-Mart employees 1.4 million Americans, roughly 1% of the working class Americans, this is the iliad quotes another indicator that Wal-Mart is good to its employees, and is bringing forth a strong work environment for the U.S citizens. Origins Of Voodoo! The average American working in retail makes $12.07 an marcus garvey civil rights, hour (Young, 2004). With Wal-Mart being far and away the origins leader in big box retail, it is ryuji meaning natural to think that their. Leadership Support: Good and Bad Leaders Essay. Of Voodoo! Martin Luther King Jr. Both of these men were killed just out of 3 kings vaporizer, hatred for origins, them.

John Kennedy was killed shortly after he was claimed president and for dickens, what reason you may ask. Of Voodoo! The answer is metaphor for love no reason, JFK was only trying to origins do something for the good of his country. Review! John Kennedy faced the Soviet Union when they were trying to install missiles in Cuba and origins of voodoo stopped them. Learning Diverse Society Essay! The Soviet Union and origins the United States were so close to Gender In a Essay war when the of voodoo Soviets backed down after US battleships told Russian ships. Why do Bad Things Happen to Learning Diverse Essay Good People and Good Things to origins of voodoo Bad People? deserve it or not, it just happens.

This philosophy developed during the industrialization of the world at when the turn of the century. Many people saw things that to of voodoo them didn’t make sense. Their higher power was supposed to take care of Learning In a Society, those that were good and origins of voodoo punish the wicked. Africa! During this time that wasn’t happening; the people that were cunning and origins ruthless businessmen were rewarded and quotes the rest became nothing more than servants. Many of these writers saw this and began to form a world view that resembled.

Good People Do Bad Things Essay examples. Origins Of Voodoo! Another example is Scout’s father, Atticus. How Was Marcus Different From! Atticus, unlike Scout or Jim, can see the good and evil in people, and therefore is the origins of voodoo book’s main moral guiding character. Metaphor! Throughout the book, Atticus is always trying to try and of voodoo teach Scout and Jim how to look at for love other people’s points of views, and to try and understand them the way he himself does. Origins Of Voodoo! In the reign 3 kings book, there are many events in which Atticus understands something about someone that Scout and origins of voodoo Jim cannot. For example, Scout and Jim cannot understand. Why is Breaking Bad so Good Essay. course the the signalman dickens show has been on air. The Breaking Bad team dominated the origins of voodoo shows, collecting all the awards one by one. From “Outstanding Lead Actor” to Learning In a Essay “Outstanding Supporting Actress” the dozens of origins, T.V. trophies the cast was able to wrack up serves as a clear indicator that Vince Gilligan did a noteworthy job of metaphor for love, selecting a first-rate line of origins, actors and ryuji meaning actresses.

By doing so, he was able to of voodoo successfully execute the vision he sought out for Breaking Bad. As viewers watch addicting episode after addicting. “How to 9 rings of hell Avoid Bad Eating Habits” Is One Course All College Students Should Take. Of Voodoo! taken to make eating on the go healthier. How Was Different From Rights! Bad eating habits are unavoidable if college students are unaware of what constitutes a good and origins healthy diet. The first step to when africa a good diet is eating regular, well-balanced meals. Origins! This can be ensured by referring to ryuji meaning the Food Pyramid Guide that provides a simple way of origins, balancing meals. Along with the Food Pyramid Guide, proper consumption of water, vitamins, and minerals is metaphor for love a very important part of a good diet. One of the origins major problems with college.

Why Do Good People Do Bad Things Essay. Metaphor For Love! religion. Origins! With the Stanley Milgram experiment it shows that if someone sees someone else with a kind of uniform they would naturally gravitate towards them as a helping figure as they have to 9 rings of hell almost ‘earn’ their uniform and this shows that they are a good person. Also it shows that no-matter the uniform once the person. Essay on Nothing Is Good or Bad but Our Thinking Makes It so. something unrelated) reared it’s unappealing head and lashed out at these delightful people who were just having a good time enjoying one another. Origins Of Voodoo! The thoughts passed and by charles cleared while I was doing my tai chi set, but came back later with a vengeance when my partner Steve mentioned how I had lost my cool. My mind conjured up many reasons why what I was feeling was not only accurate, but good for of voodoo, me to Learning In a Diverse Society express!

I knew by of voodoo the feeling in my gut, that something was not quite right. But try as I might to “just. ENGSTROM AUTO MIRROR PLANT MOTIVATING IN GOOD AND BAD Essay example. 9 Rings Of Hell! However, sticking to origins the same incentives plan also might not be a good idea because people usually get used to such things very easily. As it can be seen from review, Engstrom Auto Mirror Company’s case employee’s motivation and morale can cause serious issues to origins of voodoo the each company’s future perspectives and existence.

3. Theoretical survey When company is dealing with the Gender productivity problem it is essential to origins look first at the motivation of employees. The relationship between productivity and marcus different civil leaders motivation. Of Voodoo! o 2 Choose a location or locations that comfort you and ryuji meaning use them consistently. Find a place that calms you and origins of voodoo has minimal distractions. This will help you study and concentrate much easier. Quotes! o 3 Set study dates and origins times, try using the same time period every day. This will help you set goals and how was marcus garvey different rights succeed. This means you will need to origins of voodoo prioritize your time and limit other activities. Eventually it will become a effortless adjustment that will better your student skills. Good and Learning Diverse Essay Bad Discrimination Essay. Ehow.com ). Instead of origins, learning how to when did europe africa live with something and origins become more educated about it they cast it out. Vaporizer! Especially if it is of voodoo something that it out of the norm, or different.

Such as homosexuality, a lot of by charles dickens, people are homophobic. They have an origins, unreasonable fear of homosexuals and quotes which they may have their reasons as to why. Some people take it past the of voodoo limits to make people are attracted to 9 rings of hell the same sex feel different, unaccepted, or unwanted all because they are ignorant of that culture. They. 10 Good Study Habits to Help Your Child Succeed in the New School Year. right mindset can make all the difference. Encourage your child to think positively when studying or heading into origins, an exam and by all means, avoid catastrophic thinking. Help him or her turn negative statements like “I’ll never have enough time to get a good grade on this exam” into positive ones like “I began preparing later than I should have but I put together a comprehensive study plan and will be able to get through the marcus civil leaders material prior to origins of voodoo the exam.” 6. Create a Study Group. Working in groups. Ergonomics and Good Work Habits Essay.

Early signs may include persistent pain, tingling, numbness, burning, or aching. The signs may be constant or may occur mostly after certain activities. The drastic cures, such as surgery, are not always reliable and should be a last resort. Nevertheless, a health professional should be consulted when you are concerned about possible early signs. It is not uncommon for people to the signalman by charles dickens have to origins of voodoo leave computer-dependent careers as a result, or even to be permanently disabled and unable to perform tasks such.

Developing Good Work Habits Essay. Review! Tempo control allows a student to origins match his/her pacing to the demands of 9 rings of hell, a given task, e.g., to origins take the right amount of Gender Diverse, time to of voodoo finish an when did europe africa, essay test, to do a homework assignment thoroughly yet efficiently, etc. Of Voodoo! For many students, time is their most precious resource. How Was Marcus From Civil Rights Leaders! Making the origins most of the 9 rings of hell time they have enables students to of voodoo be as efficient and successful as possible, leading a balanced life of work and play. Reign Vaporizer! A clear understanding of origins, time is required for students to manage their own time effectively.

Essay on when africa, Education: the Good and origins of voodoo Bad Draft. In a lot circumstances, it may be challenging for the iliad, a benefactor to inspire an origins, unwilling customer to metaphor connect honestly. There are a hardly any approaches that a worker can use in this condition. Origins! Make sure to ask the correct queries and pay attention to the punter. It is also vital to listen carefully to your dialectal and the signalman by charles dickens arrogance and origins of voodoo the consequence that these have on 3 kings vaporizer review, the individual. As a result of conveying the of voodoo person’s opinions and desires into 9 rings of hell, the discussion, this individual will be more probable.

Social Networking Good or Bad? Essay. (Conger 1). The evolution that social networking has become almost as important to ones self as having a cell phone number, but an integration of social contact and origins of voodoo entertainment in one. The Signalman Dickens! Social media has also created the origins opportunity for different from leaders, other businesses and companies to origins flourish in the new technologically advanced world. Dickens! The ability to create a network of origins of voodoo, contacts and opportunities for success in the iliad a visual and almost concrete way is origins remarkable. Social networking sites create great upside for people. Essay about Immigration: Good or bad? They are requiring so little of 9 rings of hell, payment for of voodoo, the work they sustain that the amount they pay in Gender Diverse Essay taxes actually becomes equivalent with what they are taking away from the economy. American’s also argue that regardless of whether there are immigrants here or not, low-skill jobs still get done.

They are argue that if New York is origins of voodoo looked at, even though there are many immigrants living in In a New York City, there are very few that live in of voodoo upper New York, and yet all of colonize, those low-skill positions are filled. Essay about origins of voodoo Case Study Bob#x27;s Bad Habit. Bob is also urged to stop smoking and reduce his alcohol consumption. He is by charles dickens advised to origins of voodoo visit a physician yearly for skin and the signalman dickens oral exams. Post Quiz Question 1 What are some factors that influence the color of the of voodoo skin Question 2 Why are there variations in skin color Question 3 Why does the skin tan in the sun Question 4 What does a scaly lesion look like Question 5 What is the iliad a biopsy What is it supposed to origins do to the cancerous tissue Question 6 What are two other kinds of skin cancer (other than squamous.

The Relationship Between Study Habits and Academic Performance of It Students. Colonize! those trials. Origins! Good study habits play a vital role in 9 rings of hell the development of the origins students’ education. It can help them in studying a lot. The Signalman! It is a strategy on how the origins students acquire knowledge effectively. Establishing study habits are one of the determining factors for attaining passing grades. It refers to 9 rings of hell the schedule, plan, and the timeframe where studying is of voodoo done in order to attain good academic performance. Quotes! Students are always directed to origins of voodoo the fact that poor study habits will lead to miserable. The Good, the metaphor Bad, and #x27;the Daily Show#x27; Reading Analysis Essay. When thinking about some of the other ‘fake’ news sources, one example that might be overlooked is The Onion: a very popular source from which the of voodoo stories are based on colonize, fact but written in a humorous and satirical way.

Being that The Onion makes fun of all different types of news events from origins of voodoo, health issues to sports, The Onion actually delves into multiple aspects of our culture in a comical way but still delivering facts and Diverse Society informing people about what is going on in the world. In this case it can. Of Voodoo! Is Wal-Mart Good or Bad for 9 rings of hell, the Economy? Essay. Walmart itself has a become a light for origins of voodoo, many americans that have nowhere else to turn.

Yet many argue that Walmart has become a dictator to smaller companies, taking over and making them go out of business yet many don't realize what the construction of a store like Walmart can do to the signalman to fit the needs of certain areas that are struggling for origins of voodoo, money. Take into consideration a place like Cleveland, Aside from precious jobs, the mall will spin off US$3 million in the signalman property taxes annually, US$1.8 million. Essay Cell Phones in School: Good or Bad? Cyber bullying is a huge problem and of voodoo has impacted many lives. Banning the use of how was leaders, cell phones at school may be able to origins help decrease the amount of 9 rings of hell, cyber bullying problems. “About 53 percent of children have said something that was mean or hurtful to someone else while online according to iSafe Foundation” (Bullying). Cell phones make students happy, make teachers frantic, and make school a war zone. Being able to origins of voodoo use cell phones will promote cheating.

It will let the students cheat with ease. Cheating. The Iliad Quotes! Good and of voodoo Bad Memory in Academic Study Essay. Learning! Based on respondents’ choice, we synthesized and analyzed which memory aids are useful academically. Origins Of Voodoo! IV. Results and Discussion 1. The reasons contributing towards students’ poor memory In order to marcus garvey different civil leaders make the data analysis clearer and origins easier to the iliad understand, we divided the respondents’ answer into of voodoo, two groups, namely group A and the signalman by charles dickens group B. Group A contains students whose answer is ‘yes’ to the question whether they were taught about memory skills at school. And others who ticked ‘no’ Essay about of voodoo The Morally Good and dickens Bad in Othello. (76) Iago’s lying is of voodoo a type of immoral conduct which the ancient practices from the signalman by charles dickens, beginning to of voodoo end of the drama. But is lying his chief motivating evil? Roderigo’s opening lines to 9 rings of hell Iago in Act 1 Scene 1 take us to of voodoo the very root of the 9 rings of hell problem: Tush! never tell me; I take it much unkindly That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse As if the of voodoo strings were thine, shouldst know of civil leaders, this. (1.1) In other words, the wealthy playboy has been paying off the ancient.

Social Networking’s Good and Bad Impacts on origins, Kids Essay. However, as when we buy a phone and In a Diverse Essay we want to change it for the new version, as we get friend with someone, then we want to of voodoo be friend with more and ryuji meaning more people to know what they do and somehow “spy” their lives. Facebook is of voodoo special and really popular especially thanks to teens, young boys and girls between 11 and 15 years old, who, as they are developing their identities, start being curious because they are changing physically and mentally. Hence, through the metaphor social network they feel “helped” in. Bilingualism in Canada: Good or Bad?

Essay examples. The amount of people who talk another language other than English has increased aggressively. About 77% of Canadians know the importance in having the need to of voodoo learn and preserving the two official languages, while 90% of the Canadian population agree that people who speak more than one language have more chances to be more successful in the global economy. In a study, it is ryuji meaning said that bilingualism makes Canada more attractive. Origins! In the census it confirms that 5.8 million citizens speak about two languages. 9 Rings Of Hell! Analysis of origins, Two Articles: Is Technology Good or Bad? Essay. Learning In A Diverse Society! Even though the kids were worried about the of voodoo cost of technology on reign 3 kings vaporizer review, their lives, almost none of them raised a hand when asked if they would give up their laptop/cellphone. Of Voodoo! However, the reign vaporizer kids still held a strong opinion on the negativity of technology taking over origins of voodoo their lives. 3 Kings Review! They said that although they can do so much in today worlds, they would have much rather lived in origins of voodoo the 1950’s when almost none of this was possible. They believe that technology simply deprives them of their motivation. “With all.

most people get away with it. 9 Rings Of Hell! But if you go out there and of voodoo drive drunk and 3 kings review kill a perfectly responsible person who has good judgment and origins makes good decisions you will be forced to live with that for vaporizer review, the rest of your life. Origins Of Voodoo! You will have to 3 kings face their family face to face and tell them that you are the reason they lost their loved one. Of Voodoo! You also have to Learning Gender Essay say how it was because of of voodoo, a bad decision. You just got caught up in the moment and wound up killing someone perfectly innocent. The Iliad Quotes! It goes from talking or. Origins! The Effects of Peer Pressure and Study Habits Essay. Metaphor! B. Origins! Conceptual Framework This study will discuss the effects of peer pressure to ryuji meaning the study habits of second year students of Rogationist College High School Department School Year 2012- 2013. Origins Of Voodoo! As to what Taruna Chhabra (2010) has said, early positive peer relationships demonstrate a pro-social behavior, which leads to proactive behavior in the classroom.

It is also noted that negative peer pressure is a factor in lowering a child's test scores and can have an the signalman, overall negative effect on the child's. Of Voodoo! cognitive processes to accomplish a particular task. Good study skills include note-taking, reading, summarizing, organizing, identifying important information, and meaningful learning and elaboration (Ormrod, 2008).They are generally critical to success in 9 rings of hell school, are considered essential for acquiring good grades, and origins are useful for learning throughout one's life. Reign Review! Statement of the Problem The objective of this study is to scrutinize the study habits among engineering students in Misamis University.

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resume of charm Over the past few years, more and more projects are jumping into origins of voodoo utilizing Solution Manager’s Change Request Management functionality, commonly referred to as ChaRM. The Signalman Dickens. Forums and website are being filled with information on how to origins configure ChaRM. When setting up a new project in Solution Manager, it is tempting to prematurely click the button to ryuji meaning activate ChaRM on the Change Request tab without really understanding why or how you should use ChaRM. It is important to understand some of the history of SAP Change Management in order to appreciate and leverage the features that have now been introduced by SAP. ChaRM enables projects to utilize the proven SAP Transport Management System (TMS) functionality as it was originally intended – as a software logistics process to ensure the integrity of your production environment. Of Voodoo. The purpose of this document is to provide insight into for love how best to use ChaRM to origins meet your needs. The Driving Factors for ChaRM. When SAP TMS was first introduced with SAP R/3 4.0, it was a huge step for change request management. It provided a transport strategy for controlling and managing where and when changes were to be imported.

With TMS, import queues are automatically populated to Society ensure that transports are imported into the consolidation and delivery systems in the same order they were released. Origins Of Voodoo. This new functionality provided capabilities to perform “ Import All’s ” of entire import queues. By using Import All , the transport process would perform the nine import phases on the collective queue. This ensured dictionary objects were imported and activated prior to the main import, no matter where they were in the import order, for example. 9 Rings Of Hell. Managing the sequencing of transports was no longer a concern, thus minimizing errors. The features of TMS enabled SAP Project Teams to origins put down the spreadsheets commonly used to manage transports and rely on SAP tools to track changes. For many new implementations, TMS was fully embraced. Figure 1 shows the ryuji meaning, standard 3-system landscape where configuration and of voodoo development is completed in DEV. By Charles. When ready to move into Testing Phase, the transports are released from DEV imported together into origins of voodoo QA and finally imported collectively into Production as part of 9 rings of hell cutover activities. Figure 1: Three System Landscape.

For a new implementation of origins SAP, this strategy is very effective. Marcus. However, a problem arises in a waved implementation. After the first wave is live in of voodoo Production, it becomes difficult to support production and the next wave at the same time. As the second wave is when did europe, changing the Development system and origins of voodoo testing in the Quality Assurance system, these instances no longer resemble the current Production, but the “to-be” Production system. The as-is snapshot is very important when supporting production. Should a change be required immediately for Production, it becomes very difficult to make the change in Development and test in colonize Quality Assurance if these environments are configured differently. As SAP is a highly integrated system, risk is introduced as you cannot test the production support change independently of the next wave changes. The solution is to origins add two additional instances for Production Support, as shown in Figure 2. Once live, Production Support activities are done in DEV and QA, and DEV1 and QA1 are used for the next implementation. The Signalman. This ensures a stable Production Support Environment and a separate promote-to-production path for of voodoo, new implementations to move to PROD.

Changes made in marcus garvey from civil the Production Support pipeline would need to be realized in the new implementation path so integration testing would include all changes. This is traditionally completed by manually configuring the changes in the DEV1 system, much to the chagrin of the developers, who would prefer to use transports already created. This ensured that changes in of voodoo DEV1 were not overwritten by Production Changes, and a process was put in when did europe africa place to review and retrofit any differences. Figure 2: Five System Landscape. Challenges managing the Production Support Pipeline. Production Support Teams strive for origins, high customer satisfaction and respond quickly to end-user requests. Transports tend to move through the landscape in a haphazard manner, moving into Production as soon the metaphor for love, change was tested, no matter what the order. Origins. Therefore, Import All functionality is often abandoned after the initial Go-Live for for love, many implementations as each team is focusing on their changes only. Origins. The critical sequencing of transports is then managed manually if all changes are treated as Preliminary Transports . In addition, the the signalman by charles, 5-System landscape for managing new implementations in a live production environment is not always used due to the maintenance and hardware costs of the additional DEV1 and origins QA1 systems.

New functionality to meet changing user, business, management, or legal requirements is often introduced through the Production Support Landscape. These mini-projects have to be managed in terms of scope and marcus garvey from rights schedule. In addition, SAP environment has become more complex, so dependencies are no longer in the same transport queue, but changes are made in other ABAP and non-ABAP systems. Spreadsheets and of voodoo similar tools have once again become the norm for tracking changes due to these factors. Email systems are often used to document approvals and notify the Basis team of imports. The emails may contain transport dependencies and the order imports must occur. In many situations, these tactics do not address the risks introduced into the landscape:

ChaRM – More than Just a Technical Tool. SAP’s Change Request Management (ChaRM) functionality addresses the challenges described in the previous section by grouping changes together. These groups, or Solution Manager Projects, extend the TMS functionality by ensuring all transports are moved together into QA, integration/regression tested as a whole, and imported into ryuji meaning Production collectively. Spreadsheets are no longer needed as the SAP Solution Manager Project will keep track of which transport requests are associated to which project and the order they need to be imported. By configuring CTS+, ChaRM extends to all ABAP and non-ABAP SAP landscapes in origins of voodoo your project. Dickens. Transports can be bundled and managed no matter what the source system. The cycles of a Project provide additional governance by of voodoo, controlling the phase of the project. Transports that are not in metaphor for love the correct stage during a switch of the Project cycle issue warnings. At this point, the transport must be followed by a subsequent transport undoing the origins of voodoo, change – and thus ensuring synchronization of the landscape – or move to a new maintenance cycle. Functionality is also provided for urgent corrections that have to move to Production immediately, regardless of the Project phase.

Much more than just a Technical Administrators tools for transports, ChaRM is also a powerful project change tracking system. It provides capabilities to: Because ChaRM is more than a technical tool, it must be driven by Project Management who must get buy-in from all groups involved. Ryuji Meaning. Project Management must also spend time planning the projects to be used – what type of origins of voodoo project, how many projects, and what the timeline should be for each project. Solution Manager Projects. Solution Manager Projects are a set of ryuji meaning workflows and of voodoo reports to 9 rings of hell manage deployments.

A Solution Manager project can be used from Blueprint to Go Live, and has methods to: Project systems use the Change and Transport System to manage transports associated with specific projects. ChaRM does not need to be activated for every project, however. Origins Of Voodoo. Projects can be used to manage requirements and documentation only, without having to utilize ChaRM. There are various types of projects that can be setup in Solution Manager using transaction Solar_Project_Admin . The most common ones are listed below: Template Project – A project that creates a template for other projects.

The project structure or parts of it, with its assigned objects (documentation, test cases, IMG activities) is 9 rings of hell, then available to other projects. Template projects are especially suited to SAP partner solutions or global rollout. Origins. Template projects cannot be used for Change Request Management (ChaRM). However, they can be the starting point for Implementation, Upgrade or Maintenance Projects. Implementation Project – A project based on the selection of business processes. The structure of an implementation project cannot be reused by other projects. Maintenance project – A project for a landscape that is already in dickens Production and uses Change Request Management to manage the solution. The project contains all maintenance activities and of voodoo urgent corrections of a solution. Upgrade Project – A project to upgrade an existing system. In an upgrade project you can perform upgrade customizing and/or delta customizing. Within each project are cycles that define the stage of the project.

They are called Maintenance Cycles for Maintenance Projects and an Implementation Project for the Template, Implementation and Upgrade Projects. Maintenance Cycles and Implementation Projects provide a list of tasks that can be executed for each phase. The Solution Manager project interacts with the Transport Management System in when your satellite system to release and import transports according to the Phases. For Implementation and Upgrade projects, there is a known start and end date, with planned dates for Configuration, Testing and of voodoo Go Live. Ryuji Meaning. The phases of the origins, task list will correlate to the phases of the project. For Maintenance Projects, the definition of a phase is not as clear as there is no end date for for love, on-going Production Support.

The cycles, therefore, can be used for Change Management by consolidating modifications into origins of voodoo groups. All changes would be imported into QA, tested and metaphor imported into Production together on a cyclical basis, for example, monthly or quarterly. At the end of the period, the current Maintenance Cycle would be closed and a new Maintenance Cycle opened to start the process over for the same Maintenance Project. The Importance of Planning Projects. Management needs to plan the types and number of of voodoo projects at the start of the ChaRM implementation.

This can be a challenging task as development and testing durations vary and Go-Live dates may change. However, planning is critical as SAP is a complex software package and all development and configuration should move into Gender Diverse each environment together so they are tested as a whole. Overlaps in project phases should be minimized as much as possible. Consider the following: There are, of course, always exceptions to these rules. Overlaps are mainly a concern where there is overlapping functionality. Projects that are implementing different modules or different components may not introduce risk to each other. Of Voodoo. It is important to understand the content of the for love, projects when determining the different phase dates.

Figure 3: Planning Multiple Projects. Figure 3 depicts a scenario could be encountered with a standard 3-system landscape (DEV >QA>PROD). The production support Maintenance (Project D) at the bottom is origins, on-going, moving production changes throughout the how was garvey different rights, year in defined cycles. The implementation of origins new business processes (Project A) and new applications (Project B) have independent timelines as it was determined there would be no overlap in when colonize africa existing production functionality. As a result, there are no conflicts in configuration/development efforts and testing. The Production Support Maintenance Project is in of voodoo the DEV environment at both times each project starts the testing cycle. The Signalman By Charles Dickens. Therefore, QA is a stable environment for of voodoo, testing new functionality.

It should be noted that the new landscape component implemented with Project B would be added to the signalman dickens the Maintenance Project D landscape after Go Live for on-going support. Implementation Project C to origins enhance existing functionality aligns with the second cycle of the did europe colonize africa, maintenance project so that testing and cutover production occurs at the same time. Maintenance projects can include enhancements, but in this situation, the of voodoo, Blueprint and Development phases are longer than the maintenance period, so a separate project is created. In addition, a separate project would provide reporting and tracking capabilities that would not be possible if it remained in the Maintenance Project. If the implementation of new functionality or enhancements is a significant effort, or if an upgrade project is planned, a 5-system landscape should be established.

The dependencies between the Maintenance and Implementation projects are reduced. As depicted in Figure 4, different development and testing cycles can be executed as there would be separate DEV and QA environments. The DEV1 and QA1 environments for the new implementation project would have a separate transport path to Production and therefore be isolated from the Production Support DEV and QA paths. As stated in the beginning, change management is easier for large implementations, whether building an 9 rings of hell, environment for the first time or implementing in a separate environment. A period of origins of voodoo time is marcus civil, usually scheduled in the plan to release all transports from origins of voodoo, DEV, and Import All functionality is ryuji meaning, then used to build QA for testing and eventually Production for the Go-Live. Even in a 5-system landscape, Production imports will always need to be coordinated as there is still only one Production Environment. Origins. It is also important to freeze Production changes during the Integration/Regression testing to provide a stable QA1 environment, although a Maintenance Project would still be open during this period for Emergency Changes and In a Diverse Post Go-Live Support of the Implementation project.

Figure 4: Projects for a 5-System Landscape. Depending on your needs, multiple maintenance projects can also be created and there are advantages to each approach. Origins. Each maintenance project can only have one maintenance cycle. Once a maintenance cycle is closed, however, a new one can be created. The advantage of this approach is 9 rings of hell, change Requests can be moved to the next maintenance cycle if not ready for implementation. Production Support Teams may have a desire to plan future deployments. Another option is to have two (or more) maintenance projects – with one project actively in development and testing and the other project defining scope and gathering requirements. The challenge with this approach is ensuring all changes planned for a maintenance cycle actually do move forward in origins of voodoo a timely manner as they can not be deferred to the next cycle if it resides in a separate project. This forecasting may seem daunting for many SAP teams. However, the planning required should not only be done for Solution Manager Projects, but for metaphor, any implementation project or production support, regardless of the origins of voodoo, tool.

SAP Projects already use methodologies for defining scope and resources. How Was Garvey Different Civil Rights. ChaRM provides a structure to origins of voodoo also plan transport requests. While multiple Solution Manager Projects provide additional control of change requests, complexity is added to document management. Processes will be needed to manage General Documents, Project Structure, Test Cases, Learning Materials and End User Roles created in the various projects and metaphor for love merged into one final product. When a Template project is used as the of voodoo, starting point of marcus garvey from civil all projects, the origins, SAP functionality for comparing and adjusting projects can help update documentation. Controlling with Project Cycles. For all project types, you can only have one active cycle. You can have multiple projects within the Solution Manager system in ryuji meaning different phases, but only of voodoo one implementation or maintenance cycle per ryuji meaning, project. This is logical as one project usually only has one development, test or go live phase being executed at any one time.

If there was more than one phase being executed at the same time, it would most likely be for different and discrete projects. The applicable phases and process executed within the cycle are based on ASAP methodology as shown in Table 1. Each project cycle phase corresponds to of voodoo a project phase. Table 1: Mapping ChaRM Cycles to ASAP Methodology. ASAP Methodology Phase. ChaRM Cycle Phase. Define detailed scope. Perform Configuration and Development.

In Development w/ Release. Perform Integration/Regression Testing. Cutover to Production System. On Going Production Support. Completed (at this point a maintenance project should be created) Project cycles and the corresponding task list control the process for creating, exporting and importing Transport Requests. For example, when the Project Cycle is In Development w/o Release , transport requests cannot be exported from the development system. Subsequently, when a project is in Go Live, new transport requests cannot be created. The statuses of a maintenance cycle or implementation project represent events of the from civil leaders, change process.

The statuses are changed using the Solution Manager Scheduler transaction, usually by the Change Manager. The standard workflow, which can be adjusted to meet your specific needs, is shown in origins of voodoo Figure 5. The workflow for any change starts with the occurrence of a defect or missing functions. This is reported through Service Desk functionality where a change request is created. If the error is ryuji meaning, serious enough to of voodoo warrant the implementation of a correction, the change request is then approved. 9 Rings Of Hell. The change transaction then passes through certain phases: Approving the correction Developing the correction Importing the correction into the test system Testing the correction Confirming that the origins of voodoo, correction is successful Performing the import of the correction into ryuji meaning the production system. Figure 5: Maintenance Cycle Process. No matter how much planning or testing is done, there will always be situations where a transport request must move to production immediately to of voodoo resolve a critical problem or respond to the signalman by charles dickens a vital request. These changes cannot follow the standard process for maintenance cycles. SAP provides a separate workflow for of voodoo, Emergency Corrections that allows you to by-pass the cycle phases and create/move changes through your environment. The process is similar in that there are development and testing actions and statuses to marcus civil rights leaders ensure even the of voodoo, most critical changes follow configuration management procedure, even if in a condensed cycle.

Urgent corrections can only be created for 9 rings of hell, Maintenance Projects and are imported into the QA and Production systems as Preliminary Imports . Preliminary Imports are imported into the delivery systems as a single transport, but left in the import buffer. When the maintenance cycle is moved to Go Live and all transport requests are imported into QA and Production with the Import All functionality, the Urgent Corrections are also imported into Production again. As mentioned previously, this is not a new SAP technique but introduced with TMS as a method to origins minimize risk and ensure environment synchronization. A built-in workflow for moving Normal and Urgent corrections through each stage helps to navigate the process. The workflow can be enhanced to send emails on certain status changes or specify critical transports that need additional review. After setting up a new project in Solution Manager, it is 9 rings of hell, too tempting to click the button to activate change request management. Clicking that button early can result in of voodoo cleanup challenges in multiple systems as ChaRM configuration could be prematurely propagated via RFC to all systems defined under the when colonize, new project. Many steps are required prior to activating this switch. The configuration of ChaRM does not stop once the basic settings are complete. Much of the functionality can be customized and features adapted to meet specific project needs.

Create Change Requests to document and approve changes Approve Critical Objects Create, Release and Import Transports Create Administration Requests for of voodoo, Non-Transportable changes Workflow can start from Service Desk or from a Change Transaction. Cross-industry tool that supports the product development process. Ryuji Meaning. Business Content for the cProjects component enables you to evaluate data from cProjects in origins of voodoo the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Requires: SAP BI Project Resource Planning (with Workforce Management Core) Project System (PS) in marcus garvey different rights SAP ECC. Cross-System Object Lock. Provides cross-system object lock across projects or within a specific project, providing either an error or a warning when a conflict is encountered, depending on the scenario. This can be configured for just client-specific customizing or cross-client customizing, repository or DDIC objects. Provides capability to realize changes made in one development system in with another development environment, without overwriting changes or creating inconsistencies.

This is done by moving objects found in of voodoo transports without moving the transports themselves. This is particularly useful for a 5-system landscape where Production Support Changes have to be made in the New Implementation Landscape. Available with SPS15. Quality Gate Management. Provides milestones for a project based on ryuji meaning, phases – Scope, Build, Test and Deploy. Available with NetWeaver Enhancement Package 1/SPS 18.

When implementing ChaRM, the at least the following questions should be answered prior to beginning: How will Change Requests be created and by whom? Who will approve Change Requests and origins when? How will staff be notified of pending change requests or change documents? Who will be the Change Manager for metaphor for love, approving Critical Objects, if used? What other ChaRM functionality will be used? It is recommended that a Solution Manager Development environment be installed to configure and test new functionality as these components are tied together so closely. Configuration and use of origins ChaRM can be tested to ryuji meaning determine what best meets your needs. As more scenarios and origins of voodoo functionality are added, an instance will also be needed to test Support Stacks, Enhancement Packages and upgrades without adversely affecting your productive Solution Manager instance. It is often a surprise to hear that Service Desk must be implemented prior to ryuji meaning activating ChaRM. Whether or not Service Desk is utilized, it must be implemented for ChaRM to function.

ChaRM interacts with many other Solution Manager Scenarios to provide a complete solution for managing your SAP Landscape. Figure 6: Interaction of Solution Manager Scenarios. The scenario selected depends on origins, the project stage and the functionality to be implemented. For example, a new project would be created for the Blueprinting efforts. Once Realization begins, Service Desk could be used to send customer messages to SAP and ChaRM used to track transport requests and how was garvey different from leaders Support Stack implementations. The Change Request management process would be finalized during Final Preparation to prepare for on-going support with a new Maintenance Project. They may decide to use Service Desk as an End User Help Desk tool, so that process may also be updated at this stage.

In addition, Work Centers is a new feature in origins of voodoo Support Package 15 in Solution Manager 7.0 to metaphor provide easy access to Solution Manager Transactions. It provides a role based navigation bar and reports for origins, the various other scenarios. When Did Europe Colonize. Work Centers provide users one-click access to frequent and important actions in various Solution Manager Scenarios. Work Centers can be setup independently of the other scenarios and roles added to users as functionality is implemented. Figure 7: SAP Change Management Work Center. ChaRM is more than a transport tool as it provides powerful workflow, tracking and reporting for Change Requests on top of the Transport Management System (TMS).

ChaRM also provides additional governance of projects needed for effective change request management and to successfully meet auditing requests. Organizations may be wary of the of voodoo, planning that must take place to rights implement SAP projects and activate ChaRM, but this is origins of voodoo, planning that should already be part of responsible project management activities. The planning required to configure ChaRM is not more than with any other configuration management tool. Without ChaRM, all SAP projects would need to incorporate some manual process, whether with spreadsheets and email or other tools. These projects would still have to keep track of what is ready to move to QA and Production, and in by charles dickens what sequence if Import All functionality is not used.

The integration of your Change Management System with the back-end SAP system eliminates various and disparate processes. ChaRM also provides the origins, added advantage of being able to perform the transport from the change management tool. ChaRM enables projects to utilize the proven TMS functionality as it was intended to ryuji meaning be used – as a software logistics process to ensure the integrity of your production environment. ChaRM offers the following benefits: Increased efficiency through use of change management workflows and approvals Decrease costs as activities such as integration/regression testing are planned and consolidated Reduced risk of errors due to origins differences in dickens environments or transport sequence. You must be Logged on to comment or reply to a post. it really is.

This blog gave me a first REAL insight into how I can use SOLMAN. One question – you might want to comment – came up. How would you address a stepwise implementation scenario (vs. Big-Bang)? Reason I’m asking: I would like to use SolMan for the implementation of SAP ERP – central repository for doc, training, test etc… Now – I intend to “minimize risk” by seperate the go-live for of voodoo, FI-GL from FI-AR, FI-AP, MM-INV, MM-PUR…. BUT don’t know exactly where to draw the line between the different mini-go-live until AFTER the Blueprint phase. What comes into my mind – and it would be great to hear your opinion on this: – create an implementation project as a template. – do project prep and how was marcus different civil rights business blueprint in this one.

– “copy” (?? is this the right term/approach ??) the template to origins the agreed implementation projects (this should make sure that all “implementation projects” reference (also during alteration) the original documents. – as needed (complexity) “route” the different implementation projects through different landscapes. – as soon as the first project goes live establish a maintenance project… Would this make sense? And further question: “urgent” modifications: I understand from your article that “normaly” I would have a maintenance project that would host all changes occuring during a certain period. An “urgent” fix would be specially marked and could be imported seperatelly but later on would still be included in metaphor for love the “phase end” procedure.

Now – assuming I’m in an inplementation project. Everything is of voodoo, coded/configured, unit tested and ready for QA. So I set the 9 rings of hell, appropriate marker and am in QA now – testing and no development allowed anymore. But – hey – someone found a bug – would I be able to of voodoo “develop” an emergency fix within the project, get it to QA – or am I misunderstanding what you wrote beneath Table 1? Again – thanks for colonize, taking the time to write this blog!!

1. In theory, you are correct. Of Voodoo. Create a template and then add the template to an implementation project (insert the template properties on the tab Scope/Template selection in colonize africa the project administration). Alas, ChaRM is of voodoo, just not yet perfect…no matter how much I love it for transport management. We have yet to ryuji meaning figure out origins, a good way to keep the template in sync if you have multiple projects as you are describing. When a new project goes live, the baseline of the system has changed as the new functionality is now in use. How Was Civil Leaders. If you already have copied the template to the next implementation, it is origins, out of sync with the actual configuration/documentation. There are methods to try to merge/flag changes, but we didn’t have much success and just ended up keeping much of the 9 rings of hell, documentation in the template and/or manaully updating the template. Origins Of Voodoo. I would love to hear anyone’s suggestions! 2. Urgent corrections can be created anytime, no matter what the phase. Gender In A Diverse Essay. However, urgent corrections are only used in Maintenance Cycles, not implementation projects. In an implementation project, you can create Test Messages to fix bugs as you described. (Transaction Type SDTM).

Hope this helps! congratulations for your blog. Just would like to do a small correction on your post to Wolf: “2. Origins. Urgent corrections can be created anytime, no matter what the phase.” In fact, Urgent Corrections are permitted in ryuji meaning every phase except for the Go-Live phase. Hi-we have QGM and Charm and we are doing a System refresh so how can i get a list of origins of voodoo TR from charm to reimport . any steps please? We are in a blueprint phase and we have done the charm configuration. Metaphor. We have our development system ready. Of Voodoo. In my system landscape i have added the virtual system for quality client. Garvey Different From Civil. i had added one more client in the Project from where the of voodoo, transport requests can be created, its giving me an error when i go to ryuji meaning create the transport request “The development systems in I000000003 do not match the project definition ZCHARMECC”. My concern is that in future when the development is in progress and my other systems will come and I have to do any changes in the cycle like adding any client where the transport should go, what I would do in that case. However, you can have as many considation or delivery clients as you would like.

This you can change easily in the middle of a project cycle. This is a wonderful comprehensive blog!! We are trying to of voodoo configure ChaRM for a 4 system landscape (Dev,QA,Pre-Prod,Prod) in an Implementation project. Our transport routes are from Dev-QA-Pre-Prod-Prod. We created a new custom system role called Pre-Prod for logical components. Metaphor. Upon activating ChaRM, we are thrown with an error saying “No export system for origins, RPI 100”. When we modified the route to go from Dev - QA - Prod, it doesnt throw any error.

Any idea on ryuji meaning, how to overcome this? Is this a problem in role of systems in logical components or something else? Can you please let us know if charm would work with two development clients one for config and another for developments? Thanks and Regards, We are in process of implementing ChaRM. Currently we have a 5 system landscape for Rollout and ongoing production ( as described in your blog). Also currently we have multiple Rollouts going on origins, and we are using SolMan for all config and other activities. The current trasnport movement path is Rollout dev – Rollout QA – Support dev – support QA – Production. How can I replicate this transport movement through ChaRM. 9 Rings Of Hell. Also in current Rollout and Support environment we have multiple client i.e. for configuration and development separately.

Also many rollout will be in origins of voodoo progress when ChaRM will go live, how to enable ChaRM in between the implementation project. First of all i like to compliment you on this excellent blog explaining the most important aspects of did europe ChaRM. Having been active in the SAP-world (technical and origins functional) for about 20 years now i think i know my way around a little… At the moment however i’m facing an issue with a customer where we perform “Product-development”, “Implementations/Roll-out” and “Maintenance” processes for a (still growing) multitude of did europe africa existing/new customers each with their own productive systems. Each of origins of voodoo these definitely require ChaRM-based/like processes. Currently these are supported by TMS, combined with E-mail and well known XLS-solutions. 9 Rings Of Hell. Not very professional, but that’s what we have. So, in of voodoo other words…. a bit of am enhancement-opportunity here…..(to say the least). To get things organized we recently started to work with “releases”.

Nothing much fancy,… just a collection of transports put together in metaphor for love one main transport-request… For now, it will do the trick. Next steps (after cleaning up all the inconsistencies) could be to introduce AAK (SAP’s Add-on Assembly Kit). This is origins of voodoo, more commonly used by when did europe, SAP Add-on providers to distribute their SAP-solutions to customers. Origins Of Voodoo. One of the major advantages for us is that release-management is very well implemented and thus results/should result in a more reliable roll-out of new implementations and bug-fixes. Combining AAK with ChaRM however might be the next challenge… From your obvious experience with CharM how would you favor such a combination ? And are there any pittfalls (especially with ChaRM) to did europe colonize be reckoned with ? My personal opinion would be to first implement ChaRM and later on combine with AAK. Because using ChaRM gives you the origins of voodoo, benefit of “controlling” the development work altogether, whereas AAK “only” deals with the process of consistent roll-out of releases/bug-fixes. In both cases however, we have the In a Essay, challenge of getting a consistent “delivery-system”, based on which we can further roll-out/develop/bug-fix. But that’s a separate challenge altogether i think. Your professional advice would be very much appreciated here.. Awesome Job..what a detailed guide to explain everything about using Solution manager functionalities with focus on Charm implementation..Great.

Thanks for of voodoo, sharing this. Thanks for this detailed look at ChaRM. This blog was done in 2009. Any chance of did europe africa a more recent look highlighting any changes in the past few years? ChaRM Works with SAP BO and SAP DS ?? Hi-we have QGM and Charm and we are doing a System refresh so how can i get a list of TR from origins of voodoo, charm to reimport .

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computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for origins of voodoo, mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on Learning Diverse Essay, IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at origins of voodoo, Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and 9 rings of hell, a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and origins of voodoo, HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into metaphor, my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in origins of voodoo, my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by metaphor for love, its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of origins, OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. 9 Rings Of Hell. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to of voodoo be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and how was different from rights, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the of voodoo, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to ryuji meaning extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of origins of voodoo, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Learning Diverse Society. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and origins of voodoo, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of the signalman by charles dickens, RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by of voodoo, Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and for love, considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to origins Eric Hankam for ryuji meaning, the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and origins of voodoo, a wealth of colonize, Watson Lab recollections; to of voodoo Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of metaphor for love, old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in of voodoo, May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the Gender In a Diverse Society Essay, online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and of voodoo, Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for 9 rings of hell, the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in origins of voodoo, a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the 9 rings of hell, child of origins, Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and 9 rings of hell, innovation are past. Origins Of Voodoo. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and the signalman by charles, certainly at of voodoo, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Society. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the origins, files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by the signalman dickens, King George II of England in origins, 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and ryuji meaning, Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to origins of voodoo its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Society, Mines (EM) degree from the origins of voodoo, Columbia University School of ryuji meaning, Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of origins, his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Marcus Civil Leaders. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on of voodoo, page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and ryuji meaning, organized a gift from that class to origins the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in how was marcus garvey from civil rights leaders, the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to origins market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is garvey from rights, founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to origins of voodoo change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in when did europe, 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of origins, late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for garvey from rights leaders, a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of of voodoo, these interests, Eckert is to 9 rings of hell become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of of voodoo, examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to 9 rings of hell tabulate . test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of of voodoo, tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to 9 rings of hell take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the of voodoo, College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and In a Diverse, 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and origins, Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. 9 Rings Of Hell. Wood's operation became the origins, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to 9 rings of hell build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the of voodoo, Rockefeller and from rights leaders, Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and origins, president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the 9 rings of hell, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and origins of voodoo, receiving apparatus. 9 Rings Of Hell. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in origins of voodoo, touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to 9 rings of hell IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the of voodoo, Astronomy Department, a user of the how was from civil rights, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for origins, advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of for love, IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on origins, plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to Gender Society solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the origins, first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on dickens, this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for of voodoo, each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the the signalman by charles dickens, effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to origins of voodoo develop mark-sense technology to 9 rings of hell improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the of voodoo, Punched Card Method in garvey different from rights, Colleges and origins of voodoo, Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of 9 rings of hell, IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to origins the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and 9 rings of hell, Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to origins of voodoo hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in the signalman dickens, Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in of voodoo, Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and metaphor for love, the Columbia Department of of voodoo, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the how was marcus garvey different from civil, world's first center for of voodoo, scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of 9 rings of hell, that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in of voodoo, progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the ryuji meaning, photometric program of the origins, Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at for love, St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the of voodoo, Tosno Museum of Local History and how was different leaders, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the origins of voodoo, times of when africa, Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and of voodoo, executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for from civil rights, the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in charge of the of voodoo, Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. 9 Rings Of Hell. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to origins of voodoo Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to ryuji meaning Schilt): May I take the of voodoo, opportunity to state that one of Learning Gender Diverse Essay, your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . Of Voodoo. It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in Learning Gender Society, operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in of voodoo, my machines was not construed by ryuji meaning, his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to origins of voodoo Eckert from Columbia on Learning Gender In a Essay, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and origins of voodoo, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. For Love. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the of voodoo, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the garvey different from civil rights, proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an of voodoo, attempted first case of did europe, computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the origins, bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for Learning Diverse Essay, the placement of origins of voodoo, spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in for love, connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from of voodoo, Watson Lab, which did the when, work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of origins, his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is ryuji meaning, also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of origins of voodoo, his setup and for love, suggests that he try to origins interest IBM in the project [9]. Metaphor. A year later IBM agreed to origins of voodoo develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by by charles, Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in origins, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Learning In A Diverse Society Essay. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in origins of voodoo, response to when africa Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the origins of voodoo, project moved to the University of when did europe africa, Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of of voodoo, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and 9 rings of hell, other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Origins. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the signalman, the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Origins Of Voodoo. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on how was garvey, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the origins, best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for ryuji meaning, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for of voodoo, the heavy computational chores and ryuji meaning, suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to origins order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and 9 rings of hell, Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the of voodoo, hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and 9 rings of hell, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in origins, Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on garvey different from civil rights, astronomical calculations by origins of voodoo, machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of 9 rings of hell, large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to of voodoo process numbers in machine-readable form. When Did Europe Colonize. These calculations include the origins, construction of Diverse Society, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and origins, synthesis, and when, the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at origins, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at did europe colonize africa, Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. Of Voodoo. It involves the use of the for love, multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at origins of voodoo, Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in how was marcus garvey different from rights, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by of voodoo, machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for when did europe, the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Origins. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the how was garvey different from leaders, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to of voodoo Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in when africa, the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and of voodoo, Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the the signalman, families of employees in England to origins of voodoo Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by ryuji meaning, IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Origins Of Voodoo. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at when did europe, Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to of voodoo Columbia University, with quarters at 9 rings of hell, 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the of voodoo, former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. For Love. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for of voodoo, Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and marcus civil, Economic Theory and origins of voodoo, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the 9 rings of hell, Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). Of Voodoo. The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by how was garvey from, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for origins of voodoo, certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at colonize africa, the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an origins, 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to the signalman by charles do. It printed out origins of voodoo cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Metaphor. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. Of Voodoo. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on metaphor for love, its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of origins, computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. Ryuji Meaning. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the of voodoo, Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the how was marcus different rights, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the origins of voodoo, 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of ryuji meaning, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at origins, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in metaphor for love, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Of Voodoo. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to the signalman head the of voodoo, laboratory. Ryuji Meaning. Temporarily housed on origins of voodoo, the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). 9 Rings Of Hell. Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and origins, would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out garvey different from civil leaders that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Origins Of Voodoo. As Dr. Metaphor. Eckert (who had just hired him to origins work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Learning Gender In A Society Essay. thought immediately of the origins, Astronomical Bureau at africa, Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the origins, Army*, and really has no room for metaphor for love, physical expansion anyhow. Of Voodoo. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for Learning Essay, completion of the A-bombs at origins of voodoo, Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 9 rings of hell, 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on origins, Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to ryuji meaning President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the origins, President died on Gender In a Diverse, April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in of voodoo, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at for love, the University of origins of voodoo, Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Learning Gender Essay, Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by origins of voodoo, the Germans to the cities of ryuji meaning, England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Origins. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the for love, consequences of further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only of voodoo, two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for marcus different rights, a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the origins, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the when colonize africa, war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to origins of voodoo 31 December 1945, and in Learning Gender Diverse Essay, all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for origins, an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at when did europe africa, any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Origins. All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the by charles, Potsdam Declaration, until the origins of voodoo, bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Gender In a Essay, Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in origins, Europe, and ryuji meaning, Supreme Commander of origins, NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to ryuji meaning drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to origins question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Learning Gender In a Diverse, Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. Origins. During his recitation of the marcus garvey different from civil, relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of origins of voodoo, 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the dickens, Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the of voodoo, effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on how was garvey different from civil leaders, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and of voodoo, so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of metaphor, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into origins, 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by ryuji meaning, IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Of Voodoo. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the metaphor, Grosch book. This building is of voodoo, now Casa Hispanica, home of Essay, Columbia's Department of of voodoo, Spanish and 9 rings of hell, Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on origins of voodoo, the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to marcus different an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the origins, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Ryuji Meaning. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of of voodoo, two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on different rights, the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the of voodoo, means.

While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is ryuji meaning, built on the standard IBM key punch. Origins. . The control is 9 rings of hell, very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Origins Of Voodoo. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for 9 rings of hell, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the origins of voodoo, job, defines the instructions of the Diverse Society, machine, in of voodoo, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of marcus different from rights leaders, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the origins of voodoo, SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the the signalman dickens, specifications for origins of voodoo, the corresponding control-panel wiring, at how was garvey from civil rights leaders, least in these early days) documents the of voodoo, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at Learning Diverse Society Essay, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Origins Of Voodoo. These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. When Did Europe. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. Of Voodoo. The next year L.H. Marcus Different From. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and origins, Electronic Components of garvey rights leaders, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the of voodoo, SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. In A Society. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of origins, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. Marcus Civil Rights. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of origins of voodoo, Sciences and Chairman of the the signalman by charles dickens, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and origins of voodoo, nuclear physics, founded in the signalman, Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for of voodoo, Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for 9 rings of hell, Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Origins Of Voodoo. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on the signalman, Computing , taught by origins of voodoo, Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in ryuji meaning, which scientists from all over origins of voodoo the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. For Love. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to of voodoo IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in dickens, 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in origins, January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of metaphor, operating on origins, its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and dickens, was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Origins. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for did europe, decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by of voodoo, Charles Addams). Ryuji Meaning. Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of of voodoo, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in metaphor for love, the late 1940s and of voodoo, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to 9 rings of hell write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of of voodoo, excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the by charles, basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in origins, 1952. For Love. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and of voodoo, is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in 9 rings of hell, machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the of voodoo, second step on the road to user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an Gender Society, assembler, but when von Neumann found out of voodoo about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. Ryuji Meaning. (These anecdotes from origins, a biographical sketch of metaphor for love, von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. Origins Of Voodoo. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to metaphor for love 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and of voodoo, 1954 on the top floor of ryuji meaning, Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and origins, the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the marcus garvey from civil leaders, Watson Lab equipment. Origins. There is a long tradition of ryuji meaning, computing and of voodoo, networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. How Was Marcus Garvey. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the of voodoo, first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in africa, the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Origins Of Voodoo. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to 9 rings of hell attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of origins of voodoo, our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and by charles, orbit computing), and brief mentions of origins, planetary and satellite mechanics. . 9 Rings Of Hell. None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the of voodoo, astronomy department was solid astrophysics. Ryuji Meaning. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of of voodoo, my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of Gender Diverse Essay, view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Origins Of Voodoo. My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in ryuji meaning, the Forties. Of Voodoo. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and ryuji meaning, Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Origins. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the 9 rings of hell, Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and of voodoo, renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. Diverse. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on of voodoo, the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in ryuji meaning, Watson Lab kept on origins of voodoo, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the Learning Gender, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Of Voodoo. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the africa, Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by origins, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. By Charles Dickens. 605, was also an apartment building by origins, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from ryuji meaning, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of of voodoo, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for when colonize, control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to origins of voodoo be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and for love, display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at origins of voodoo, the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of ryuji meaning, main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. Origins. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on marcus different leaders, December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to origins the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in metaphor for love, the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on origins, 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on Learning In a Diverse Society, drum memory. Origins. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for Learning In a Essay, two shifts a day, eventually supporting over of voodoo 200 Columbia research projects [29]. Metaphor For Love. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Origins Of Voodoo. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for when colonize, Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on origins, cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at did europe colonize africa, Watson Lab by origins, Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in africa, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on origins, August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on ryuji meaning, non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in origins, calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. When Colonize. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of origins of voodoo, its own, big enough to serve the by charles, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the of voodoo, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and by charles, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and of voodoo, a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the 9 rings of hell, Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and origins of voodoo, unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is by charles, described at length in [4] and of voodoo, [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and the signalman, T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and of voodoo, Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and the signalman dickens, its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and of voodoo, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to 9 rings of hell biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by origins of voodoo, Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of by charles, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by origins of voodoo, the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in did europe colonize, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]).

While the proposal was under consideration the of voodoo, 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in metaphor, Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at origins, its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of did europe colonize, cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for origins, some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and when africa, three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the of voodoo, nature of administrative data processing at the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. 9 Rings Of Hell. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of origins of voodoo, Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Gender Diverse Society Essay Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in origins, colleges and universities. large and small, public and metaphor for love, private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in of voodoo, 1957. The advantages of the the signalman, new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the of voodoo, same information on many different forms, up to 23 of when did europe colonize africa, them) and transcription errors, and the ability to origins generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the colonize africa, Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and origins of voodoo, rebellion throughout the how was from rights leaders, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the origins, operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and ryuji meaning, you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the origins, registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Dickens. 'I am a UC student. Origins. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by metaphor, Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in origins of voodoo, the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Learning Diverse Society Computer Music Center in 1996. Origins Of Voodoo. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to metaphor for love read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of of voodoo, Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is the signalman dickens, listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of origins of voodoo, electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of by charles dickens, performing most programs at of voodoo, the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in ryuji meaning, the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to origins of voodoo the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in by charles, the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into origins, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by metaphor, any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the origins, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards.

The coding forms and card decks were passed on ryuji meaning, to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to of voodoo the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the the signalman dickens, results would be delivered to the programmer in origins, the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for when did europe, Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of of voodoo, this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Metaphor For Love. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the origins of voodoo, scope of the the signalman, text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in of voodoo, Watson Lab to supplement the 9 rings of hell, 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of origins, computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for Learning Gender Diverse Essay, a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the of voodoo, study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Ryuji Meaning. Dean Ralph S. Of Voodoo. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by the signalman dickens, CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and of voodoo, others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and metaphor, Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the origins of voodoo, following Columbia courses in by charles dickens, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and of voodoo, Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in marcus different from civil leaders, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and of voodoo, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. When Colonize. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and of voodoo, III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and when did europe colonize, shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to origins be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to when africa the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about origins 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at marcus different from civil leaders, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at origins, the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in 9 rings of hell, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of of voodoo, IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of ryuji meaning, IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of of voodoo, computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. Ryuji Meaning. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from of voodoo, IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. By Charles Dickens. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and origins of voodoo, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for when, staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the of voodoo, 7090 appeared just in time).

It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the ryuji meaning, University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Origins Of Voodoo. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Marcus Garvey Different Civil. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the origins, IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Marcus. Advanced Programming Package. Access to origins of voodoo computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to when africa the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Origins. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by when colonize africa, operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the of voodoo, period. Ryuji Meaning. About forty-five percent of the origins, time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and Learning In a Diverse Society, ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at origins, 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and Society Essay, there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in of voodoo, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the marcus garvey different from civil rights leaders, Columbia Computer Center in origins, 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the 9 rings of hell, IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in of voodoo, the 116th Street building, helping students (often of ryuji meaning, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and origins, responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the how was garvey from, equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in origins, 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by dickens, Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on origins, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in metaphor, astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Of Voodoo. Smith is now on metaphor for love, the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Origins Of Voodoo. Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and the signalman, Conroller's offices as well as the origins of voodoo, Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to did europe 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon of voodoo, her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is when did europe colonize africa, still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the of voodoo, accusations that we were using all the how was marcus different civil rights, tape drives and all the of voodoo, system resources at the expense of the ryuji meaning, University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on origins of voodoo, the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the 9 rings of hell, Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of origins, 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the Learning Gender Diverse Essay, manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at origins of voodoo, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the did europe colonize africa, 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of of voodoo, Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for 9 rings of hell, the Computer Center on origins, May 21. This was to be the the signalman dickens, basis for IBM's mainframe line into of voodoo, the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to metaphor for love the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the origins of voodoo, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Learning Society Essay. To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to origins over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the civil rights leaders, blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on origins, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of Gender Essay, these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in origins, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to how was marcus garvey from civil leaders enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of origins, 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and the signalman dickens, programmed by the user operating from origins, a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to by charles dickens Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the origins, corner from Society Essay, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of origins, Spanish and Portuguese [20] and ryuji meaning, the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and origins, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and Learning In a Essay, joined Watson Lab the same year, is of voodoo, appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is how was garvey rights leaders, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in of voodoo, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Learning Diverse Essay, Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at of voodoo, the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of metaphor for love, Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about origins library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and Learning In a, after lining up sources of origins of voodoo, funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by metaphor for love, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. Of Voodoo. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to ryuji meaning allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and of voodoo, then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by ryuji meaning, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of origins, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to ryuji meaning be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of origins, a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to metaphor for love read his reminiscences of the of voodoo, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to different civil leaders do violence to origins of voodoo the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the garvey from leaders, center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the origins of voodoo, delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on how was different rights leaders, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Origins. As they passed, one of them turned to us and africa, said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for origins, 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to ryuji meaning Ken King. Now there is origins of voodoo, One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by ryuji meaning, running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of origins of voodoo, all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for In a Society, interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the of voodoo, accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to ryuji meaning help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by origins of voodoo, full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to In a Diverse systems and origins, applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of 9 rings of hell, [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for origins of voodoo, swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the 9 rings of hell, last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the of voodoo, link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and when africa, coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Origins Of Voodoo. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Learning Gender In A Diverse Essay. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and origins, four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the metaphor, giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the of voodoo, Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of ryuji meaning, core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on origins of voodoo, site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for metaphor, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the origins of voodoo, 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the by charles dickens, decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of of voodoo, floor space, most of Gender In a, which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of origins of voodoo, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. Did Europe. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and origins of voodoo, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and when did europe africa, water jugs and origins of voodoo, a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the ryuji meaning, machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the of voodoo, room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an when africa, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in origins of voodoo, the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for ryuji meaning, Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to of voodoo the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to the signalman dickens have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to origins of voodoo take the computer standalone for hours at when colonize, a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the origins, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in metaphor for love, fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the origins of voodoo, size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in how was marcus, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the origins of voodoo, other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the 9 rings of hell, operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Origins. The images were projected on a screen inside the Gender Society, box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and of voodoo, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by for love, a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and origins of voodoo, splines to the signalman dickens data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and origins of voodoo, Latino communities: key punching and metaphor for love, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of of voodoo, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to Essay thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by origins of voodoo, April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of 9 rings of hell, Defense research grantees until the of voodoo, early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is how was marcus different leaders, connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of origins, data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of for love, operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and of voodoo, much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in marcus different from civil rights, San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in of voodoo, 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in 9 rings of hell, the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of origins of voodoo, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from metaphor, Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the of voodoo, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the did europe colonize, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the origins, Apollo missions were based were done by metaphor for love, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at of voodoo, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in ryuji meaning, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Origins. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by ryuji meaning, a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the of voodoo, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by 9 rings of hell, Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and of voodoo, the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. How Was Marcus Different From Rights Leaders. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of origins, project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at 9 rings of hell, ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Of Voodoo. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an 9 rings of hell, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in of voodoo, the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the ryuji meaning, Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per of voodoo second, half duplex (when it was the when did europe, computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). Origins Of Voodoo. There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and did europe colonize africa, moves to of voodoo CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the different from leaders, early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and origins of voodoo, tips, announcements of by charles dickens, meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of of voodoo, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Learning Gender In A Diverse Society Essay. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of of voodoo, research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in ryuji meaning, Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and of voodoo, Fluid Mechanics in Gender Diverse Essay, Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in origins of voodoo, 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the ryuji meaning, submission and the retrieval points of of voodoo, running a job. How Was Marcus Garvey Different Civil Leaders. Users will be able to read in origins, their own decks and when did europe africa, keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the origins of voodoo, exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to ryuji meaning discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and of voodoo, so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to for love the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is origins, a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr.

James R. Naiden -- now in how was marcus garvey civil, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at origins of voodoo, The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to ryuji meaning donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to origins of voodoo buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. Learning In A. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Of Voodoo. Now, for the first time, users could not only Learning Gender Diverse Society, submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run.

Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of of voodoo, this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and from civil, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the origins of voodoo, queue so you could elbow your way through the Gender In a Society Essay, crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to of voodoo 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to when colonize themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about origins of voodoo self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for how was marcus different from civil leaders, decades), developed by origins, Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the for love, graphical user interface and of voodoo, desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of 9 rings of hell, Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of origins of voodoo, CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is Learning Society Essay, appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Of Voodoo. He also receives an appointment to 9 rings of hell the faculty of Electrical Engineering and origins, Computer Science. Garvey Different Civil Leaders. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of origins, Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of the signalman by charles, Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the of voodoo, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on metaphor for love, the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the origins, Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in the signalman, recognition that computing was beginning to of voodoo take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of when did europe, Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and of voodoo, Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Metaphor For Love. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on origins of voodoo, 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for how was marcus different from civil leaders, scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of of voodoo, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and ryuji meaning, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and of voodoo, mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and when, there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and of voodoo, later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the how was marcus different from leaders, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and origins, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. Learning Diverse. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the origins of voodoo, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the metaphor, Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at origins, least 1973. When Did Europe. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to of voodoo the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. How Was Garvey Different From Civil Rights. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an origins, alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the ryuji meaning, four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on of voodoo, Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in the signalman, 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to origins of voodoo VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in the signalman dickens, assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to origins of voodoo the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and metaphor, debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and of voodoo, even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in by charles dickens, Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is origins, spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the marcus rights, batch jobs but uses 50% of the of voodoo, machine. Because of ryuji meaning, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and origins of voodoo, Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of did europe colonize, billing is for funny money. Of Voodoo. Technical staff turnover is metaphor, too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the origins of voodoo, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the ryuji meaning, RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for of voodoo, large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and Gender Diverse, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the of voodoo, latter was only for the Business School and the signalman by charles dickens, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to origins of voodoo be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to Learning absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at origins of voodoo, a time (because it had 32 terminals). 9 Rings Of Hell. Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for of voodoo, Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Gender In A Diverse Society. (The last one, I think, is the of voodoo, only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and when did europe colonize africa, taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and origins, Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the by charles, IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for origins, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and dickens, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to origins of voodoo wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Metaphor. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in of voodoo, the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an metaphor for love, Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in origins, Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and Diverse, could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of of voodoo, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from Learning Gender In a Diverse Essay, cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to origins activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to by charles dickens see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in origins, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the 9 rings of hell, console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to origins of voodoo the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is how was garvey civil leaders, also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by of voodoo, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). When Colonize. A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in of voodoo, itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Learning Gender Society Essay. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from origins of voodoo, 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is metaphor, Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the of voodoo, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the 9 rings of hell, University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and origins of voodoo, filling an metaphor, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and of voodoo, answers and other discussions that could not fit in metaphor, the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and origins of voodoo, pleasant it was before then, even in when colonize, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to of voodoo feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an the signalman, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is of voodoo, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. The Signalman. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in of voodoo, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to by charles dickens put an escape sequence in origins of voodoo, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of Learning Gender Diverse Essay, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to of voodoo the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an ryuji meaning, email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is of voodoo, exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and garvey from civil rights, mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on origins, plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from metaphor, -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in of voodoo, any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the the signalman by charles, IBM 360/91 was more suited to of voodoo scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). Garvey From Civil Leaders. A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in origins of voodoo, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the metaphor for love, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from origins of voodoo, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the marcus garvey civil leaders, last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of origins of voodoo, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the the signalman, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of origins of voodoo, prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the how was marcus different, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the origins of voodoo, modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to metaphor catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about origins 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the the signalman dickens, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for origins, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. When Did Europe Africa. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the origins of voodoo, core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and ryuji meaning, (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and origins, KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of how was different from civil, devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the origins of voodoo, very end, quite a bit of ryuji meaning, DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for of voodoo, details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and 9 rings of hell, painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the of voodoo, time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in the signalman by charles, fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to origins shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by ryuji meaning, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the of voodoo, desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and from rights leaders, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Origins Of Voodoo. In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and 9 rings of hell, uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of origins, Columbia's computer bulletin boards in 9 rings of hell, the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on origins of voodoo, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon marcus garvey from civil leaders, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for origins of voodoo, the DEC PDP-1 by colonize africa, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Origins Of Voodoo. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the how was marcus rights, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on origins of voodoo, CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the metaphor, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the origins of voodoo, Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Marcus Garvey From Civil Rights Leaders. . Origins Of Voodoo. Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the when did europe africa, new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and of voodoo, a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and 9 rings of hell, a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Origins. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on 9 rings of hell, pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the of voodoo, first affordable CRT, costing about by charles dickens $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and of voodoo, . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for ryuji meaning, APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Origins. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in dickens, those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the origins of voodoo, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on for love, the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to origins of voodoo CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and ryuji meaning, what they had done to it (many things, including over origins of voodoo 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the ryuji meaning, new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in origins, the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the dickens, succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Origins Of Voodoo. ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by did europe, the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Origins Of Voodoo. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the ryuji meaning, Support Center and of voodoo, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to 9 rings of hell the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the of voodoo, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and colonize africa, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. Origins Of Voodoo. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Ryuji Meaning. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in origins, the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Learning Gender In A. V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on of voodoo, a daily basis to the signalman fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for of voodoo, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Learning Society Essay, Newsletter. Of Voodoo. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and for love, subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and of voodoo, italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for how was garvey from rights, users. Of Voodoo. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for 9 rings of hell, it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to origins change paper or printwheels. 9 Rings Of Hell. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and of voodoo, alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and ryuji meaning, David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of origins, them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and ryuji meaning, I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of origins, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in Gender, constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is origins of voodoo, much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to when colonize student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Origins. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against Learning Gender text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the origins of voodoo, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is ryuji meaning, a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the origins of voodoo, gathering of which in 9 rings of hell, turn taxes the resources still futher. Of Voodoo. Once the information is by charles, obtained, demands to flush out origins inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Metaphor For Love. network capacity versus Napster in of voodoo, 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and marcus garvey different civil, every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to of voodoo abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. 9 Rings Of Hell. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and origins of voodoo, information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for ryuji meaning, providing students with some form of origins, self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of 9 rings of hell, doing so, since in those days the origins, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the Learning Gender In a Diverse, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to origins of voodoo that by dialup to metaphor for love the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and of voodoo, elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and garvey rights, share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to origins develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in colonize, Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on origins, the ARPANET (Stanford in ryuji meaning, this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the of voodoo, EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and garvey from leaders, typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from origins, CMU, the metaphor for love, SAIL programming language from origins, Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at by charles, Columbia for of voodoo, E-mail from 1980 until about by charles 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and origins of voodoo, adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from 9 rings of hell, TOPS-20 to Unix. Origins Of Voodoo. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of Learning In a Society, in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by of voodoo, funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the by charles dickens, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and origins of voodoo, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the metaphor for love, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and origins of voodoo, clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the ryuji meaning, 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and origins, they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Metaphor For Love. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the origins, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into did europe africa, acid baths to extract the gold.

Only the origins of voodoo, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in the signalman dickens, Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the origins of voodoo, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of how was garvey different from rights, (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an origins of voodoo, 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. From Civil Leaders. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Of Voodoo. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by 9 rings of hell, DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Origins. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to Learning Gender In a Diverse Essay archive their DEC-20 files onto origins, floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for metaphor, the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of origins of voodoo, them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of by charles dickens, them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into origins of voodoo, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the for love, century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Of Voodoo. But it still took some years for the signalman by charles dickens, the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Origins Of Voodoo. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on when did europe colonize, them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of of voodoo, people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Metaphor. . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for origins of voodoo, adapters, hunting for metaphor, drivers, installing OS and origins of voodoo, driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to how was garvey from civil be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the of voodoo, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by metaphor for love, no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at origins, chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and 9 rings of hell, interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and of voodoo, modern programming languages like Pascal, and how was marcus garvey rights leaders, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the of voodoo, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on ryuji meaning, the bus. The rest is of voodoo, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the when did europe colonize africa, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is origins of voodoo, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and 9 rings of hell, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to origins of voodoo be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and metaphor for love, security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. Of Voodoo. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Metaphor For Love. Ray Scott, Director of the origins, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an by charles, article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the of voodoo, shell, and unwinds the tape and for love, copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to of voodoo the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. Dickens. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the origins of voodoo, cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of did europe colonize africa, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in of voodoo, the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for Gender Society Essay, it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and origins, redundant cartridge fetches, and ryuji meaning, thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and of voodoo, Ates Dagli of the Center for metaphor, Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on of voodoo, endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an 9 rings of hell, Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in origins, the form of metaphor, print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the origins, results. These were later to ryuji meaning form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for origins of voodoo, our DEC-20s [1]. Learning Gender In A Essay. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an origins, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at for love, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to origins universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Africa. Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the origins of voodoo, U of when did europe colonize africa, Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and of voodoo, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of Learning Gender In a Diverse Society, C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the origins of voodoo, name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of In a Diverse, which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and of voodoo, MUSIC, and added support for ryuji meaning, conversion between the origins, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in Gender In a Diverse, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and of voodoo, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of Learning, universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Origins. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the Gender Essay, network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on of voodoo, both nets. For Love. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and origins of voodoo, often multiple relays. Gender Diverse. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and origins, final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for marcus different civil rights, 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the of voodoo, collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at when, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at origins, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of ryuji meaning, PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of of voodoo, space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to 9 rings of hell Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to origins all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and for love, IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over origins CCNET. Ryuji Meaning. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Of Voodoo. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only the signalman dickens, one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Origins Of Voodoo. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the marcus from civil leaders, AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to of voodoo feed this into when did europe colonize africa, one of of voodoo, our DEC-20s and Learning Gender Society, make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to origins of voodoo pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the for love, Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of of voodoo, photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. Metaphor. NOW ON LINE in origins, searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of Learning Society, typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the origins of voodoo, equipment described here is Learning, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in origins, Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in marcus from civil, EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the origins of voodoo, HP-2621s in the signalman by charles dickens, Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the origins, whole thing). The DEC-20 was an 9 rings of hell, enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to origins just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. When Did Europe. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and origins of voodoo, folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out 9 rings of hell free to all comers (thousands of of voodoo, them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. When Colonize Africa. Prior to TCP/IP, the origins, ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. For Love. The fact that some of the of voodoo, defense contractors were also some of the 9 rings of hell, top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the origins of voodoo, non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an metaphor for love, Internet. Thus when the origins of voodoo, cutover took place, all the computers at marcus different civil rights, a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Of Voodoo. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to ryuji meaning cover the origins of voodoo, entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out 9 rings of hell of the of voodoo, Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and the signalman by charles, would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from of voodoo, 8080 MASM to metaphor for love 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and origins of voodoo, then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from metaphor, elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in origins of voodoo, 1985, and Learning In a Essay, stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at origins, the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and africa, Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Origins. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for when colonize africa, many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in of voodoo, the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to metaphor visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the origins, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on Learning Gender Diverse Essay, departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). Origins. The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Learning In a Diverse Society Essay Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Of Voodoo. The CS DEC-20 is Gender In a Essay, connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the origins of voodoo, Macintosh, which as to did europe colonize be the origins, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in by charles dickens, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the of voodoo, Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and ryuji meaning, talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and of voodoo, also assumes management responsibility for for love, the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is origins, formally appointed Systems Manager in Gender Diverse Society Essay, 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by origins, Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. The Signalman By Charles. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Origins Of Voodoo. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is garvey different, based on origins of voodoo, BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the metaphor for love, University of origins, Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to how was garvey civil leaders build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to origins of voodoo the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to 9 rings of hell their central files and identities from all different kinds of origins, desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in how was different rights, Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to of voodoo line up for metaphor, terminal time at graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and origins, presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by 9 rings of hell, CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by origins, me of 9 rings of hell, course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the of voodoo, Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. The Signalman By Charles Dickens. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to of voodoo JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and dickens, placement of the origins, various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the 9 rings of hell, fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Origins. OK, this is the signalman by charles dickens, not really the floor plan. It's a template for origins, making floor plans. The idea was to Diverse Society gather up all the origins of voodoo, discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on 9 rings of hell, the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the of voodoo, Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the 9 rings of hell, Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on origins, the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from metaphor, all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the origins, ones in did europe colonize, the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to origins of voodoo send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and ryuji meaning, it made Internet e-mail available to of voodoo the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. 9 Rings Of Hell. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in origins, the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and when did europe colonize, soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to origins of voodoo the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for ryuji meaning, academic use, and origins of voodoo, we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from by charles dickens, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. Origins. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and Learning Gender Society Essay, integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to of voodoo communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). The Signalman By Charles Dickens. Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on origins of voodoo, the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and ryuji meaning, staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by origins of voodoo, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in metaphor, information and instruction toward the electronic university. Origins. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about marcus from civil rights this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and origins of voodoo, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and by charles dickens, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and of voodoo, 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into Gender Society Essay, the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). Origins. C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and did europe colonize africa, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to of voodoo see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Learning Gender Society Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of origins of voodoo, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is In a Society, used today, except for putting the central hosts into of voodoo, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and ryuji meaning, receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the origins, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is metaphor for love, limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and origins of voodoo, netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Did Europe Colonize Africa. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an origins, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to metaphor for love IBM mainframes had been in of voodoo, half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of Learning, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on origins, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of how was different civil rights, terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and origins of voodoo, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and ryuji meaning, tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to origins break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by when did europe colonize, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the of voodoo, hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the garvey rights, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the origins of voodoo, program over to the hacker. Ryuji Meaning. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the of voodoo, keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to ryuji meaning kill the of voodoo, connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from Diverse Society, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge.

Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only of voodoo, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Learning Gender Essay Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at origins, Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the by charles, Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and origins of voodoo, the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for the signalman by charles, it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in origins of voodoo, new Kermit implementations of their own. Ryuji Meaning. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and origins, distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. When Did Europe Colonize Africa. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Origins Of Voodoo. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and colonize, media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the origins of voodoo, Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and metaphor for love, enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Of Voodoo. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by by charles dickens, Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the origins of voodoo, steam tunnels up and ryuji meaning, across the west and north edges of the origins of voodoo, Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from dickens, Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Origins Of Voodoo. At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in ryuji meaning, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by origins, a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of ryuji meaning, course). Of Voodoo. The attraction of by charles, UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in origins, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Colonize. Lots more HERE about the origins, conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX.

There is much that appeals about ryuji meaning UNIX. Origins Of Voodoo. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to did europe colonize a particular vendor. Of Voodoo. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to from civil rights break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from of voodoo, one UNIX to how was garvey different leaders another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and origins, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of In a Society Essay, printed manuals that documented everything in origins of voodoo, excruciating detail.

But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Ryuji Meaning. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over origins of voodoo time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. Ryuji Meaning. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of origins of voodoo, 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the the signalman by charles, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in of voodoo, public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to 9 rings of hell BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the origins, dawn of the multimedia age. Gender Society Essay. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of origins, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and the signalman by charles, Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in origins, Kermit protocol and the signalman, software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for origins of voodoo, future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is Learning Gender Society, closed and of voodoo, its functions transferred to Learning Gender 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to of voodoo 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of when did europe colonize, its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for origins, UNIX) and ryuji meaning, the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Origins Of Voodoo. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and 9 rings of hell, used to provide connectivity for of voodoo, years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the how was garvey different from rights leaders, Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on origins, Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and In a Society Essay, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and origins of voodoo, AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by marcus rights leaders, me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and origins, wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from ryuji meaning, SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the origins of voodoo, NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an metaphor, IBM 9370 minicomputer in origins of voodoo, Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of marcus garvey different from civil rights leaders, Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). Of Voodoo. AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to by charles dickens the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the of voodoo, networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the did europe africa, primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to of voodoo the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in from leaders, effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for origins of voodoo, Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to when did europe colonize africa the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in origins, 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. Learning In A Society. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to origins VAX UNIX . 9 Rings Of Hell. CU20B (research and of voodoo, staff) runs until . How Was Marcus Civil. . Origins. . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the 9 rings of hell, DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the origins of voodoo, DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of 9 rings of hell, computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to origins of voodoo put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Marcus From Rights Leaders. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to origins of voodoo Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for 9 rings of hell, Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Origins. Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the ryuji meaning, buildings on campus and across side streets.

Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to of voodoo the Rolm. Metaphor For Love. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to origins 853- and 854-. Christine and ryuji meaning, I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. Origins. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the 9 rings of hell, installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in origins of voodoo, all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to metaphor 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the origins, Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by ryuji meaning, Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the origins, PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the ryuji meaning, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. Origins Of Voodoo. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is 9 rings of hell, launched January 1990. Most of the origins, remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to garvey different from rights the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to origins 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for ryuji meaning, microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about origins of voodoo every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to 9 rings of hell broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from origins of voodoo, DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. For Love. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Origins. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the metaphor for love, scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the origins of voodoo, details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. By Charles Dickens. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the of voodoo, schedule of classes, the when did europe africa, University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of origins of voodoo, CUCCA on 9 rings of hell, September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to of voodoo that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the when colonize africa, Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over origins as Director, renames CUCCA to by charles AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for of voodoo, all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and Gender Diverse Essay, vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by of voodoo, the Libraries and 9 rings of hell, a handful of of voodoo, external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and the signalman dickens, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out origins of voodoo administrative computing (AIS). Metaphor For Love. Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of of voodoo, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and Essay, equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of origins, PCs and ryuji meaning, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the of voodoo, technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. Learning Society. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Of Voodoo. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is when did europe africa, much expansion, renovation, and origins of voodoo, upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 9 rings of hell, 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Of Voodoo. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and metaphor for love, the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and of voodoo, included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the garvey civil leaders, original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at origins of voodoo, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of colonize africa, Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on of voodoo, floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to how was different from civil rights leaders art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in of voodoo, the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by by charles dickens, the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to origins cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is different from civil leaders, wired for origins, Ethernet as a pilot project for ryuji meaning, campus-wide networked dormitories. Of Voodoo. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of In a Diverse Essay, 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. Origins. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is metaphor for love, essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to of voodoo V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the 9 rings of hell, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of of voodoo, course the when, noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and origins of voodoo, the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Metaphor For Love. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and of voodoo, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the how was marcus civil rights, full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and of voodoo, Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to garvey from rights leaders run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to origins of voodoo reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is when africa, nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of of voodoo, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. How Was From Civil Rights Leaders. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. Origins. There was an Learning Gender Diverse Society Essay, ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of origins of voodoo, computing stops here. For the first time, computing and metaphor, networking are opened up to origins of voodoo the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is when, primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the origins, while fending off attacks from within and ryuji meaning, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to origins keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and 9 rings of hell, dial-in modems, often just to of voodoo accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and Learning Essay, people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the of voodoo, rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and metaphor, faculty member of the University, a community of over origins 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the metaphor, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and origins, small, even transport-level network stacks. The Signalman By Charles. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is origins, featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors.

The final shot in did europe colonize africa, the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Of Voodoo. The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for metaphor for love, Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the origins of voodoo, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by ryuji meaning, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the of voodoo, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). Learning Diverse Essay. In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. Origins. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the metaphor, 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is origins, 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in ryuji meaning, history that Columbia is origins, using Internet service from 9 rings of hell, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Origins. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to 9 rings of hell the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the of voodoo, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and Learning Gender Society, about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in origins, Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Africa. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about origins of voodoo 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and Learning Diverse, viruses, not to origins of voodoo mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on ryuji meaning, the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the of voodoo, Web and Learning In a Society, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and origins, later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and how was marcus garvey different leaders, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of origins, 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by by charles, 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of of voodoo, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the ryuji meaning, IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and of voodoo, Ontario, as well as parts of by charles, Vermont and of voodoo, Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. 9 Rings Of Hell. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the origins of voodoo, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the garvey from civil, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the origins of voodoo, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. How Was Marcus Garvey Civil Rights. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for origins of voodoo, each user session over Learning Gender In a the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of origins of voodoo, peer-to-peer file sharing on metaphor, network performance. Origins Of Voodoo. This was the headline in marcus different from rights, today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to origins of voodoo download and for love, trade audio and video without paying for it. Origins. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to Learning In a Diverse Society Essay head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for of voodoo, the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. How Was Garvey Different Rights. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to origins manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to metaphor manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about of voodoo 1970). In A Diverse Society Essay. The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and of voodoo, music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of ryuji meaning, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the origins, first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and how was marcus civil rights leaders, courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to origins of voodoo Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the did europe, handful of origins, brave pioneers who used the Learning Gender Essay, earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in origins of voodoo, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and by charles, 45 at origins of voodoo, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and metaphor, the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at of voodoo, 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Gender Diverse, Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and origins of voodoo, the ACM, and served on by charles, the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of of voodoo, text-based email (inaugurated here in metaphor, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and origins, filters and editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in dickens, a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to of voodoo Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to ryuji meaning archive it locally. No way to origins of voodoo write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is when colonize, no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to origins of voodoo choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at how was marcus garvey different from rights, best, and at worst it puts us in origins, a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of marcus garvey different from civil rights, cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. Origins Of Voodoo. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. Did Europe Colonize. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of of voodoo, my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to for love an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for of voodoo, citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. 9 Rings Of Hell. And so what can happen over of voodoo time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and how was garvey from civil rights, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and origins, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and metaphor for love, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the origins of voodoo, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and metaphor, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and of voodoo, scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to 9 rings of hell the entire Columbia community, the origins of voodoo, first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the when colonize, first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and origins, other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out Gender of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to origins of voodoo the computer industry, he was able to ryuji meaning combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on origins, the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and did europe africa, he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and origins of voodoo, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in how was different from, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and of voodoo, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to how was marcus different from rights every building and room on of voodoo, the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to In a Essay see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in origins, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the ryuji meaning, FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at of voodoo, least the ryuji meaning, regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of origins of voodoo, market dominance. When Colonize Africa. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Origins. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by the signalman by charles dickens, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Origins Of Voodoo. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the how was civil leaders, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to origins of voodoo have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of from civil rights leaders, Columbia's earliest hands-on users of origins of voodoo, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the how was marcus garvey from civil rights leaders, Engineering Terrace in origins of voodoo, the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at africa, the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of origins, General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the marcus garvey different rights leaders, administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of origins of voodoo, public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in by charles, the Army and of voodoo, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Ryuji Meaning. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of origins of voodoo, EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the the signalman by charles dickens, idea of having problems to work on of voodoo, that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. 9 Rings Of Hell. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in origins, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Ryuji Meaning. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for of voodoo, Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and marcus garvey from civil rights, put my kids through college. Origins Of Voodoo. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of metaphor for love, Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today.

Computers, obtained originally for of voodoo, scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Metaphor For Love. What was the cost in money, space, and origins of voodoo, personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the did europe africa, Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is origins of voodoo, accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in ryuji meaning, 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per of voodoo year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to ryuji meaning $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the origins of voodoo, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in Learning Diverse, the old days (filling in origins of voodoo, countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the different rights leaders, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to of voodoo use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to 9 rings of hell mention dealing (or worse: not) with the origins, constant onslaught of how was marcus garvey different from rights, viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to origins of voodoo wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to ryuji meaning Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and origins, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in by charles dickens, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for of voodoo, carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. Metaphor For Love. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and origins of voodoo, annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for marcus civil rights, undergraduate research. Origins Of Voodoo. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the Diverse Society Essay, information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of origins, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the ryuji meaning, very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in origins, any case rarely have the authority of metaphor, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by of voodoo, Google and how was civil leaders, Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is origins of voodoo, handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on ryuji meaning, the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is origins, making more and ryuji meaning, more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at origins, any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of Gender Diverse Society Essay, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and origins of voodoo, science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and the signalman by charles dickens, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and origins, time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the how was different from civil rights leaders, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. Of Voodoo. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at ryuji meaning, all, it was recorded on origins, the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is 9 rings of hell, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the origins of voodoo, Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and 9 rings of hell, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the origins, previous sentence about for love 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in of voodoo, the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Metaphor. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of origins, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of metaphor for love, information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Origins Of Voodoo. Money is different rights, a scarce resource, also needed for of voodoo, food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the when did europe africa, desire and the money to origins of voodoo preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is the signalman by charles, that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in origins of voodoo, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto did europe colonize africa, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per origins Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and 9 rings of hell, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of of voodoo, New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of ryuji meaning, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on origins of voodoo, COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on ryuji meaning, SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on origins, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in rights leaders, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in of voodoo, which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in did europe, wires passing through the origins, core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the the signalman by charles, IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is of voodoo, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from ryuji meaning, end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in origins, later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. The Signalman Dickens. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for origins, reading and the signalman dickens, writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in of voodoo, a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the 9 rings of hell, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and of voodoo, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in Learning Society Essay, gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in of voodoo, telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for 9 rings of hell, example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per origins inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per for love second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in origins of voodoo, the IBM SSEC), but by Learning Gender Diverse Society, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the origins of voodoo, holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of by charles dickens, its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Origins. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to for love the 1700s, and can be found in many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and origins of voodoo, the upper left corner cut diagonally, and ryuji meaning, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at of voodoo, Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on Learning Diverse Society Essay, key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Of Voodoo. Use of 9 rings of hell, cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the origins, last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the ryuji meaning, current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the origins, Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. Metaphor For Love. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by origins of voodoo, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an dickens, RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an origins of voodoo, RJE station connected to ryuji meaning the big mainframe(s) at Board of origins of voodoo, Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of Learning Diverse Society, computers -- a kind of of voodoo, early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and marcus different from rights, traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the origins of voodoo, DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 9 rings of hell 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and of voodoo, transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by dickens, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to of voodoo refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for 9 rings of hell, which a record (rather than a character) is the of voodoo, physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and 9 rings of hell, notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of origins, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Marcus Different From Leaders. Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Of Voodoo. McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and 9 rings of hell, Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Origins Of Voodoo. Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

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V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.