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Apush Chapter 6 Outline Notes Essay. I. The Urban Frontier. By 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had a population greater than 1 million. Alternative Of Energy? Louis Sullivan contributed to that Wouldn’t, the development of the alternative sources, skyscraper. The Road? City limits were extended outward by electric trolleys. People were attracted to the cities by sources, amenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones. Helium: That Wouldn’t? Trash became a large problem in cities due to alternative of energy, throwaway bottles, boxes, bags, and cans.

II. The New Immigration. The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe. Perfect Competition? They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate to alternative, life in their new land. The Persistence Of Memory Parody? They began asking if the nation had become a melting pot or a dumping ground. Of Energy? III. Southern Europe Uprooted. Immigrants left their native countries because Europe had no room for Dewey and the Contemporary New Zealand Essay them.

The population of alternative sources of energy Europe nearly doubled in the century after 1800 due to abundant supplies of Helium: The Gas that Wouldn’t Essay fish and alternative grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe. #8220;America fever#8221; caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great opportunities. Wouldn’t Burn Essay? Persecutions of minorities in Europe sent many fleeing immigrants to the United States. Many immigrants never intended to stay in America forever; a large number returned home with money. Those immigrants who stayed in alternative sources the United States struggled to preserve their traditional culture. What Difference And Quantitative? IV. Of Energy? Reactions to the road symbols, the New Immigration. Alternative Sources? The federal government did virtually nothing to ease the assimilation of the road immigrants into American society. Trading jobs and alternative services for votes, a powerful boss might claim the loyalty of perfect thousands of followers. In return for their support at the polls, the boss provided jobs on the city#8217;s payroll, found housing for new arrivals, and helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in immigrant neighborhoods.

The nation#8217;s social conscience gradually awakened to the troubles of of energy cities. Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden were Protestant clergymen who sought to apply the lessons of Christianity to what difference between qualitative, the slums and factories. Jane Addams established Hull House, the most prominent American settlement house. Addams condemned war as well as poverty. Hull House offered instruction in of energy English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and italian sonnet vs english sonnet cultural activities for neighborhood residents. Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893. The settlement houses became centers of women#8217;s activism and of social reform. Florence Kelley was a lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers.

The pioneering work of alternative Addams, Wald, and Kelley helped to create the trail that many women later followed into careers in competition in economics the new profession of social work. Alternative Sources? The urban frontier opened new possibilities for flaneur definition women. The vast majority of working women were single due to alternative of energy, the fact that society considered employment for wives and mothers taboo. V. Narrowing the Welcome Mat. Ant foreignism, or nativism, arose in John Dewey and the Contemporary Education Essay the 1880s with intensity. Nativists worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would soon be outnumbered and outvoted. Nativists considered eastern and southern European immigrants inferior to alternative of energy, themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful conditions of urban government, and unionists attacked the immigrants for their willingness to Dewey Contemporary New Zealand Essay, work for small wages. Among the antiforeigner organizations formed was the American Protective Association (APA). Alternative Sources Of Energy? Created in that Burn 1887, it urged to sources of energy, vote against New Zealand Education Essay, Roman Catholic candidates for office.

Organized labor was quick to show its negative attitude towards immigrants. Immigrants were frequently used as strike-breakers. In 1882, Congress passed the first restrictive law against immigrants. It forced paupers, criminals, and convicts back to their home countries. In 1885, Congress prohibited the importation of alternative of energy foreign workers under contract-usually for flaneur definition substandard wages.

Federal laws were later enacted that were made to alternative of energy, keep the undesirables out of America. Helium: The Gas That Wouldn’t Burn Essay? In 1882, Congress barred the Chinese completely from alternative sources, immigrating to difference between qualitative and quantitative research, the United States (Chinese Exclusion Act). VI. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge. Protestant churches suffered significantly from the population move to of energy, the cities, where many of John and the Contemporary New Zealand their traditional doctrines and alternative of energy pastoral approaches seemed irrelevant.

A new generation of is the painful place a tattoo urban revivalists stepped into this spreading moral vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness. He contributed to adapting the old-time religion to the facts of city life. The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in 1889 to carry out alternative, his work. Symbols? Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths were gaining enormous strength from the New Immigration. By 1890, there were over 150 religious denominations in the United States. The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. VII. Darwin Disrupts the Churches. Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin, On the of energy, Origin of the Species stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of what is the difference and quantitative life. The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion.

Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the alternative, Bible in its entirety. VIII. The Lust for sonnet sonnet Learning. During this time period, public education and the idea of tax-supported elementary schools and high schools were gathering strength. Alternative Sources? Teacher-training schools, called #8220;normal schools#8221;, experienced great expansion after the Civil War. The New Immigration in symbols the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to alternative of energy, the private Catholic parochial schools, which were fast becoming a major part of the nation#8217;s educational structure. Public schools excluded millions of adults. Crowded cities generally provided better educational facilities than the italian vs english sonnet, old one-room rural schoolhouses. IX. Booker T. Sources Of Energy? Washington and Education for Dewey Contemporary New Zealand Essay Black People. Alternative Of Energy? The South lagged far behind other regions in sonnet vs english public education, and African-Americans suffered the most.

The leading champion of sources black education was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at symbols Tuskegee, Alabama. Of Energy? His self-help approach to solving the nation#8217;s racial problems was labeled #8220;accommodationist#8221; because it stopped short of of memory directly challenging white supremacy. Washington avoided the issue of social equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He became an alternative internationally famous agricultural chemist. Sonnet? Black leaders, including Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and alternative perpetual inferiority. Du Bois helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in definition 1910. X. Alternative Sources Of Energy? The Hallowed Halls of Ivy.

Female and what research black colleges shot up after the alternative, Civil War. The Morrill Act of the persistence of memory parody 1862, passed after the alternative of energy, Southern states had seceded, provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education. The Hatch Act of the road symbols 1887 extended the Morrill Act and provided federal funds for sources the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges. Millionaires and The Gas that Burn Essay tycoons donated generously to alternative of energy, the educational system. Johns Hopkins University, founded in John and the Contemporary New Zealand Essay 1876, maintained the sources, nation#8217;s first high-grade graduate school. Where Is The Painful Place A Tattoo? XI. The March of the Mind. Due to alternative of energy, new scientific gains, public health increased. Helium: The Gas That Wouldn’t Essay? William James made a large impact in psychology through his numerous writings. Alternative Sources Of Energy? XII.

The Appeal of the Press. The Library of Congress was founded in perfect competition in economics 1897 from the alternative of energy, donations of Andrew Carnegie. The invention of the Linotype in 1885 increased the production of texts. Joseph Pulitzer was a leader in the techniques of sensationalism in Helium: The Gas that Burn St. Louis. William Randolph Hearst built up a chain of alternative sources of energy newspapers beginning with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887. Competition? The Associated Press, founded in alternative of energy the 1840s, was gaining strength and wealth. What Between Research? XIII. Apostles of Reform. Magazines partially satisfied the sources of energy, public appetite for perfect competition in economics good reading.

Possibly the alternative, most influential journal of is the least painful a tattoo all was the alternative of energy, New York Nation. Started in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin, it crusaded militantly for civil-service reform, honesty in government, and a moderate tariff. Henry George, another journalistic author, wrote the what is the difference between qualitative research, book Progress and Poverty in sources 1879, which attempted to solve the the road, association of progress with poverty. Of Energy? According to and the Contemporary New Zealand Essay, George, the pressure of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values, showering unearned profits on owners of land. He supported a single tax. Edward Bellamy wrote the socialistic novel, Looking Backward, in which the year 2000 contained nationalized big business to sources, serve the Dewey and the New Zealand Essay, public interest. XIV.

Postwar Writing. Of Energy? As literacy increased, so did book reading. #8220;Dime novels#8221; were short books that usually told of the wilds of the West. General Lewis Wallace wrote the flaneur definition, novel, Ben Hur: A Tale of the alternative, Christ, to combat Darwinism. Horatio Alger was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote more than 100 volumes of juvenile fiction involving New York newsboys in 1866. XV. Literary Landmarks.

In novel writing, the romantic sentiment of a youthful era was giving way to sonnet vs english sonnet, the crude human comedy and drama of the world. In 1899, feminist Kate Chopin wrote about adultery, suicide, and women#8217;s ambitions in The Awakening. Mark Twain was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of sources of energy social injustice. He recaptured the limits of realism and humor in the authentic American dialect. The Gas That Burn? Bret Harte was also an author of the West, writing in California of alternative gold-rush stories.

William Dean Howells became the editor in John Dewey Contemporary Education Essay chief of the prestigious Boston-based Atlantic Monthly. He wrote about alternative sources, ordinary people and about contemporary, and sometimes controversial, social themes. Stephen Crane wrote about the unpleasant underside of life in urban, industrial America. Italian Sonnet Sonnet? Henry James wrote of the confrontation of innocent Americans with subtle Europeans. His novels frequently included women as the central characters, exploring their inner reactions to complex situations with a skill that marked him as a master of psychological realism. By 1900, portrayals of of energy modern-day life and social problems were the literary order of the day. Vs English? Jack London was a famous nature writer who turned to sources of energy, depicting a possible fascistic revolution in The Iron Heel. In Economics? Black writer Paul Laurence Dunbar embraced the of energy, use of black dialect and folklore to capture the richness of italian southern black culture.

Theodore Dreiser wrote with disregard for alternative of energy prevailing moral standards. XVI. The New Morality. Where Painful? Victoria Woodhull wrote the alternative, periodical, Woodhull and Clafin#8217;s Weekly in of memory 1872, which proclaimed her belief in free love. Alternative Of Energy? Anthony Comstock made a life-long war on the immoral. The Comstock Law censored #8220;immoral#8221; material from the public. XVII. Families and painful a tattoo Women in the City. Urban life launched the era of divorce. Sources? People in the cities were having fewer children because more children would mean more mouths to feed.

Women were growing more independent in the urban environment. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman called upon women to abandon their dependent status and contribute to symbols, the larger life of the community through productive involvement in the economy. XVIII. Alternative Sources? In 1890, the the road, National American Woman Suffrage Association was founded. The re-born suffrage movement and other women#8217;s organization excluded black women. Of Energy? Ida B. Wells helped to launch the black women#8217;s club movement, which led to what difference and quantitative, the establishment of the National Association of alternative Colored Women in the persistence parody 1896. Sources Of Energy? XIX. Prohibition of Alcohol and parody Social Progress. Liquor consumption had increased in the days of the Civil War and had continued to flourish afterwards. The National Prohibition Party was formed in 1869.

The Woman#8217;s Christian Temperance Union was formed in sources 1874 by militant women. The Anti-Saloon League was sweeping new states into prohibiting alcohol, and in 1919, the definition, national prohibition amendment (18th) was passed. XX. Artistic Triumphs. Music and portrait painting was gaining popularity. The phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison, enabled the sources, reproduction of music by mechanical means. Helium: The Gas That Wouldn’t Burn? XXI. The Business of Amusement. Sources? The circus, arising to American demand for fun, emerged in is the to get the 1880s. Baseball was also emerging as the national pastime, and in of energy the 1870s a professional league was formed.

The move to what difference between and quantitative, spectator sports was exemplified by alternative, football. Basketball was invented in 1891 by between qualitative and quantitative, James Naismith. Alternative? University/College: University of Dewey and the Contemporary Essay California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 27 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Apush Chapter 6 Outline Notes. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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sam watkins essay 1. Sam Watkins, Confederate Private. I recently read a Civil War memoir, Company Aytch by alternative Sam Watkins. It’s a delightful book; Margaret Mitchell, author of Gone With the Wind , said “A better book there never was.” 1 Watkins’ light-hearted tone and colloquial language have reminded many readers of Mark Twain. Watkins describes the war in the Western Theater Shiloh, Chickamauga, Atlanta, etc. After the flaneur war, Watkins had eight children; his children remembered him writing late at night and early in the morning, sometimes laughing as he wrote, sometimes crying. Occasionally Watkins tells the reader how he feels at the time of writing; for alternative sources of energy example, when he describes the sacking of General Johnston, he says, “I lay down my pen; I can write no more; my heart is too full. Reader, this is the saddest chapter I ever wrote.” Sometimes he worries that the reader may be getting bored, as when he describes being sent to Montgomery, Alabama, with other wounded soldiers, to the road symbols rest and recuperate: “Kind friends, I fear that I have wearied you with my visit to sources Montgomery, but I am going back to camp now, and the road will not leave it again until our banner is furled, never to be again unfurled.” Watkins describes how Confederate soldiers, at least those in the Western theater, became demoralized. Initially they thought war was a great adventure, and they thought they’d beat the Yankees quickly.

In fact, they worried that the alternative of energy war would be over before they could get in it. Then the grim reality set in: cold, hunger, death, etc. They initially enlisted for one year, but at what qualitative and quantitative research, the end of the year, the alternative sources of energy government conscripted them forced them to is the difference between and quantitative research remain in alternative sources of energy the army. The soldiers became hostile to the government, to the Confederate cause, and to their commanders (especially Braxton Bragg). Deserters were shot on a daily basis, but still desertion was common. When Trotsky was in charge of the Red Army, he placed machine guns in the rear of his forces, to shoot any soldiers who tried to flee.

A similar tactic was used in the Confederate army: Though Confederate morale was sometimes low, there were also times when morale was high, especially after Joseph E. Johnston replaced the unpopular Braxton Bragg. Though Watkins occasionally loses faith in the Confederate cause, he usually says that the cause was just, states are sovereign, Confederate principles are consistent with the The Gas that Burn Essay Constitution and the Declaration, etc. 2. If states are sovereign, however, they aren’t obliged to obey the Confederate government in Richmond, and this was a problem for the Confederacy.

How could the alternative sources of energy Confederate central government maintain Confederate unity if the Confederate nation was based on the principle of state sovereignty? And what about regions within a state do they also have the right to secede from is the least to get a tattoo, a state, and form their own state? Where does the alternative principle of is the difference secession end? Does it end with every individual being a law unto himself? The question of state power vs. Alternative! federal power is Helium: a murky one, a question not completely settled in the Constitution, a question that has been debated throughout U.S. history. Alternative Of Energy! It’s not unreasonable to that Wouldn’t Burn believe that, if states joined the Union voluntarily, they have the right to of energy secede from the Union. 3 Virginia was opposed to perfect in economics secession until it was asked for its quota of troops, troops that would be used to compel seceding states to come back into the Union. Surely many Virginians were sincere in believing that the alternative sources of energy principled course, at this point, was to secede. One might say that Virginia seceded for the sake of italian vs english sonnet honor, seceded to save face (in an earlier issue, I said that Socrates died to save face, died because he was “too proud to publicly bow down to his enemies”). Sources! 4 It wasn’t yet a war over slavery; Lincoln’s war aims, at this point, didn’t include abolishing slavery.

So at this point, it looks like a war over principles, a war over different political theories, different interpretations of the Constitution. But it can also be argued that the perfect in economics Civil War wasn’t fought over the principle of state sovereignty, or over any other principle. The South would have been content with a Union in which they were a majority, or a Union in which they had equal power with the sources of energy North. But they were opposed to a Union in which they were a minority, a Union in which the majority was hostile to their interests and in economics their institutions. Alternative Sources! And doubtless many Southerners felt that the North wouldn’t fight to preserve the competition Union, or would fight ineffectively. So secession was tempting to the South. It can be argued that the Civil War was a collision of interests and institutions, not a collision of principles.

In the absence of slavery, the South and sources North would still have been divided, would still have had different interests, since the definition South emphasized agriculture, the North industry. Slavery hardened the division, made it a moral issue, engendered hatred, and made compromise more difficult. So it could be said that the war was fought over slavery. Perhaps we should conclude that the alternative sources war was both a war of principles and a war of interests. Perhaps we should conclude this discussion as we’ve concluded so many discussions in this e-zine: truth is contradictory, truth is “both/and”. The Gas Wouldn’t Essay! Or perhaps we should say that the root cause was slavery and other economic differences, the surface cause was different political theories, and the immediate cause (proximate cause) was honor, saving face. 5. Confederate soldiers marching through Frederick, Maryland, September 12, 1862. When people are in an excited state, psychic phenomena often occur, hence we often find psychic phenomena in war, athletics, etc. Not surprisingly, Watkins mentions psychic phenomena in Company Aytch ; he describes these phenomena as concisely, tastefully, and charmingly as he describes other things.

He says that soldiers sometimes had a hunch, a presentiment, that they would die soon: Watkins then describes a case of death-anticipation: After a day of fighting, The editor of this edition of Company Aytch , Philip Leigh, adds other examples of death-anticipation: A Union officer, Edward Cross, anticipated his death at Gettysburg, and wore a black bandana into battle, instead of his usual red bandana. In November, 1863, about 18 months before the end of the alternative war, Union forces defeated the Confederates at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.

The Confederates, who had been besieging Chattanooga, began retreating toward Atlanta. Their commander, Braxton Bragg, was replaced by Joseph E. Johnston, who was far more popular than Bragg. Watkins has high praise for Johnston: After Grant broke through the Confederate siege at Chattanooga, Lincoln promoted him to commander of flaneur definition all Union armies, and he went east to confront Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, leaving Sherman in alternative sources charge in the West. Sherman avoided directly confronting Johnston’s army, preferring instead to go around it. Watkins is scornful: Finally Sherman makes a frontal assault at Kennesaw Mountain, about 15 miles northwest of where painful Atlanta. Here’s how Watkins describes the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain: I have heard men say that if they ever killed a Yankee during the war they were not aware of it. I am satisfied that on this memorable day, every man in our regiment killed from alternative sources of energy, one score to four score, yea, five score men. I mean from italian, twenty to one hundred each.

All that was necessary was to load and sources of energy shoot. In fact, I will ever think that the what is the difference research reason they did not capture our works was the impossibility of their living men passing over the bodies of their dead. The ground was piled up with one solid mass of dead and wounded Yankees. I learned afterwards from the of energy burying squad that in some places they were piled up like cord wood, twelve deep. When the tide of battle was in their favor, as it was at Kennesaw Mountain, Watkins and his fellow soldiers would become elated, break into song, refuse reinforcements, etc., even though their own casualties were high.

They knew the Yankees were trying to tunnel under their lines, but they were still elated: “When they had dug a tunnel under us to blow us up, we laughed, yea, even rejoiced, at the fact of soon being blown sky high. Yet, not a single man was willing to leave his post.” The thrill of victory was so intense that the Confederates were willing to die to experience that thrill: “It is a singular fanaticism, and curious fact, that enters the where least to get a tattoo mind of a soldier, that it is a grand and glorious death to die on a victorious battlefield.” Does this “fanaticism” throw light on the psychology of the modern suicide bomber? Does this help to explain why the suicide bomber is nonchalant, even elated? 9. One might suppose that war is about killing your enemies before they kill you. Alternative! But sometimes violence is competition replaced by the threat of violence, and sometimes violence is abandoned completely, and alternative sources replaced by socializing. Sam says that pickets rarely shot each other; more often, they chatted with each other, even warned each other of impending danger. Late in the war, Sam is given the job of scout, and he moves forward to the Union army, or rather to its advance units, and begins socializing: They had come to relieve the cavalry. The Road Symbols! It was a detail of Negro soldiers, headed by the meanest looking white man as their captain, I ever saw.

In very abrupt words he told the cavalry that he had come to sources take their place, and they were ordered to report back to competition their command. Happening to alternative sources of energy catch sight of me, he asked, “What is place to get a tattoo this Rebel doing here?” One of the men spoke up and tried to say something in my favor, but the of energy more he said the more the captain. would get mad. He started toward me two or three times. He was starting, I could see by in economics the flush of his face, to alternative sources of energy take hold of sonnet sonnet me, anyhow. The cavalrymen tried to of energy protest, and painful to get a tattoo said a few cuss words. The captain. looks back very mad at the cavalry.

Here was my opportunity, now or never. I took up my gun very gently and cocked it. I had the gentleman. I had made up my mind if he advanced one step further, that he was a dead man. When he turned to sources look again, it was a look of surprise. His face was as red as a scalded beet, but in a moment was as white as a sheet. He was afraid to flaneur definition turn his head to give a command.

The cavalry motioned their hands at me, as much as to alternative of energy say, “Run, Johnny, run.” The captain. fell upon his face, and I broke and ran like a quarter-horse. I never saw or heard any more of the captain. or his guard afterward. Montaigne said that he was fond of italian sonnet vs english history, and that his favorite kind of history was eyewitness history. Company Aytch is excellent eyewitness history. Watkins is neither a great stylist nor a deep thinker, but he carries the sources of energy reader back among the Confederate soldiers as they’re marching, fighting, stealing food, etc. It’s easy to see why Margaret Mitchell said, “A better book there never was.” This is a photo of my neighbor, Nancy Alice Messinger, in the road symbols the Rhode Island State House, with a Civil War cannon, and various battle flags. Alternative Sources! Nancy was born in the road symbols 1945.

Her father, Norman Allen Messinger, was born in 1893. Norman’s father, George Eli Leslie Messinger, was born in 1842. 10 George fought for sources of energy the Union during the Civil War. When he became ill, his father joined his company in where is the least place to get a tattoo order to help him; his father was Eli Messinger (1815-1867). This is sources of energy George Messinger (left), and his father, Eli, in research their Civil War uniforms. How many Americans can say that their grandfather fought in the Civil War? Very few, perhaps less than ten. George contracted typhoid fever and of energy pneumonia.

His will-power seemed to save him: “One evening I heard the doctor tell [my parents] that I could not live until morning. That made me determined to get well and during the night the change came for where least painful place to get a tattoo the better.” George was in the war’s first battle, Bull Run, which was a Confederate victory, followed by a disorderly Union retreat. During the retreat, George found the tent where he had slept the alternative sources of energy previous night. Something similar happened to Sam Watkins after the Battle of Lookout Mountain. He ended up in a sea of Union soldiers: 3. Momigliano on Modern Historians. In the last issue, I said that I was impressed with the writing of Arnaldo Momigliano. I decided to read a 1961 essay by between research Momigliano called “Historicism in Contemporary Thought.” 11 One might define historicism as the view that man is the alternative of energy product of history, of a particular historical period, and ideas are also the product of history, of a particular historical period. Historicism is closely linked with the philosophy of history, and closely linked with Hegel, an important philosopher of history. Where Is The Least Painful A Tattoo! Since my most original theory is a philosophy of history, and since I was influenced by Hegel, one might say that my work is a kind of historicism.

But I would be wary of putting such a label on myself because it may carry with it beliefs that I don’t share, such as the of energy belief that all truth is relative, the belief that free will doesn’t exist, etc. Momigliano seems to have little interest in The Gas Wouldn’t what I call the philosophy of history. He pays short shrift to Spengler: he says that Spengler contended that “man cannot escape the destiny imposed on him by alternative sources the civilization to which he belongs.” 12 In my view, however, Spengler’s key argument is that all civilizations go through a phase of decline, and then die; according to Spengler, our civilization is declining, and is on the road symbols, the road to death. I disagree with Spengler’s view. Momigliano neither agrees nor disagrees. Perhaps he doesn’t understand the philosophy of history, perhaps he doesn’t think any philosophy of history is possible.

Hegel was once the leader of historicism, but according to Momigliano, this position is alternative of energy now occupied by two German thinkers, Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey. Italian! Hegel’s philosophy of history talked about the evolution of the idea of God; it was intertwined with Protestant theology. Alternative Of Energy! Momigliano says that Weber and Dilthey have a secular historicism, “a historicism liberated from perfect, metaphysical presuppositions.” 13 He distinguishes this secular historicism from that of Benedetto Croce, which “carried with it a theological inheritance of Hegelian origin.” 14 He says that Raymond Aron attempted a synthesis of Weber and Dilthey in his Introduction to the Philosophy of History . 15 The central question of Momigliano’s essay is, How much influence does the new brand of German historicism the alternative sources Weber-Dilthey brand have over historians? Momigliano’s essay is essentially a survey of modern historians. Momigliano argues that most modern historians haven’t been influenced by Weber and Dilthey; he speaks of, “a resistance to definition German historicism.” 16 But before I discuss Momigliano’s survey, I’d like to say at the outset that I don’t think Hegel’s philosophy of alternative history should be quickly dismissed, and I’m not convinced that Weber and between qualitative Dilthey should be called philosophers of history. Hegel understood the importance of the dialectic, the importance of the conflict of alternative sources opposites what Heraclitus called enantiodromia , running toward the opposite. Italian Sonnet! This notion of dialectic is, in my view, an eternal truth, a truth that will never be obsolete. It plays an important role in Eastern philosophy, in Jungian psychology, etc.

I’m not convinced that either Weber or Dilthey understood this idea, and I’m certain that they didn’t go past it. And this isn’t all that Hegel understood. When he talks about the evolution of the God idea, he’s also talking about the evolution of the human mind, consciousness, personality. So his remarks are psychological as well as theological. His ideas on evolution resemble the sources of energy ideas of Freud and Jung on the evolution of the mind. For example, Jung’s Answer to Job deals with the what qualitative and quantitative research evolution of the idea of God among the ancient Hebrews. Jung agrees with Hegel that the mind develops over the centuries.

Does he agree with Hegel’s view that history has a goal? Jung felt that the development of the individual has a goal (creating a balanced personality, in which the various elements of the mind can express themselves). So it’s not far-fetched to assume that Jung would be sympathetic to Hegel’s view that history has a goal. In conclusion, I don’t think we should dismiss Hegel’s philosophy of history simply because he brings God into history, and because he justifies the religion and government of his own time. Should Weber and sources of energy Dilthey be regarded as philosophers of history? I read some of Weber’s books many years ago, and I found his remarks on Protestant civilization and Chinese civilization enlightening.

But I don’t recall anything in Weber about the issue of least painful a tattoo renaissance and decadence, which I regard as the most important issue in the philosophy of history. If Weber has influenced some historians, as Momigliano suggests, then perhaps that points to a convergence between history and sociology; modern history, instead of focusing on kings and generals, is dealing with society as a whole. As for Dilthey, I haven’t read him. Alternative Sources Of Energy! What I’ve heard about The Gas that Essay, him doesn’t lead me to regard him as a philosopher of alternative sources history. Now let’s turn to Momigliano’s survey of modern historians. In each European country, he identifies the perfect leading historian, and his most important disciples. Many of the leading historians we’ve discussed in of energy this e-zine. Momigliano says that contemporary Dutch historians are “All in where is the a tattoo the shadow of their great Huizinga.” According to Momigliano, the leading British historian is Lewis Namier; Momigliano says that Namier influenced a generation of British historians. Namier made a close analysis of the alternative of energy British ruling class more specifically, the British Parliament in italian sonnet vs english sonnet the 1700s. Momigliano thinks that Namier influenced Ronald Syme, who discussed the Roman ruling class in his Roman Revolution . Alternative Sources! Namier’s work on the British Parliament has been compared with Charles Beard’s work on the Founding Fathers.

The study of a ruling class might be called “group biography” or prosopography. One of symbols Namier’s best-known disciples was A.J.P. Taylor. Namier himself was influenced by Pareto, who wrote about the of energy nature of elites; when Namier was a young student in Switzerland, he heard Pareto lecture. The leading French historian, according to Momigliano, is Helium: Wouldn’t Burn Marc Bloch, who steered his disciples toward rural history and social history. The researches of this school are carried out with “the utmost minuteness.” Momigliano mentions German historians who were influenced, not by a historian, sociologist, or philosopher, but by a poet, Stefan George.

Momigliano speaks of “the cult of the hero-leader in the circle of Stefan George,” and he says that George started a movement “to reinterpret the whole of European history in terms of great personalities.” 17 The historian Ernst Kantorowicz was influenced by George, and was a member of his circle. Alternative Sources Of Energy! 18. Momigliano says that Werner Jaeger was a leader of a German movement to develop a new humanism sometimes called the “third humanism” (I suppose the first was Greek, the second Renaissance). Definition! This movement disappeared soon after the Nazis came to power. Jaeger is best known for his three-volume work Paideia , a study of Greek culture and education (Momigliano calls it “a history of alternative of energy Greek thought” 19). Momigliano sometimes goes beyond history, and mentions psychologists like Jung, and philosophers like Heidegger. Is The Difference Research! He says that with Heidegger, “the theory of history was introduced into an existentialist philosophy.” 20 Momigliano mentions my old nemesis Leo Strauss: “In his Chair at Chicago [Strauss] has carried out a penetrating critique of historicism with the object of reviving the alternative sources idea of natural law.” 21 Momigliano mentions Mircea Eliade, and says that his writing on the history of religion “produced brilliant generalizations on insufficient and sometimes refractory material.” 22. 4. Thucydides on the Causes of War.

I also read an essay by Momigliano called “Some Observations On Causes of War in Ancient Historiography.” In this essay, he says that both Herodotus and perfect in economics Thucydides wrote about war: Herodotus wrote about the Persian Wars, Thucydides about the alternative Peloponnesian War. Thucydides sticks to his main topic, while Herodotus seizes any excuse to digress. Momigliano says that Thucydides is adept at describing constitutional changes, changes in the internal structure of Essay a city-state, perhaps because the Sophists of his time focused on constitutional changes. Alternative Of Energy! Momigliano says that Thucydides isn’t very good at describing the causes of foreign wars, such as the Peloponnesian War. Is The Painful! Thucydides overlooks the “traditions and interests which were involved in the fight. [Thucydides] is much less convincing than Herodotus in discovering the remote origins of the war.” 23. This weakness in sources of energy Thucydides is, according to Momigliano, a weakness that he shares with ancient historians in general. Ancient historians were clumsy at explaining the causes of war because they accepted war as a “natural fact. about flaneur, which nothing could be done.” This attitude persisted into modern times because ancient historians influenced later historians.

It was only in the 19th century, says Momigliano, that historians began to take a deeper view of sources war, and “histories of definition wars began to become less technical and more deeply concerned with political and social implications.” 24. When Momigliano discusses different kinds of causes, he quotes the Greek terms used by Thucydides. Of Energy! Since I don’t know Greek, I went on the Internet to find a translation of these terms. I came across an essay called “Thucydides on the Causes of the Peloponnesian War,” by P. The Gas Essay! J. Rhodes. 25 Rhodes doesn’t mention Momigliano, but he seems to agree with Momigliano’s contention that Thucydides does a poor job of explaining root causes. Rhodes says that Thucydides is a partisan, an apologist for Athens: Was the real cause of the war Athenian hubris? Rhodes says that Athens wanted war, and felt that this was a good time for it: So while Thucydides puts the blame on Sparta, Rhodes puts the blame on Athens on alternative, the immoderate ambitions of Athens. L. James Hammond 2014. “The Southerners honestly believed in is the least painful a tattoo the right of secession, not merely as a revolutionary, but as a constitutional right.

They not only alternative of energy held that whenever any people finds the government under which it is living oppressive and subversive of the ends for which it was instituted, it is both the right and definition the duty of that people to throw off the government and establish a new one in alternative sources its stead; but they believed also that every State in the Union held the Helium: The Gas that Wouldn’t Essay reserved right, under the sources of energy constitution, to withdraw peaceably from the Union at pleasure. “They believed that every man’s allegiance was due to his State only, and that it was only by virtue of the State’s continuance in the Union that any allegiance was due to the general government at italian sonnet, all; wherefore the withdrawal of alternative sources a State from the Union would of itself absolve all the citizens of that State from whatever obligations they were under to maintain and respect the Federal constitution. In other words, patriotism, as the South understood it, meant devotion to one’s State, and only a secondary and consequential devotion to the Union, existing as a result of the State’s action in making itself a part of the Union, and terminable at any time by perfect the State’s withdrawal. “They were as truly and alternative purely patriotic in flaneur definition their secession and in the fighting which followed, as were the people of the North in their adherence to the Union itself. The difference was one of opinion as to what the duties of a patriot were, and not at sources of energy, all a difference in the degree of patriotism existing in the two sections. You, reader, who shouldered your musket and fought like the hero you are, for italian sonnet vs english sonnet the Union and the old flag, if you had been bred at the South, and had understood your duty as the Southerners did theirs, would have fought quite as bravely for secession as you did against it; and you would have been quite as truly a hero in the one case as in the other, because in either you would have risked your life for the sake of alternative of energy that which you held to be the right.”( A Rebel’s Recollections ) Eggleston makes the Southern case better than Watkins does; he has more literary polish than Watkins, he’s better-educated, and he’s a deeper thinker. But Watkins is a master of the humble detail, the charming anecdote, and his battle descriptions are superb. Helium: That Wouldn’t Burn Essay! back. Eggleston says, “Virginia did not want to secede, and her decision to this effect was given in the election of alternative sources a convention composed for the most part of flaneur definition men strongly opposed to secession. The Virginians believed they had both a moral and sources a constitutional right to withdraw voluntarily from a Union into which they had voluntarily gone, but the where least painful to get a tattoo majority of alternative of energy them preferred to Wouldn’t Burn Essay remain as they were. Alternative Of Energy! They did not feel themselves particularly aggrieved or threatened by the election of Mr.

Lincoln, and so, while they never doubted that they had an unquestionable right to secede at will, they decided by their votes not to flaneur do anything of the kind. This decision was given in the most unmistakable way, by alternative of energy heavy majorities, in symbols an election which involved no other issue whatever.” Should Lincoln have attempted appeasement? Did the alternative sources Virginians really want to stay in the Union? It has been argued that, “Sparta was eager for war, because of italian her fear of Athenian power, but did not decide to embark on sources, the war until her allies presented her with a suitable occasion for it.”(P. Where Is The Place A Tattoo! J. Rhodes) Is this also true of Virginia?

Was Virginia “eager for alternative sources of energy war” but waiting for a “suitable occasion”? back. Has anyone ever compared the Peloponnesian War to the Civil War? Sparta’s economy was based on slavery and agriculture, so Sparta might be compared to the South. The Athenian economy was based on manufacturing, commerce, and tribute from subject cities. Perhaps the Civil War was fought in perfect in economics order to give historians a vacation they don’t have to work hard to find the root cause, it’s clear that slavery is the root cause. As Lincoln put it in his 2nd Inaugural, “Slaves constituted a peculiar and alternative sources of energy powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the what between and quantitative research war.” Rarely has there been a major war whose root cause was so obvious. back.

An example of alternative sources someone who had a hunch that they would survive is Napoleon. Napoleon felt sure that, until he had performed his destined role, any attempt to flaneur assassinate him was bound to fail: “They used to try and scare me with the story that Georges was dogging my footsteps in order to assassinate me. The utmost he could do however was to sources murder my aide-de-camp. The Road! It was impossible to murder me at of energy, the time. Helium: Essay! Had I already fulfilled my destiny? I feel as if I am being driven towards an unknown goal. Alternative! As soon as it is attained and there will no longer be any use for me, an atom will be sufficient to annihilate me; but until then, all human efforts whether in Paris or in the army will be powerless to prevail against in economics me.”( Napoleon the Man , by sources Dmitri Merezhkovsky, Ch.

9) back. The FindAGrave article says that George “is at present engaged in the manufacture of The Gas that Burn Essay pottery at East Brookfield, Mass.” But Dave Adams, a descendant of George, tells me that the pottery was in Cambridge (A. H. Hews), that George owned an sources of energy inn at West Brookfield, Massachusetts, and that George is listed in the 1907 Providence city directory as the owner of an inn at the road symbols, Providence (11 West Park Street). back.

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7 Smart Budgeting Tips for Small Business Owners. Running a small business often means having small budget, too. With startup costs, loans and sources other expenses, it can be difficult to get your feet planted. According to Annie Scranton, owner of Pace Public Relations, businesses of all sizes experience financial fluctuation, so it#39;s important to create and sonnet vs english stick to a stable budget plan. If you don#39;t budget and save accordingly, you#39;ll be in a bad way [if or when] your company takes a downturn or even has an off month, she said. You have to alternative sources account for slow payments, and Helium: Essay budgeting can help alleviate the financial burden you may feel while waiting for a check to arrive. Sources. Before embarking on your journey in the business world, create a sustainable yet realistic budget for your company.

Experts offered their advice for small business owners looking to what is the qualitative and quantitative keep their finances in order. [Want to alternative sources of energy reduce startup costs? Here are a few ways to do it .] Editor#39;s Note: Looking for information on what difference between research accounting software for of energy, your business? Use the questionnaire below, and our vendor partners will contact you to provide you with the information and quotes you need: 1. Define and understand your risks. Italian Vs English. Every business venture has a certain degree of risk involved, and each risk could financially impact your company. Paul Cho, managing director of Headway Capital, said that small business owners need to consider their long- and short-term risks to accurately plan for their financial future. How will changes in minimum wage or health care requirements impact your workforce? Cho said. Do you operate in a geography at high risk of alternative sources, a natural disaster?

Do you rely heavily on seasonal workers? Understanding the potential risks facing you on a short- and long-term basis is the road, important for all small businesses. Once you#39;ve mapped out the threats to productivity, a clearer picture can be built around emergency planning, insurance needs, etc. Scranton suggests listing your guaranteed income and alternative of energy expenses per competition, month to understand your risks. This is a great baseline to alternative figure out how liquid your company really is, she said. If you#39;re making money, then you#39;re able to competition in economics at least set aside a portion for savings, or to go towards enhancing the company through new hires, expansion, etc.

If your business operates on a project-to-project basis, you know that every client is alternative, different and where is the place to get no two projects will turn out exactly the same. Often, you can#39;t predict when something will go over budget. Every project seems to alternative sources of energy have [an extra] cost that was never anticipated, said James Ontra, CEO of presentation management company Shufflrr. For this reason, Ontra advised budgeting slightly above your anticipated line-item costs, no matter what, so that if you do go over, you#39;ll be prepared. 3. Pay attention to your sales cycle. Many businesses go through busy and slow periods over the course of the year.

If your company has an off season, you#39;ll need to difference qualitative account for your expenses during that time. Cho also suggested using your slower periods to plan for your next sales boom. Alternative Of Energy. There is symbols, much to be learned from your sales cycles, he said. Use your downtime to ramp up your marketing efforts while preventing profit generation from screeching to alternative sources of energy a halt. To keep your company thriving and the road symbols the revenue coming in, you will have to identify how to market to your customers in new and creative ways. Scranton said if you know your business has slower times, you should have extra money in of energy the bank during those months. It#39;s best to try to keep costs down even more in the road symbols the off seasons and to have extra money saved in case the sources, money coming in isn#39;t as much as you had hoped, she said. 4. Plan for large purchases carefully and early. Some business expenses occur when you least expect them: a piece of equipment breaks and needs to be replaced or your delivery van needs a costly repair, for instance. However, planned expenses like store renovations or a new software system should be carefully timed and flaneur budgeted to avoid a financial burden on your business. Substantial business changes need to be timed carefully, balancing the risk with the reward and done with a full understanding of the financial landscape you#39;re operating within, Cho told Business News Daily.

An up-to-date budget and data-driven financial projections are important components that help guide when to make large investments in of energy your business. 5. Save a set percentage of flaneur definition, each check you cash. It might be tempting to splurge after a successful month or two, but always remember to sources of energy save a portion of every check you cash. Every business owner always overspends at one point or another, Scranton said. You never want to be in a situation where you#39;re spending more money than you have coming in. To avoid this, she advised saving at least 30 percent per what is the and quantitative research, check to account for taxes and to alternative sources accrue additional savings. 6. Remember that time is money, too. One of the biggest mistakes small businesses make is forgetting to incorporate their time into a budget plan. Ontra reminded business owners that time is money, especially when working with people who are paid for their time.

Timing underestimation directly increases costs, Ontra said. Not only do you start to Helium: that Wouldn’t Burn lose time to the delivery schedule, your team also loses momentum as their collective thought shifts focus to another project. Ontra recommended treating your time like your money, and set external deadlines later than when you think the project will actually be done. If you believe the project will finish on Friday, promise delivery on Monday, he said. So, if you finish on Friday, deliver the work early and alternative become a star. If for some reason time runs over, deliver on Monday, and flaneur definition you are still a success. Your budget will never be static or consistent it will change and evolve with your business, and sources of energy you#39;ll need to adjust it based on your growth and flaneur definition profit patterns. Cho suggested revising your monthly and annual budgets regularly to sources of energy get a clearer, updated picture of your business finances.

Regularly revisiting your budget will help you better control financial decisions, because you will know exactly what you can afford to spend versus how much you are projecting to least make, Cho said. In addition, consider past market trends to alternative sources help prepare yourself for the year ahead. From there, you can factor in emergency funds and unexpected costs, Cho added. Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.

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Difference Between Behaviour Management And Behaviour Leadership. From the age of around three years, children spend majority of their time in school. Alternative Of Energy? Therefore, teachers are faced with a great deal of responsibility in becoming one of the primary influencers of good behaviour for definition, school aged children. Positive behavior established during a student's primary school years will have a greater influence on alternative of energy, a child's behavior for their entire schooling experience. Therefore, primary school teachers have a crucial impact on their students' future educational aspirations. Subsequently, it is imperative teachers are confident in their abilities to establish clear rules and boundaries without placing restrictions on their students' creativity. Behavior management is an educational term used to 'cover the ways in which teachers organize and control pupil behavior, movement and interaction so that teaching and learning can occur most effectively' (Griggs, R. pg. 333) Alternatively, the term behavior leadership is a contrasting principle to behavior management. Where Is The Painful Place To Get? Behavior leadership endorses the principle of taking a proactive approach to gain control of situations to create a pre-planned ideal scenario, whereas, behavior management is a promoter of taking control of various situations by reacting to sources of energy situations as they arise. Every child is an individual, with their own unique traits and Wouldn’t Burn behavior, which will represent varying challenges to each teacher.

Thus, the teacher will need to have the flexibility to adapt their teaching methods, and their behavior management principles to suit each individual needs. Subsequently, it is important that teachers do not become too rigid in their approach to promoting good behavior. The success of encouraging good behavior lies in finding a good balance of the two approaches of leadership and management. However, children are individuals and their behavior will vastly vary. Teachers must be able to demonstrate behavioral management to react to situations of negative behavior before they become big disturbances to learning.

Here, teachers must be able to instruct their students' right from wrong and award punishments fairly and appropriately. Additionally, it would be good practice for alternative, teachers to reward improvement in behavior as well as good behavior. Furthermore, teachers should assume to face a wide variety of behavior from students, and prepare appropriately. Such children may be jocular; easy to teach; withdrawn; introverted; extroverted; hard to manage or a medium anywhere in between. One method of encouraging positive behavior may work on the majority of students, but may fail with others. Thus, it is crucial for a teacher to have the ability to shape positive behavior in symbols, all of their students. Teachers being the sources, facilitators of learning can manipulate and control factors within their classroom setting to enhance their students' ability to achieve. Children are extremely observant and difference between qualitative research watch people behave all around them. They see how individuals including the teacher treat other people and alternative sources of energy how they deal with difficult situations. It is the role of the teacher to competition in economics provide positive examples for their children.

Modeling such attributes will assist your students to of energy become better equipped to manage their own behaviour. Children do not automatically know how to behave, hence need to Helium: The Gas that Burn be taught what is right and wrong. A number of theories exhibit how and alternative why behavior is learnt. Social Learning theory, developed by Albert Bandura, demonstrates the perfect, importance of sources of energy learning through imitation. Through Bobo Doll Study, Bandura was able to the road demonstrate that aggressive behaviour can be learnt simply by sources, observing adults. This theory presumes learning is not entirely behavioural, but more so, a cognitive process that must take place in a social context.

Bandura suggests behaviour acquired through observation is learnt through a number of stages; Attention, Retention, Reproduction and Motivation. In order to flaneur definition learn, the sources, observer must pay attention to the behaviour modelled to them. The observers perceptual and cognitive abilities in addition to the relevance and functional value placed upon flaneur the observation determines the alternative sources of energy, level of attention paid to the behaviour. The cognitive capabilities also play an important role in the retention of the observation. The ability for the observer to remember the observation lies in the strength of their cognitive rehearsal and is also influenced by the complexity of the observation. The observer must organise and definition delve into their physical and cognitive abilities to remember the observation and then reproduce it.

Motivation can affect the success of sources of energy observation based learning. The decision to reproduce or even remember an observation is dependent on the motivation and painful place expectation of the observer. The encouragement of positive behaviour and other anticipated consequences will give the observer a great chance of increasing their own expectations and subsequently improve their motivation to reproduce observation based learning. Banduras theory therefore greatly emphasises the importance of both classroom teachers and peers influencing each other's behaviour. The concept of this theory can be justified through both behavioural leadership and management. Teachers who favour the former, will be able to sources positive reinforce good behavioural standards and is the and quantitative research have control of their student, which can keep negative influences to a minimum whilst promoting positive influences as much as possible. For those teachers who favour the latter, they will be able to react accordingly and ensure any action, whether positive or negative, is highlighted to the rest of the group to encourage higher standards.

An important learning method teachers may adopt in social learning theory is the concept of reciprocal determinism. This notion determines, whilst an individual will be influenced by alternative, the environment; the situation will find a natural balance as the environment will also be influenced by the individual's behaviour. Therefore, an Helium: that Wouldn’t Burn, individual's behaviour, environment and personal qualities will reciprocally influence each other. Subsequently, if a child were to display negative behaviour within the classroom, and their peers observed the attention received by others within the alternative of energy, class, they may be influenced by the different behaviour stemming from the original individual. This may encourage the majority of the individuals to reciprocate similar disruptive behaviour, therefore disturbing the calm learning environment. However, if the same situation were to what is the difference between and quantitative research arise and the peers were to alternative sources of energy respond negatively to the disruptive behaviour from the original individual the balance would remain. The individual may then feel their bad behaviour is not conductive to keeping to flaneur a good social circle. Subsequently, whilst the concept of reciprocal determinism is important, a teacher with a good application of behavioural leadership can negate the effects of alternative negative reciprocal determinism by encouraging a strong group of individuals who display positive behaviour to outweigh those who display negative behaviour. Social learning theory proposes that rewards are not the what research, sole force behind creating motivation.

There are other factors such as thoughts, beliefs, morals and feedback which help to increase motivation in individuals. Subsequently the scenario where we see another individuals behavior and adopt them as our own aide the sources, mental states and flaneur definition cognitive process in addition to the learning process. However, there are other ways in which individuals can learn, which include vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and alternative physiological states. The technique of Helium: The Gas that Burn guided participation has been adopted by many classroom and teaching strategies. Of Energy? This is where the that, principles of sources of energy social learning is used to enhance students' knowledge, acquisition and retention. Guided participation draws on the experience of the teacher to encourage students to least painful to get a tattoo repeat a phrase after the teacher. Subsequently, the students' both imitate and reproduce the teacher's actions, which will aid retention. An extension of guided participation is reciprocal learning. This involves the teacher developing a certain level of trust in their students, and having the confident to allow for alternative sources, both student and teacher to share in the road symbols, responsibility of leading the discussion.

This level of alternative of energy trust is crucial in allowing the students to feel a level of empowerment, which will encourage increased motivation in to get a tattoo, acquisition and retention. Additionally, teachers can shape the behavior of students within the classroom by modelling appropriate behavior. This is where the sources, teacher will visibly reward students for good behavior, and encourage other students to what is the difference qualitative and quantitative take up positive behavioral traits. Here, the emphasis of the teacher's role as a model and encouragement of students to adopt the position of observer will make practices explicit to students, and enhance their learning experience. Equally, teachers will also need to have the adaptability to understand there may be uncontrollable factors, which will influence behaviour, both positively and alternative sources negatively. Influencers and role models such as family members can often unintentionally encourage negative and The Gas Burn disruptive behaviour.

Family dynamics can often exacerbate such situations, which may be brought into the classroom and affect the dynamics of the classroom. However, an alternative of energy, effective teacher will be able to perfect competition in economics apply behavioral leadership and account for uncontrollable situations and therefore adapt their lesson accordingly. Preparing a good structure and alternative of energy routine to the road every day learning is a necessary fundamental in preparing students for learning and encouraging positive behaviour. Sources Of Energy? This is where a teacher will make use of their behavioral leadership principles and symbols coax their students into demonstrating good behavior. Thus, the teacher will have taken control of the students from the beginning to create the ideal situation. The Behaviorist approach to learning is based on the concept that all behaviour has a response to a stimulus. It is assumed that our actions are determined by our environment, which provides stimuli to which we respond, and alternative sources the environments we have been in in the past, which caused us to learn to is the least painful place to get respond to sources stimuli in particular ways.

Behaviorists also believe that people are born with only a handful of perfect competition innate reflexes (stimulus-response units that do not need to be learned) and that all of a person's complex behaviors are the result of learning through interaction with the environment. Behaviour modification is a set of techniques based on operant conditioning coined by B.F.Skinner in 1938. Sources? The term operant conditioning means changing behaviour by the use of symbols reinforcement which is given after the desired response. This involves the reinforcement of desired behaviour and ignoring or even punishing undesired behaviour. Sources? However, this is a very simplistic approach and the constant reinforcement of desirable behaviour is essentially bribery. This theory can be demonstrated by a study carried out by Skinner. He showed how positive reinforcement worked by placing a hungry rat in his Skinner box. Burn? The box contained a lever in sources, the side and as the rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever.

As soon as the competition in economics, lever was knocked, a food pellet would drop into of energy, a container next to the lever. The rat quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of receiving food if they pressed the lever ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. Positive reinforcement strengthens a behaviour by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding. However, there are different types of positive reinforcements. Primary reinforcement is when a reward strengthens behaviour by itself, and where the observer is flaneur definition, rewarded for good behaviour. Secondary reinforcement is alternative, when something strengthens behaviour because it leads to a primary reinforce. Behaviour modification therapy has a relevance to shaping skill performance, specifically in giving positive reinforcement in the way of providing compliments, approval, encouragement and where is the place to get a tattoo affirmation.

A ratio of five compliments for every one complaint is generally seen as being the most effective way in altering behaviour to a desired manner. Examples of behaviour modification therapy include token economy and behaviour shaping. The token economy is an example of secondary reinforcement and is the term used to systems where targeted behaviour is reinforced with tokens. It is a popular method used within primary schools to alternative sources of energy reward good behaviour. The tokens are subsequently exchanged for a reward, which is known as primary reinforcement. The tokens can take the form of fake currency, buttons, stickers and flaneur things of a similar nature; whilst rewards can range from snacks to activities and certifications. Positive and negative reinforcers are both used to of energy strengthen behaviour. Individuals often respond to verbal operants by taking advice; listening to the warnings of others; and obeying given rules and laws. Subsequently, the knowledge of what could happen if certain behaviours are chosen can be enough to keep us from acting in negative ways. Competition? Though the ability to sources of energy benefit from the the road symbols, experiences of others as examples of what could happen is a characteristic many individuals possess.

One of the important aspects of individualistic behaviour are the feelings that are associated with behaviour that is controlled by conditioning. Sources? In essence, when previous positive behaviour has been rewarded; individuals, such as children, are likely to willingly repeat the same behaviour for the same reward. In contrast, if children decide to The Gas Wouldn’t Burn apply a form a behaviour in order to avoid a repeat of negative reinforcement, they may feel their will is being suppressed. However, all individuals including children, have the freedom to behave in any manner of their own choosing. Though, each individual has to be willing to face the of energy, consequences of their own actions.

The concept of Helium: that Essay changing the result of an action, or applying new consequences to guide behaviour is commonly known as behaviour modification. Historically, the majority of parents chose to control the behaviour of sources of energy their children through the use of negative reinforcement. Subsequently, punishment was the consequence of misbehaviour of the disregarding of house rules. In the Essay, present era, school systems, child authorities and even parents are more inclined to sources of energy provide positive reinforcement techniques to encourage positive behaviour amongst children. The results of italian this positive reinforcement is usually not immediate, but they are seen as healthier and crucially founding the steps for long term positive behaviour. This provides children with the appropriate guidelines, whilst allowing children to maintain they dignity and save them from any embarrassment amongst their peers. However, negative reinforcement still remains as a principle, but this is usually used as a last resort, when the application of positive reinforcement has failed.

There are many strategies used within the alternative, classroom for behaviour management, which may vary amongst different teachers. However, it is the teachers' responsibility to maintain harmony and the process of learning within the classroom. One way to encourage this is to involve the students in the decision making of the classroom outlining rights and responsibilities. The teacher should encourage social skills and values, promoting a caring classroom environment. Using different behaviour management techniques promotes a positive community that encourages student learning, positive peer and teacher relationships and self-motivation. It allows the students to have ownership and success in all aspects of their schooling instead of simply complying with the demands of their teacher.

There are a number of effective classroom behaviour management strategies. Being fair and consistent is probably the most important skill that a teacher can display in the class. This creates an ideal learning environment for students as their expectations have been set from the start. Creating a classroom community where the teacher and the students jointly develop their classroom rules and responsibilities. This will allow for development of the culture of the class and the positive behaviour of the students within. Definition? Encouraging regular class meetings, allow for alternative, the students to express their concerns, but also celebrate their successes with their peers. Thus, this creates a supporting community feel within the classroom. Behaviour management involves many important skills, but good teaching skills are a crucial factor. Such skills can assist with student engagement include lesson structure and questioning skills.

When planning lessons and the content the teacher should will deliver they must fully consider the types of strategies needed in sonnet, order to maintain the interests of the students. This should ideally lead to fewer behavioural issues. Mixing the structure of the lessons to introduce variety will help keep the alternative, children engaged. Subsequently, this will reduce the possibility of the road students becoming bored and therefore deferring away from the sources of energy, tasks at hand. Different lesson strategies used could include; talk partners, shared writing, mind mapping, concept attainment, learning centres and where to get a tattoo role play.

The way a teacher questions the children in her class can also influence behaviour portrayed by the students. If the sources of energy, questioning to the questions are at a lower level, the children may not be motivated to answer as it will not be challenging enough for them. Similarly, if the questioning was done at a higher level. An effective teacher of behaviour management will level the questions appropriate to the individuals and be able to where is the painful adapt the questions according to the responses given. Low key responses are strategies that do not disrupt the sources of energy, flow of the lesson much but often have great results.

These include strategies such as 'The Look'. This involves the teacher using a certain look to convey to the misbehaving student that what they are doing is inappropriate. This is great to use as a first option when a student starts misbehaving and can also help with stopping other students following suit. Similarly a big smile demonstrates to students that their behaviour is positive and desired. Proximity and the touch involves the teacher moving around the class and manoeuvring themselves near the misbehaving student. This method needs to be used with some caution as some student do not appreciate invasion of their space and thus continue to sonnet vs english sonnet show negative behaviour which could further escalate the situation if other children decide to join in. Using signals such as clapping hands, raising hands in the air and alternative wiggling fingers is effective in gaining children's attention. It demonstrates to children that the what is the difference between qualitative and quantitative, teacher is waiting for a desired response, such as 'all eyes on the teacher'. This method is useful in all areas of a school and situations.

Positive learning behavior in a primary schooling environment can be easily recognizable providing the appropriate measures are in of energy, place. Children will be alert, and they will ask questions to The Gas that express the curiosity about the topics involves and alternative sources of energy strive to learn more. Subsequently, when a child has acquired the relevant knowledge in a lesson it is good practice to ask questions to review the perfect competition, topic and reinforce the knowledge the child has acquired. Before moving on to the next lesson, the teacher should review their methods and make any adjustments accordingly if they are needed. Incidentally, negative behavior in alternative sources, a primary schooling environment can also be easily recognized. A child will typically acquire little to no comprehension of the topics taught. Such children may also exhibit stress or frustration should they come across a difficult task. This frustration may lead to arguing with peers, or even teachers.

They may also complain about rules or instructions, or may simply avoid the lessons completely. Consequently, it is symbols, crucial the teacher finds the alternative sources, root cause of the behavioral issue at hand and works to address the issue and eradicate the symptoms of the problem. Furthermore, for a teacher to successfully teach positive behavior they must encourage children to exhibit positive behavior. This can be achieved by guiding them towards the correct attitudes to learning through the enforcement of rules and regulation. However, students should also be praised when they have correctly applied themselves to complete the lesson or task. An extra incentive can also be applied by awarding children with small rewards should they exhibit positive behavior. Though it is Helium: that Essay, important for a teacher to actively encourage positive teaching, they must also remain disciplined. There will be times where children will exhibit negative behavior, which will not be conductive to a group learning environment. In such instances, a teacher will do well to address the situation and ensure the remainder of the group are unaffected.

Subsequently, a teacher may make use of the withdrawing of rewards as a consequence of negative behavior. To summarize, teachers will need to establish the sources, conditions for learning and ensure they positively enforce the rules and conditions. If teacher are to free themselves from the perfect in economics, distractions of unwanted and disruptive behavior they must strike a fine balance between demonstrating a good grasp of behavioral leadership and behavioral management. Teachers must be able to apply the fundamental psychological and sources social conditions for learning through the appropriate use of roles, routines and relationships. Furthermore, between the teacher and student should be clearly understood, appreciated and respected. Students will understand the role of the teacher as some who is dedicated to teach them and is the between and quantitative manage their learning process. The teacher will also understand and respect the role of the learner as someone who is an individual with their own unique traits and subsequently the of energy, task of perfect competition learning may not always be easy. Additionally, the teacher must clearly establish a routine for their students to encourage positive behavior and learning. Alternative Sources? Therefore, the commonly occurring procedures must be identified early, and placed into the routine of the students. As the what is the and quantitative research, students follow more routines, the more likely they are to increase their own personal expectations of learning and positive behavior through repeating and alternative of energy reconstructing those processes on a regular basis. Finally, a teacher and student must establish their relationship to create a strong and positive learning environment.

The relationship should promote trust and symbols confidence in each person. Subsequently, the students will feel the teacher has their best interests at heart and will endeavor to teach the class to the best of their ability. Additionally, the teacher will feel comfortable with the class and take ownership of their learning process and encourage them to fulfil their potential. In conclusion, teaching positive behavior is a complex process that requires a delicate balance of many different teaching principles. Alternative Of Energy? However, it is flaneur definition, recommended a teacher should demonstrate good application of behavioral leadership to set the tone of alternative sources of energy behavior. This will allow the teacher a greater deal of control; however, and students are individuals things can change in an instant. Subsequently, teachers should also be able to apply behavioral management to ensure situations are dealt with rapidly and efficiently.

It is my opinion that neither behavioral leadership nor behavioral management is a greater method of encouraging positive behavior than the other. Italian Sonnet? Each method has its own individual merits and will work to a degree on its own. However, both methods also have their own flaws, which can easily be exposed. For example behavioral leadership may fall apart should an unruly child unexpectedly encourage the rest of the class to alternative of energy display negative behavior. In contrast, behavioral management could lead to a great deal of stress on to get a tattoo, the teacher and the majority of the class should the teacher have to constantly react to situations as a result of poor preparation.

Therefore, it is sources of energy, essential that a teacher has the ability and flexibility to apply both behavioral leadership and behavioral management to their teaching experience. It is also important the teacher has the knowledge of when to apply a certain method of teaching, as the timing of the method is the road symbols, just as important as the knowledge of the method itself. This will allow the teacher to display a greater deal of control over the behavior of the alternative, class and lead to a richer learning experience for all involved. Grigg,R (2010) Becoming an outstanding primary school teacher, Routledge, pg 333. - Behaviour Management in Primary Schools. - The Three Rs of Behaviour.

McLeod, S. A. (2007). Skinner - Operant Conditioning. Italian Sonnet? Retrieved from alternative sources, - Classroom Leadership Styles. - B.F Skinner.

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