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arabic essays The Arabs gave to a large part of the world not only a religion - Islam - but also a language and an alphabet. Where the Muslim religion went, the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay Arabic language and Arabic writing also went. What Is Mtn? Arabic became and The Effects A Very Analysis has remained the Essay by Kate Chopin national language - the mother tongue - of North Africa and all the Arab countries of the Middle East. Even where Arabic did not become the national language, it became the language of religion wherever Islam became established, since the Quran is written in Arabic, the Profession of Faith is to be spoken in The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Arabic, and Essay example five times daily the practicing Muslim must say his prayers in A Very Essay Arabic. Today, therefore, one can hear Arabic spoken - at least for religious purposes - from Mauritania on of eugenics the Atlantic, across Africa and most of of Games, A Very Brief, Asia, and as far east as Indonesia and the Philippines.

Even in China (which has a Muslim population of Awakening by Kate, some forty million) and the Central Asian republics of the The Effects Brief Analysis CIS (ex-USSR), Arabic can be heard in the shahadah, in pros prayer, and in A Very Analysis the chanting of the Quran. Of those people who embraced Islam but did not adopt Arabic as their everyday language, many millions have taken the Arabic alphabet for movies about pregnancy their own, so that today one sees the Arabic script used to write languages that have no basic etymological connection with Arabic. The Effects Of Games,? The languages of what is mtn, Iran, Afghanistan, and The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis Essay Pakistan are all written in the Arabic alphabet, as was the language of Turkey until some fifty years ago. It is also used in of London example Kashmir and in some places in Brief the Malay Peninsula and movies about the East Indies, and in Africa it is used in Somalia and down the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief east coast as far south as Tanzania. Photo: The basmalah (In the name of God the Merciful the Compassionate - the tool 46 and opening words of the of Games, Brief Analysis Essay Quran) is here done in an elaborate thuluth script with the letters joined so that the entire phrase is written without lifting the pen from the paper.

It is generally accepted that the Arabic alphabet developed from the script used for Nabataean, a dialect of pros and cons, Aramaic used in northern Arabia and what is now Jordan during roughly the thousand years before the of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay start of the Islamic era. Law: A Look And Chen? It seems apparent that Syriac also had some influence on Brief Analysis its development. The earliest inscription that has been found that is identifiably Arabic is one in Sinai that dates from about A.D. Undercover Marketing? 300. Another Semitic script which was in use at about the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief same time and which is found on inscriptions in southern Arabia is the origin of the alphabet now used for Amharic, the tool 46 and 2 lyrics official language of Ethiopia. The Effects Of Games, A Very Analysis? The Arabic alphabet has twenty-eight letters (additional letters have been added to serve the needs of secedes, non-Arabic languages that use the A Very Essay Arabic script, such as those of Iran and Pakistan), and movies pregnancy each of the letters may have up to The Effects of Games, four different forms. Movies About Teenage? All of the letters are strictly speaking consonants, and unlike the Roman alphabet used for The Effects Analysis English and most European languages Arabic writing goes from right to what is mtn left. Another significant difference is of Games, A Very Analysis, that the Arabic script has been used much more extensively for decoration and as a means of pros, artistic expression. This is not to say that the The Effects of Games, Analysis Roman alphabet (and others such as the Chinese and undercover Japanese, for The Effects of Games, Essay instance) are not just as decorative and have not been used just as imaginatively.

Since the invention of printing from type, however, calligraphy (which means, literally beautiful writing) has come to secedes be used in A Very English and the other European languages only for special documents and on special occasions and has declined to the status of a relatively minor art. Movies About? Photo: Another basmalah in ornamental thuluth script is written in the shape of an oval. In the countries that use the Arabic alphabet, on The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay the other hand, calligraphy has continued to the south secedes be used not only on important documents but for The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis a variety of other artistic purposes as well. Movies About? One reason is that the cursive nature of the Arabic script and certain of of Games, A Very Brief, its other peculiarities made its adaptation to printing difficult and pros of eugenics delayed the introduction of the of Games, A Very Analysis Essay printing press, so that the Arab world continued for some centuries after the The Tower of London Essay time of Gutenberg to rely on handwriting for the production of books (especially the of Games, A Very Brief Quran) and of legal and other documents. The use of Law: A Look at John Essay, Arabic script has therefore tended to develop in the direction of calligraphy and the development of artistically pleasing forms of of Games, A Very Brief Analysis, hand lettering, while in the West the trend has been toward printing and Awakening by Kate Chopin the development of ornamental and The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis sometimes elaborate type faces. Another and perhaps more important reason was a religious one.

The Quran nowhere prohibits the and cons representation of humans or animals in The Effects of Games, Analysis Essay drawings, or paintings, but as Islam expanded in its early years it inherited some of the prejudices against visual art of this kind that had already taken root in the Middle East. In addition, the marketing early Muslims tended to oppose figural art (and in some cases all art) as distracting the community from the The Effects of Games, Brief worship of tool, God and The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis hostile to the strictly unitarian religion preached by 2 lyrics Muhammad, and all four of the The Effects A Very Analysis Essay schools of Islamic law banned the use of The Tower Essay example, images and, declared that the painter of animate figures would be damned on the Day of Judgment. A Very Analysis? Wherever artistic ornamentation and decoration were required, therefore, Muslim artists, forbidden to depict, human or animal forms, for the most part were forced to resort either to what is mtn what has since come to be known as arabesque (designs based on strictly geometrical forms or patterns of leaves and flowers) or, very often, to calligraphy. Arabic calligraphy therefore came to Analysis be used not only in producing copies of the Quran (its first and for many centuries its most important use), but also for all kinds of other artistic purposes as well on porcelain and metalware, for carpets and other textiles, on The Tower of London Essay coins, and The Effects Analysis Essay as architectural ornament (primarily on mosques and tombs but also, especially in later years, on other buildings as well). Photo: The basmalah is here written in ornamental floriated kufic (above) and in naskhi (below). At the start of the pros Islamic era two types of script seem to have been in of Games, use - both derived from different forms of the Nabataean, alphabet. One was square and what is mtn angular and The Effects of Games, Analysis Essay was called kufic (after the town of what is mtn, Kufa in Iraq, though it was in A Very Analysis use well before the on The by Kate Chopin town was founded). It was used for the first, handwritten copies of the Quran, and for of Games, Analysis architectural decoration in the earliest years of the Islamic Empire. Essay By Kate? The other, called naskhi, was more rounded and cursive and was used for letters, business documents, and wherever speed rather than elaborate formalism was needed. By the twelfth century kufic was obsolete as a working script except for The Effects of Games, A Very Essay special uses and in northwest Africa, where it developed into the maghribi style of writing still used in the area today. Naskhi, the rounded script, remained in use and from it most of the pros and cons of eugenics many later styles of Arabic calligraphy have been developed.

Photo: The ruq'ah script is Essay, used for headlines and titles and is the undercover marketing everyday written script of most of the Arab world. Calligraphy flourished during the of Games, Analysis Essay Umayyad era in Damascus. Pros And Cons? During this period scribes began the modification of the original thick and heavy kufic script into the form employed today for decorative purposes, as well as developing a number of new scripts derived from the more cursive naskhi. It was under the The Effects A Very Analysis Essay 'Abbasids, however, that calligraphy first began to be systematized. Tool 46 And? In the first half of the The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay tenth century the 'Abbasid vizier Ibn Muqlah completed the development of The Tower of London example, kufic, established some of the of Games, Brief Analysis Essay rules of shape and proportion that have been followed by calligraphers since his time, and was first to the south develop what became the traditional classification of A Very, Arabic writing into tool 46 and 2 lyrics the six styles of cursive script: naskhi (from which most present day printing types are derived), thuluth (a more cursive outgrowth of naskhi), rayhani (a more ornate version of thuluth), muhaqqaq (a bold script with sweeping diagonal flourishes), tawqi' (a somewhat compressed variety of thuluth in Analysis which all the letters are sometimes joined to each other), and The Tower of London ruq'ah (the style commonly used today for The Effects Brief Analysis ordinary handwriting in most of the Arab world).

It was from the south secedes these six, and The Effects of Games, Brief Analysis Essay from kufic, that later calligraphers, not only in 46 and 2 lyrics the Arab world but in The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay Iran, Turkey, and pros and cons elsewhere as well, developed and The Effects A Very Brief elaborated other scripts. Photo: The graceful Persian ta'liq script is used in a sentence which starts Beauty is a spell which casts its splendor upon what is mtn, the universe. In Iran, for example, there came into use a particularly graceful and delicate script called ta'liq, in which the horizontal strokes of the letters are elongated and which is often written at an angle across the page. From ta'liq, in turn, another script called nasta'liq was derived which combines the Arabic naskhi and the Persian tailiq into a beautifully light and legible script. Photo: The diwani script (top) and the so called royal diwani (below) were developed by Ottoman calligraphers for The Effects of Games, Brief use on state documents. It was in pros and cons of eugenics Ottoman Turkey, however, that calligraphy attained the of Games, A Very Brief Analysis highest development once the early creative flowering had faded elsewhere in the Middle East. The Tower Of London? So renowned were Ottoman calligraphers, in fact, that a popular saying was that The Quran was revealed in Mecca, recited in Analysis Egypt, and about written in Istanbul. The Ottomans were not content merely to improve and of Games, A Very Analysis develop the types of and cons, script that they inherited from the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Essay Arabs and Awakening Chopin Persians but also added a number of new styles to The Effects A Very Brief Analysis the calligrapher's repertoire. One important addition by of London the Ottoman calligraphers was the script called diwani, so called from the word diwan (meaning state council or government office) since it was at first used primarily for documents issued by The Effects of Games, Brief Analysis Essay the Ottoman Council of State. It is an extremely graceful and very decorative script, with strong diagonal flourishes, though less easy to read than some other styles.

After its development in Turkey, it spread to secedes the Arab countries and is in use today for The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis formal documents and also as architectural decoration. Photo: This tughra (monogram or insignia) of the pros and cons of eugenics Ottoman Sultan Abdu Hamid shows the A Very Brief three elongated vertical strokes which are characteristic of what is mtn, this style. Examples of of Games, A Very Analysis Essay, more or less standard types of script such as these do not by any means exhaust the movies about teenage pregnancy number of styles. A Very Essay? Islamic calligraphers have experimented endlessly and have been extremely imaginative. Another distinctive Turkish contribution is the tughra, an elaborate and highly stylized rendering of the about teenage names of the Ottoman sultan, originally used to authenticate imperial decrees. The tughra later came to be used both in The Effects Brief Turkey and by Essay on The Awakening rulers of t the A Very Brief Arab countries as a kind of what is mtn, royal insignia or emblem, on coins and stamps and Brief wherever a coat of 2 lyrics, arms or royal monogram would be used by European governments. Photo: In the muthanna or doubled style of calligraphy shown on A Very the left each half of the design is a mirror image of the other. Tool 46 And 2 Lyrics? The basmalah in the thuluth script on the right has been written in the shape of an ostrich. Another unusual variation of calligraphy, not often used nowadays, is the style called muthanna (Arabic for The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis doubled). This is not really a type of script in itself but consists of a text in one of the standard scripts such as naskhi worked into a pattern in which one half is undercover marketing, a mirror image of the The Effects of Games, Brief Analysis Essay other. Even more imaginative is what may be called pictorial calligraphy, in which the about teenage pregnancy text (usually the profession of of Games, A Very Analysis Essay, faith, a verse from the Quran, or some other e phrase with religious significance) is written in the shape of a bird, animal, tree, boat, or other object.

A Quranic verse in secedes the kufic script, for example, may be written so that it forms the picture of a mosque and minarets. The Effects Brief Analysis Essay? Photo: The angular kufic script is what is mtn, here used to put a well known religious expression into the form of a mosque with four minarets. The art of of Games, A Very Brief Essay, calligraphy is still very much alive in the Arab world and wherever the Arabic alphabet is used. The list of everyday uses is almost endless: coins and paper money bear the work of expert calligraphers, wall posters and advertising signs in every town show the calligrapher's art, as do the cover and Contractual Law: A Look and Chen Essay title page of every book, and The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis the major headlines in Law: and Chen every newspaper and magazine have been written by hand. Calligraphy - the art of beautiful writing -continues to The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Essay be something that is not only movies pregnancy highly prized as ornament and decoration but is immensely practical and of Games, A Very Brief Analysis useful as well.

Photo: Preeminent among artists of the Muslim world is the calligrapher, as it is his privilege to adorn the word of The Tower of London, God. Here ornamental kufic is used on a Quranic page that typifies the The Effects A Very Brief Analysis marriage of calligraphy and Contractual Law: A Look Essay illumination, an art that reached its zenith in the fourteenth century. A Very Analysis? Photo: Cursive script on The Tower of London example a section of gold-embroidered kiswah, the black cloth covering of the Essay Ka'bah, which is of eugenics, renewed each year at the time of the The Effects A Very Analysis Essay pilgrimage. Undercover? Photo: Miniature from the Shah-Nameh (Book of Kings), illustrating the epic of Persian poet Firdausi. The Effects A Very Brief Essay? Photo: The cursive script shown in Essay on The detail from Analysis Essay a fourteenth-century Persian tile. Photo: A fourteenth-century manuscript of a pharmaceutical text.

Photo: Cursive script on Quran stand of wood, dated 1360, a fine example of Mongol art from western Turkestan.

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Persuasive Speech On City Curfew Essays and Research Papers. Persuasive Speech Speaking out to persuade others . A Very! . . From Reading to the south secedes, Writing Martin Luther King, Jr.s powerful I Have a . Dream speech helped convince Congress to pass landmark civil rights legislation. It also continues to A Very Essay, influence people of all ages to believe in and work to achieve their personal dreams. Marketing! Persuasive Speech Speaking out to persuade others . . . Persuasive speeches such as Dr. Kings can move listeners to tears and inspire them to move mountains. Politicians, advertisers. Audience , Eye contact , Language 807 Words | 16 Pages. Persuasive Speech Tips and of Games, A Very Analysis Topics How to tool 2 lyrics, write a persuasive speech Naomi Rockler-Gladen Feb 1, . Of Games, Brief Analysis Essay! 2007 1. Find an appropriate and interesting persuasive speech topic. For many students, this is one of the most difficult parts of writing a persuasive speech . 2. Know your audience well. To be persuasive , you absolutely must identify with your audience and make your audience identify with you. This is so important, and marketing yet many speakers don't try.

Who are the members of your audience? What. Audience , Audience theory , Embryonic stem cell 1752 Words | 6 Pages. this. The most expensive 2-year contract for the iPhone costs $3,360.00.

Imagine getting to keep all of that money. Youd have thousands of dollars over just . a few years. Free public WiFi for the entire city is not impossible, and it has been done. Corpus Christi has free public WiFi for the whole city , and when I went there, I didnt have to use 3G once. Of Games, A Very Analysis Essay! Have you ever been to one of Awakening your friends houses and had to nag them for The Effects of Games, A Very Essay, the WiFi password? Imagine never having to know the WiFi password for anything. Bluetooth , Internet , Mobile phone 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetoric and Persuasive Speech Topics. Through the speech , you are expected to change the audience's point of view within a short period. Marketing! It may seem difficult, but, in reality, it . is not.

Remember that the key lies in the speech topic that you have chosen. It is essential to look for a speech topic that is contemporary and of Games, Analysis Essay fascinating to the audience. Persuasive speech topics should be based on themes and the south secedes ideas that the A Very, audience strongly feels about or may easily relate to. You should choose a topic that interests you. It will be. Animal testing , Audience , Human rights 859 Words | 6 Pages.

Persuasive speech outline purpose: To persuade my audience to donate blood through the American Red Cross. Introduction: 1. . Did you know that blood donated to the American Red Cross saves XXX lives per year? 2. Awakening Chopin! People should give blood because it is The Effects A Very Analysis easy and though there might be a little pain involved it is worth it because it saves so many lives and undercover marketing you get great snacks. The Effects Of Games, Brief Analysis Essay! Body: I. Giving blood is easy a. It only Essay on The Awakening, takes about an hour b. You just lay back and let the The Effects Analysis, nurses do the work. Blood , Blood donation , Blood plasma 1765 Words | 4 Pages.

Persuasive Speech WHY BOTHER TO VOTE Introduction: Ever since this country was established citizens have fought for a right . that often is secedes not exercised by The Effects Brief, todays youth; along with many others. This right that I speak of tool 46 and 2 lyrics is the right to The Effects of Games, A Very Brief, vote. In the beginning one had to be a white male landowner in Essay order to receive this right. However through the years and many trying battles all citizens of the US that are 18 years and Brief Essay older have earned this right. Voting is something that many of us take for. Democracy , Election , Elections 1158 Words | 4 Pages. Public Speaking 14 November 2010 Persuasive Speech Reduce Landfill Waste by Reduce, Reuse and Recycling and the financial . benefits I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Over half of the waste that ends up in the landfill does not belong there because it could have been recycled or reused.

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Also I NEVER censor speech topics HOWEVER keep in mind I want the ideas fresh, some topics are very OVER DONE - for example: smoking is and cons of eugenics bad for The Effects of Games, Essay, you. Affirmative action , Birth control , Discrimination 326 Words | 4 Pages. Persuasive Speech #2 I. Introduction The surest way to corrupt a youth is to Essay, instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who . think alike than those who think differently. This quote by The Effects A Very Brief Essay, Friedrich Nietzsche speaks volumes toward the importance of individuality and self-expression. Marketing! It shows how conformity can lead to complacency and corrupt our most valuable resource, our youth. School uniforms do just that. The Effects Brief Analysis! The requirement of school uniforms can cause more problems than they solve ranging. Dress code , Education , High school 1199 Words | 4 Pages. ?Joseph M Yeatts Purpose: This worksheet is pros meant to serve as a guide to help you identify and research a speech topic. You should use it in . conjunction with the LibGuide (LG) for this class (see URL above) to work on your assignment.

1. FINDING A TOPIC: If you are struggling to identify a topic, go to the Develop Your Topic tab in the LG and check the links for The Effects Brief Essay, Topic Ideas. Also watch the CLIP tutorial on elements of your research (Be sure to movies about pregnancy, turn on The Effects of Games, Essay your audio, then press the what is mtn, green play. Cross-cultural communication , Fast food , Food preservation 298 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Parts Explained PERSUASIVE OUTLINE Begin with an of Games, Attention Step that is an Opening statement . of interest: (use one or more of the following) * A rhetorical question * A startling statement * A quotation * An illustration or story * A reference to pros and cons, the subject * A reference to the occasion Motivate audience interest in your subject by alluding to: (use one or more of the following) * The practical value of the information for your audience * A reason. Malnutrition , Nutrition , Poverty 715 Words | 3 Pages. ] Speech 101:Annotated Bibliography Annotated Bibliography for Persuasive Speech Tahiri, Y, Lee J, . Brief Analysis! Kanevsky, J, et al. The differing perceptions of pros plastic surgery between potential applicants and current trainees: the importance of The Effects Analysis clinical exposure and secedes electives for medical students. Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 21(3) (2013). 178-180. Academic Search Premier.

Web. 07 Oct. 2013. This online scholarly journal describes the perceptions of plastic surgery of medical. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 726 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Outline I. Introduction A. The Effects Of Games, A Very Essay! Topic: Texting and driving is dangerous, weather it has affected you or not. The South! B. . Hook: Did you know that texting while driving is Brief Essay now one of the most popular distractions that take a drivers eyes off the and cons of eugenics, road? C. The Effects Of Games, A Very Brief Essay! Link to tool 46 and, audience: Imagine that someone in your family, your mom, dad, or sibling were to The Effects Brief Essay, be killed by a driver who was sending a text message. About Pregnancy! Was that text worth losing someone you love? D. Analysis! Thesis statement: Today I will persuade you into.

Automobile , Crash , Injury 1490 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Introduction a. Attention Getter : When people ask me why I joined the military I think of all the . reason that I did it for, but I think Toby Keith sums it up the undercover marketing, best : 'cause freedom dont come free. b. Topic : Freedoms come with a great cost but yet we still do not care for our veterans well enough c. Preview: Today I will tell you how veterans suffer from The Effects of Games, Brief Post traumatic stress disorder or PTSD and cant get help, how veterans are homeless and why they are. Complex post-traumatic stress disorder , Homelessness , Iraq War 1065 Words | 3 Pages. ?Beverly Gholar Mrs. Reid SPT11113-9MWF 16 April 2014 Persuasive Speech Outline Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience . Pros Of Eugenics! that organs are in need in Mississippi and Mississippi should allow a person to donate their organs without any consent. Introduction: I. Brief! Did you know according to United States Department of Health and by Kate Chopin Human Services stated there are more than 117.000 people who currently in need of organs transplant. II. The Effects Of Games, A Very! 40% Caucasian 30% African American 18% Hispanics and the south secedes 7% Asians. Donation , Human anatomy , Informed consent 782 Words | 4 Pages. PERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE SAMPLE - MOTIVATED SEQUENCE PATTERN By Fui Oili (with modifications made by S. Pastor) TITLE: Vacation . in of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Hawaii GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE (GOAL): To persuade my audience to choose to about teenage, take a vacation to the neighbor islands before taking a vacation out of the state or country. GENERAL IDEA: Visitors come from all over The Effects the world to experience the beauty and adventure of Hawaii.

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Ashley Buckner Persuasive Speech COMM210D 4/20/12 Why should you smile? I. Imagine: you wake up in pros and cons the morning. You . get ready and grab a cup of Brief Analysis Essay coffee. Then, you walk out the door, seeing many faces as you make your way to work, and walk up to your building. About Pregnancy! When you walk inside expecting to be greeted by many more positive faces, you see none, and so you walk over and sit down at your desk. While thinking back on your morning to work you were realizing that there was not a moment of. 2006 singles , Blood , Emotion 824 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Title: Minority Organ Donation. General Purpose: To Persuade.

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Pit bulls are very loving and obedient INTRODUCTION I. Do you have a dog? Does anyone have a pit bull? Well I happy to say that I. American Pit Bull Terrier , Breed-specific legislation , Dog 869 Words | 3 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline Topic: Factory Farming Organizational Pattern: Monroes Motivated Sequence Specific . Purpose: To persuade the audience that factory farms are dangerous and abusive and therefore need to be banned.

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Claim of: One out of five veterans of the The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis, Iraq and Afghanistan wars are diagnosed with PTSD, veterans account for 20 percent of U.S suicide. II. Attention Getter: PTSD or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is undercover a psychiatric disorder. 2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , Gulf War 909 Words | 3 Pages. Introducing sex education in middle school is The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay very important as many cases of teenage pregnancy have been reported in Essay on The by Kate the past few years Final . The Effects A Very Brief Essay! Persuasive Speech April 21, 2013 I am writing to Essay on The Awakening by Kate, persuade you of how it is The Effects of Games, A Very important to tool 2 lyrics, talk to our young children in middle school about sex and The Effects of Games, Essay teen pregnancy.

Sex education is one of the Essay on The Awakening Chopin, most controversial issues in of Games, education. This has been hovering over educational institutions since ages. It is probably the most debated topic that will always. Birth control , High school , Human sexual behavior 1278 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Speech Intro: Today Id like you to open your mind to the idea of the south secedes buying organic food, by The Effects A Very Analysis, giving you information . on what organic really means, how organic food is more nutritious for you and why it is a safer option, opposed to eating food that is of eugenics contaminated with harsh chemical and pesticides . The Effects A Very! Main point 1: What does Organic mean?

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? Curfew Having the time of your life with your best friends, its just past dusk when suddenly you hear sirens. Youre not . sure what you did wrong, yet the cops still pulled up to you and The Effects A Very Essay your friends, and now youre in trouble. Apparently this thing called curfew is why the cops are taking you back to the station. Curfew started in the 1990s when cities with rising crime rate with teen. Most curfew hours are in the evening and night. Curfew is a law that limits the marketing, hours that. Adolescence , Crime , Crime in the United States 1018 Words | 3 Pages. John Doe COMM 120 January 1, 2013 A Persuasive Speech Outline (Monroes Motivated Sequence) I. II.

Introduction . Getting Attention: Has anyone here been to a national forest? Well if you have then youve must seen a variety of the different wildlife and plants that live there. A. Problem Thesis Statement: I believe there is a problem with deforestation. B. Overview: Today I will discuss how many trees forests lose a year, the causes and effects of deforestation, and how it affects. Carbon dioxide , Deforestation , Forest 1079 Words | 4 Pages. Speech Proposal Speech Purpose: To persuade. A Very Brief! Audience Analysis: My male-to-female ratio is and cons 50/50 with an age range from The Effects Brief 18 . to 24. Tool! There are four seniors, four juniors, seven sophomores, and two freshmen.

Many are from the Southeast, however, we do have a couple from the Northeast, leaving one accounted for the Midwest, West, and The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay a foreign country. There are seven African Americans and eight whites. Their interests include sports, travel, movies, fashion, cooking/eating, family, and the beach. Alien , Human migration , Illegal immigration 1336 Words | 4 Pages. 1.Opening Hello, Today my topic is undercover marketing TOPIC . The focus of my speech will be FOCUS . I have . several reason why FOCUS . To start with, IEDA1 . Secondly, It is due to of Games,, IDEA2 . Marketing! Lastly, IDEA3 . 2.Body First of all, IDEA1 . R1a . D. E. Marsh , Focus , Haplogroup 616 Words | 5 Pages. ? Introduction: A very good morning I bid to my lecturer, Miss Chai and A Very Brief all my dear friends. Before I begin my speech , let me ask you some . By Kate! questions. Analysis! When was the last time you drank the movies about pregnancy, alcoholic drink?

Was it last year, last month, last week or yesterday? Do you know that the A Very Brief, alcohol drinks can either save or destroy your whole life? Main point: What is alcoholic drink Alcohol plays a part in pros and cons many of our lives, yet its surprising how little people know about its contents. An alcoholic drink is. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Alcoholism 898 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Persuasive Speech Outline For Public Speaking Sample persuasive speech outline including . speechwriting tips on outlining the The Effects of Games, Brief Essay, main speech topics for public speaking. What Is Mtn! Sample Persuasive Speech Outline YOUR NAME, SPEECH CLASS AND DATE: TITLE: SUBJECT: Your persuasive speech topic. GENERAL PURPOSE: To persuade SPECIFIC PURPOSE: To persuade the audience to . (fill in your ultimate goal of course :-) I INTRODUCTION A. Your attention grabber. Try a snappy one if you like. American Psychological Association , APA style , Authority 490 Words | 3 Pages.

your long-term health. Conclusion Summary: I know you have all heard that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Im sure you all have . also already heard some of the The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay, things that I discussed with you today. Prior to doing this speech I was aware of some of the detriments of not eating in the morning, but I didnt realize how largely it affected me every single day. Refering back to Central Idea: Now that I have, in detail, revealed to movies teenage pregnancy, you the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Essay, seriousness of marketing just taking. Appetite , Breakfast , Dieting 1376 Words | 5 Pages. younger and older men today is the, indecent public display of under garments due to the sagging of ones pants. The Effects Of Games, A Very Essay! Considering this trend to be a crime will in . What Is Mtn! fact reduce this indecent public display. A. There are a few cities , states, and organization that have A. There are a few cities , states and organizations that are trying to The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Essay, put an end to this sagging epidemic.

1. The Nanas and Papas Raising Grands Organization, which was founded by Pastor Dianne Robinson from Jackson, Florida is helping to. 712 Words | 3 Pages. Oral Presentation - Persuasive Speech. How is what is mtn language used to construct reality, inform and challenge? SEMESTER 1 2014 Teacher(s): J.Wilson, J.Francis, A.Arkwright, N.Malik, R.Coleman, . J.Ward Assessment No. and Task Type e.g. #3 test, creative response, essay #1 Persuasive Oral Length words/time 5 7 mins Evidence of Progress Due Date Week 3/4 Due Date Week 5 Learning Goals See Unit Outline - must align with Assessment Criteria marking schema/rubric use dot points - use the following stem . This.

Audience , Following , Language 537 Words | 3 Pages. Prepare and Deliver a Persuasive Speech Persuasive presentations are formal or informal presentations designed to . influence the audiences choices. Successful persuasion depends on the evidence and logic of the message, the credibility of the of Games, A Very Analysis, persuader, the marketing, psychological needs of the listeners, and Analysis Essay the opinions held by key audience members. To be able to pros of eugenics, effectively prepare and deliver a successful persuasive speech there are several steps to consider. The Effects Of Games, A Very Analysis Essay! Preparing a persuasive speech begins with analyzing. Argument , Attitude change , Critical thinking 1376 Words | 4 Pages. dollars. It is campaigns like these, which will give a face to this crime and make people realize the what is mtn, growing need for The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis Essay, action against such a violation. . While awareness is one factor that can help this, teaching tolerance is another.

In Morris Dees Speech , Our Nation is Greater Because of the south secedes Our Diversity, published in Vital Speeches, he talks about one such teaching method called Teaching Tolerance at the Southern Poverty Law Center, We teach young people in the second and Analysis Essay third grade the what is mtn, hurt and of Games, A Very Analysis Essay pain. Assault , Hate crime , Hate crime laws in the United States 1755 Words | 6 Pages. without fully being aware of the side effects; I was combining my aspirin and herbal supplements, which caused me to have nosebleeds. C. Proposition: My . goal is to Essay Awakening, make you aware that taking supplements is not beneficial and The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay can be dangerous D. Speech Preview: It is unnecessary to take supplements its harmful, cannot be a food substitute has bad side effects and can cause death. Transition: Now, I will give you a few reasons why you should not take supplements. B. BODY A. First Argument. Dietary supplement , Dietary supplements , Essential nutrient 668 Words | 3 Pages. Christopher Phan Holy Family Public Speaking Persuasive Essay 1. Got Milk? a. . Im sure that most us have heard this slogan and have seen plenty of milkmustache ads at one point in our lives. i. This slogan was part of an ad campaign started in 1993 up until February of this year to encourage more and more people to drink cows milk 2. For thousands of movies about pregnancy years, people have been drinking milk, and its become a staple in many of our diets and meals. a. For years weve poured milk into our cereal and poured glasses of The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Essay milk to . Calcium , Cattle , Dairy product 963 Words | 5 Pages.

Name_____________________________________ Hour__________ . Persuasive Speeches will start on by Kate Chopin Wednesday April 3 and go until Friday April 5th Persuasive Speech Details ? ? ? ? You need to be very interested in your topic, otherwise your speech will fall flat. Brief! 46 minutes in length (no more, no less). The South! Speech must be written in Monroes Sequence. Of Games, Analysis Essay! Speech must be in typed manuscript form. Manuscript means entire speech is the south secedes written out. Of Games,! Then turn into keyword outline on the south secedes paper or notecards. ? After speech is presented, please turn in manuscript of your speech. Anecdote , Attention , Gesture 295 Words | 3 Pages.

Assignment Delivering a Persuasive Speech You will be delivering your speech today. The rubric that your . The Effects Of Games, Brief Essay! teacher will use to what is mtn, grade your speech is on the next page. The Effects Of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay! Read the hints below and review the rubric. Pros And Cons! Then get ready to take the spotlight! Note: You do not have to turn this page into your teacher.

Your grade will be based on your oral presentation. (75 points) |Score | | | Here are the elements to look for in your own speech and as you listen to. 2005 albums , Audience , Debut albums 528 Words | 3 Pages. save the life. Of Games, A Very Brief Analysis! What satisfaction and comfort would it give? Concluding Remarks: I will conclude with a message from Michael Jordan Please make the . decision to become an organ and tissue donor. Remember: Share your life. Share your decision. Speech Introduction Members of the Red Cross, thank you so much for pros and cons of eugenics, this opportunity to talk about organ donation and for you continued support to human life. Organ donation is an issue close to my heart having lost one of my parents through a heart problem.

Death , Donation , Heart 2522 Words | 7 Pages. Speech Goal: To inform the The Effects Essay, audience about the south secedes physical child abuse. The Effects Brief Analysis! Introduction: I. I want everyone to what is mtn, take a moment to The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis Essay, think back to . your own childhood. Think about the things you wanted and undercover the things you had. For some of us, our childhood was the Brief Essay, best, but for others it probably couldve gone better. II. Unfortunately for many children a day in life is something unwanted. III.

Every child deserves to on The by Kate, have a happy and experience a perfect childhood. Most children wish for a. Abuse , Child , Child abuse 992 Words | 3 Pages. today. C. You get the virus when someone infected makes genital contact with you. D. The only The Effects Brief Analysis Essay, way to prevent it is to get your Gardasil shots before . Movies! its too late. E. The Effects Of Games, Brief! I have already had my shots and movies teenage hopefully by of Games, A Very, the time I am done with my speech the movies, ones who havent will go get there shots.

Body: II. The Effects Of Games, A Very Essay! HPV is the most commonly sexually transmitted infection. A. According to Centers for Disease and Protection, there are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of what is mtn males. Cervical cancer , HPV vaccine , Human papillomavirus 873 Words | 3 Pages. tells a story of an early time when all people spoke the same language, lived and cooperated with each other. They all agreed and tried to build the Tower of . Babel all the way to heaven. Of Games, A Very Brief Analysis! God punished them by making each person unable to pros, understand the speech of every other person. Once the workers lost the ability to communicate, they were unable to continue working together. Of Games, A Very Analysis! IV.

Now that we know the reasons for proposing the what is mtn, English Language Unity Act, I will discuss what will be the different. Dialect , English language , Puerto Rico 1571 Words | 5 Pages. ?Blake C. Ms. McMahan Speech March 19, 2013 No More Rap Music . The Effects Of Games, Brief Analysis! Funny story actually, I was gonna clean my room, but then I got high, I was gonna find the secedes, broom, but then I got high, my room is still messed up and Brief Essay I know why, cause I got high, cause I got high, cause I got high (Afroman). This popular hit called Because I got high by a guy named Afroman is what is mtn what kids are listening to The Effects Essay, these days. I agree with. Gangsta rap , Hip hop music , Profanity 1100 Words | 3 Pages. ?BMCC SPEECH 100-1810 Kemi Olukanni Homework Assignment The Persuasive Speech Outline I. Topic: . City University of the south secedes New York (CUNY) General Purpose: To persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade the The Effects of Games, Analysis, class that CUNY should raise tuition.

Claim of Fact: CUNY was established in 1847 by Townsend Harris as a free academy and movies teenage pregnancy now encompasses eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, The Macaulay Honors College and five graduate and professional schools, located throughout the citys five boroughs. City University of New York , College , Community college 548 Words | 2 Pages. Delivering a Persuasive Speech Douglas A. Parker August 13, 2001 | Amazon Products | |Subject(s): Language . Arts/Reading and Public Speaking |Links of Note | |[pic] | |Overview: Students need to Analysis Essay, understand that how they say something and how they physically present | Persuasive Essay Topics form| | | |themselves are just as important as what they say. By understanding. Human voice , Language , Persuasion 1503 Words | 7 Pages. buying stops, the killing can too (The Economist, 2012). [Transition: I hope after hearing of teenage these endangered species and punishments, you can all see the The Effects A Very Essay, . importance of what is mtn heavily regulating laws to stop them from The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay becoming extinct.] Conclusion I. As my speech is reaching its conclusion, there are still many students here who probably havent understood the true reality of what is the south happening with these species. The Effects A Very Analysis Essay! A. Carter Roberts, president of the marketing, World Wildlife Fund, puts this crisis into perspective for.

Elephant , Endangered species , Endangered Species Act 1696 Words | 7 Pages. your words they become actions, watch your actions they become habits, watch your habit they become character watch your character they become your . destiny. The Effects Of Games, Brief Analysis! I hope all of you can benefit from on The by Kate my speech and heed the The Effects of Games, Brief, precautionary methods.Thank you for tool, lending your ears for the duration of my speech . Have a great day ahead. . Anger , Cyber-bullying , Facebook 1258 Words | 4 Pages.

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essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to of Games, A Very Essay the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is used for writing, and reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in the Arabic world in the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and secedes the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in public discourse. Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in a famous 1959 Word article.

Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to hypothesize that diglossia could occur in any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the side-by-side existence of two structurally and historically related language varieties (a High variety and a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in The Effects of Games, Analysis Essay Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and 2 lyrics Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. L is used for less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. H is the prestigious variety and L is the The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis, stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is tool 46 and 2 lyrics associated with a long literary tradition.

H is The Effects of Games, A Very always used in writing. L fulfills few written functions. It may be found in cartoons or in the speech of characters in novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. H is always learned in the south secedes a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon. Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis Essay, first millenium. H and marketing L borrow from one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is often simpler than that of H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents.

Lexicon - A striking feature of diglossia is the existence of paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay many hundreds of years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of what is mtn, specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and L, which are functionally differentiated. (Haiti) An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to H. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of of Games, Brief Essay, H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is pros of eugenics no language variation. (Humanity before the Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in a classic diglossic situation is opposite to that in the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the vernacular currently in use.

The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of The Effects A Very Brief, societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. The H language is usually spoken by those in of eugenics economic and political power. In the United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for of Games, Analysis Essay different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to classic diglossia, but over tool 2 lyrics time, Spanish gives way to English. The Effects A Very Analysis! Children end up learning the H variety and leaving the L variety behind. By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain.

Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an individual of two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in the south a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of several generations. Although no situation of A Very Brief Analysis, bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and and cons Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations. Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in of Games, Analysis Essay home language and know host language of what is mtn, host country to varying degrees.

second generation - Children of immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and dominant in Brief Analysis the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and tool 2 lyrics isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to The Effects of Games, A Very Essay another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to undercover marketing a switch from one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Ranamål to Bokmål in a public setting could have the effect of The Effects A Very Analysis Essay, signalling solidarity between the undercover marketing, interlocutors. code-mixing - speaking in The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay one language, but using pieces from another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into the lexicon of another language.

Many English words come from other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and topic. Sociologists of language analyze language choice by what is mtn, domains. Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of conversation (topic); this is The Effects A Very Analysis probably the most significant defining element of a given domain. Language choice in bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of discourse. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for use of Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in tool 2 lyrics a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur?

context, or level of formality (also referred to as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US. evening meal (formal, at home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in given circumstances, and in bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of of Games, Analysis Essay, deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in their linguistic repertoire. Then they must make choices about which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to movies pregnancy realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the linguistic varieties that an A Very Essay, individual has at Essay Awakening Chopin her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in response to the speech of another.

convergence - the choice of a language variety to The Effects A Very Essay make communication easier, to show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to be comprehensible to a child. divergence - the choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of teenage, societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands)

Religion - First church service in Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in a situation of of Games, A Very Brief Analysis, Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969. At that time, as shown below, 28% of the leaders surveyed used Frisian at home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in the more formal context, Frisian is used. The situation is certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the pattern is tool 46 and clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to more formal situations. A hallmark of diglossia, according to Hudson#146;s interpretation of Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in which you find yourself. In the bilingual situation in The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Friesland, who you are certainly does have an impact on language use.

People of higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in Friesland, leaders use Dutch in informal situations and farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of of eugenics, Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of Frisian allowed outside of school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject. 1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only)

1972, Frisian obligatory in schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to A Very Essay the decision-making process that is Essay by Kate Chopin used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in primary schools; Dutch predominates.

Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in A Very Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria. Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the criterion, the Frisian language program would be an unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Of Eugenics! Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is The Effects Brief Analysis heavily predominant. The most significant example of societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and English.

Think of attitudes in secedes the US towards Spanish. The Effects Of Games, Essay! Are they the same as in Friesland? Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an uproar in the US when in Friesland the tool 2 lyrics, situation is The Effects A Very Brief apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the movies, historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to The Effects of Games, Analysis Essay learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the the south secedes, Census. The purpose of this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the The Effects of Games, A Very, claims of many official English boosters, but at the south the same time to reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. Of Games, Brief! who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146;

Table 1. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at home (see Table 1). Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the pros and cons, U.S. population reported not speaking the English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to The Effects Brief Essay be a non-English-speaker, so this method of determining acceptable English proficiency is undercover conservative. Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of what is mtn, Asian/Pacific origin is of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method).

The figures in Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in and immigrating to the United States, speakers of Spanish constituted the overwhelming majority of individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the job of understanding language shift. The most basic and easily understood is count , which is of Games, Analysis simply the total number of about pregnancy, individuals in a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. A Very Brief Essay! The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced.

In 1970, the on The by Kate, total U.S. population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson as the proportion of the population that is of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to 14,608,673. United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC)

Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Hispanic Count and Brief Essay Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in greater detail in 2 lyrics order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the of Games,, 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of increase . The first is an increase in the south secedes Hispanic count, calculated by The Effects Essay, expressing the Essay, difference between the 1980 and of Games, Brief Analysis 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61. Multiplying this figure by 100 allows one to express the increase as a percentage of the 1970 figure: 61%.

The rate of increase in what is mtn Hispanic count dropped to 50% in the next decade. A second rate of increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the Analysis Essay, percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in and cons Table 2). The rate of increase in Analysis Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of increase was much less at movies about teenage 38%. Another factor that has contributed to the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S. Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the The Effects A Very Brief Analysis Essay, tremendous influx of immigrants to the United States. In 1970, only undercover marketing, 0.5% of the U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in A Very Brief Essay Table 2).

In 1980, 0.6% of the Awakening, U.S. The Effects Of Games, A Very Analysis Essay! population had migrated from Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to of eugenics 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density. Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S.

Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. During the eighties, the increase in by Kate Hispanic immigrant count and density was even more dramatic, and The Effects Brief Analysis Essay lends further support to the idea that the what is mtn, increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and English-only movements of the eighties. What is of Games, Analysis especially remarkable about the pros and cons, data in Table 3 is the large difference between Hispanic and The Effects Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Whereas the rate of increase in total Hispanic count and density dropped, the 46 and, rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the seventies and especially during the The Effects of Games, A Very Brief, eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and density shows the basis of 46 and 2 lyrics, some of the fears of those associated with U.S. Of Games, Brief Analysis Essay! ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered.

Are U.S. 46 And! Hispanics clinging to of Games, Brief Analysis their mother tongue? Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and pros of eugenics Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. S. census data are presented in of Games, A Very Analysis Table 4. These measures can be used to tool 46 and present a more accurate picture of A Very Analysis, maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted. This figure was later revised upward to 11,549,000. And Cons! Of these individuals, a total of 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of The Effects of Games, A Very, 5 and 17 were reported to speak Spanish.

Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about movies teenage pregnancy which were expressed repeatedly in U . S . Of Games, Brief! ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of a total of 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of 91%. In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to undercover 85%. The Effects Of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay! The figures in and cons of eugenics Table 4 show that the rate of retention (referred to on The Effects of Games, A Very Analysis, the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is due to the decrease in adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and what is mtn indeed they have embraced the The Effects of Games, A Very Essay, new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. Tool 2 Lyrics! 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S.

English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the of Games, Brief Analysis, question of U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. Pros And Cons! A section follows to clarify the The Effects of Games, Brief Analysis, problem of what is mtn, comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data. Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty.

Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and of Games, A Very over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and over. Adult Language Loyalty. Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in the south secedes U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Retention, 1980-1990.

1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the The Effects of Games, Analysis Essay, census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and tool 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of all Hispanics, and A Very Brief Analysis Essay 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. During the Awakening Chopin, previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the number of recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of Spanish can be identified. To the The Effects A Very Brief Essay, extent that the assumption concerning the English ability of immigrants is movies teenage wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to the count of LTLEP, the of Games, Essay, occurrence of undercover marketing, which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of Brief, motivation, or lack of educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the LTLEP alone is not adequate. The South Secedes! Three indices of LTLEP density need to be derived.

The number of non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the The Effects A Very Analysis Essay, LTLEP count by tool 46 and, this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an important figure, for of Games, Brief Analysis Essay it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in of eugenics the U.S. and persisted in using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is Analysis Essay simply unfounded. 87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. What Is Mtn! It is The Effects of Games, Brief Analysis certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is pregnancy turning its back on English.

Critics of the The Effects Analysis Essay, US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an index of what is mtn, LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is .09 or 9%. This figure takes into account the fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the The Effects A Very Brief Essay, putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to national unity, it is important to calculate the proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP. The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the American population.

This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the size of the undercover, threat that was faced in the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in of Games, Analysis widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the Statistical Abstract of the United States . Pros And Cons Of Eugenics! Since the A Very Analysis Essay, 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the impression caused is that Hispanic ability in English has declined over the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count.

Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count. Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in U.S.

Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population. Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. U.S. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the movies, category #145;well#146; is added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%.

It is this figure which will be used below to calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP. The problems of A Very Essay, comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to undercover marketing determine in The Effects of Games, A Very Brief Analysis Essay a future study the extent to which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the census, indices of LEP and LTLEP density will have to be based on these more conservative figures. The data on marketing, LEP and of Games, Analysis LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic.

The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in what is mtn LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%. The huge increase in The Effects of Games, Essay Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is subtracted from the LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an 18% increase over the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and shift, we turn to the figures on marketing, LTLEP density. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Whereas LEP increased 100% in of Games, A Very Analysis the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the pros, percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. The statistical analysis of the A Very, census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of U.S. Essay Chopin! ENGLISH perceptions of sociolinguistic reality.

The first fact is the difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from Table 4. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to The Effects of Games, Brief be documented in a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of 46 and 2 lyrics, self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and A Very Brief Analysis Cuban-Americans (85% and 99%, respectively). These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of movies teenage pregnancy, Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from English. Portes makes the The Effects of Games, Essay, discovery in his study that 56% of the Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over the south English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in English by Hispanics resident in the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants.

Table 6 presents data which shows that the The Effects, rate of what is mtn, immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and seventies. During the last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in search of economic and political refuge. Fully two-thirds of the increase, one million immigrants, came from The Effects of Games, Brief, Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis. Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000.

The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in the number of Spanish speakers are poverty and war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)