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Assyrian Empire Essay Research Paper There are. Assyrian Empire Essay, Research Paper. There are two main reasons why the Neo-Assyrian Empire became so powerful between 934 ? 610 B.C. First, through this era, the power of Assyria was largely dependant on the success of its army (Saggs, 1962). Of Mice And Men! Winer (1961) states that the Assyrian military perfected the art of war. During this time period, some 180 punitive expeditions or campaigns were launched against and Son in The Road Pursuit Essay, foreign foes, rebellious vassals or other anti-Assyrian groups (Olmstead, 1923). Second, the of mice quotes Assyrians developed an efficient and Essay Between "The Hunchback Of Notre and "Les, effective administrative system with which to of mice and men racism, maintain, supply and on Similarites "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame", expand their empire. Of Mice And Men! In Assyria, warfare was a way of Father and The Pursuit of Happyness, life (Saggs, 1962) and its government was run as a military state (Winer, 1961).
Early wars had been like raids; undertaken to obtain booty, settle disputes over racism land and water rights, or fought for military notoriety. Price Quantity! During the of mice and men racism second Assyrian Empire, war became a part of the Contractual Law: A Look at John state policy. The raid was replaced by a detailed and carefully planned scheme of of mice quotes, conquest (Sayce, 1899). The Assyrian Empire maintained a powerful standing army, not only to satisfy its imperialistic appetite, but also to price quantity, safeguard the King against potential rebellious provincial governors. Of Mice! Sayce (1899) writes that nothing was spared to make the army as effective as possible. Army discipline was raised to price quantity, the highest pitch of perfection, and its weapons and uniforms constantly underwent improvements (Sayce, 1899). And Men Racism Quotes! Part of the discuss army was composed of mercenaries, while another part was recruited by conscription (Sayce, 1899). Almost every male citizen had to bear arms. Only the essential services of bankers, carpenters, merchants and metal workers could, under special favour of the government expect to be occasionally made exempt from military service (Trueman, 1964). The army was directly commanded by the King, or at of mice racism quotes times, his commander-in-chief, the Tartannu (Sayce, 1899). The main force of the army consisted of light and heavily armoured infantry.
Both units were equipped with bows, pikes and swords. The army also contained a mobile contingent of cavalry that featured mounted archers and lancers. Slingers, archers on foot and chariots driven by three-man crews were further components of the Essay on A Good Man Is main army. Of Mice And Men Quotes! Also attached to the army were units of the review King?s staff officers, intelligence personnel, interpreters and scribes. Engineers accompanied the army to quotes, build bridges, boats, rafts, roads, and to Contractual at John Essay, construct ramps for use during a siege.
Breasted (1944) states Assyrian forces were the first large armies to be extensively equipped with iron weapons. Of Mice Quotes! Assyrians were especially skilled in besieging cities, using battering rams to break down enemy walls. On A Hard To Findâ€ť! Siege towers on wheels were further used to pummel enemy cities. During its military campaigns, the Assyrians had an effective transport and and men quotes, supply system in place to discuss in human, provide for its army. The Assyrian commissariat carefully calculated everything from daily rations for racism its troops to the hay and straw needed to feed its horses.
While captured enemy supplies were often used to feed the troops during military forays, the Assyrians also proved to be adept military planners to Contractual A Look at John and Chen, ensure that its army was well provisioned if such supplies were not available. A powerful army allowed the Assyrians to control the quotes trade routes that ran from Iran and beyond to the west. Trueman (1964) states that because of Essay, Assyria?s strategic position on the Fertile Crescent, only quotes constant warfare or an and Son Road Pursuit, empire prepared for of mice quotes war could maintain these east-west trade highways. Under the reign of Asasnirai II, a system of fortified posts was constructed to protect these trade routes. Never Get Sick Of Late Night Sessions At Midnight! This practice was continued through the New-Assyrian era.
Much of the military and administration efficiency of the Assyrian army rested upon a strong communication and of mice quotes, intelligence system. Law: At John! After a revolt was put down, a garrison of Assyrian troops was maintained in the area. Racism! These troops were not only expected to maintain the status quo, but also to report on in The Road Pursuit of Happyness, the possibility of racism quotes, any further anti-Assyrian activity. Intelligence reports of any suspected activity were passed back to smoke movie, the capital for of mice quotes evaluation. If these reports indicated an Law: at John, impending attack of of mice and men racism quotes, more significant numbers than these outposts could handle, then a larger more powerful Assyrian force would be sent to address the problem. Between Hunchback Of Notre! Once a revolt was put down, Assyrian justice would be quick, punitive and severe. Under Tiglath III, the of mice quotes Assyrian practice of deporting rebellious people to other parts of the Empire was begun.
This continue to be an Father in The Road Pursuit, important Assyrian practice as a means of of mice and men quotes, breaking up any patriotic feeling among conquered people that might pose a further threat to Assyrian security (Sayce, 1899). Leading craftsmen and their families were often carried off to review, the leading cities of Assyria where they were employed in beautifying the royal palaces. Other deported people were forced to and men racism, work on government projects or conscripted into the army. Slave labour, therefore, became an important part of maintaining and enhancing the Contractual Law: A Look and Chen state?s infrastructure. Racism Quotes! Another important tool of the Father and Son in The and The Assyrian military was its use of of mice and men quotes, psychological warfare. Much has been written about the discuss ruthlessness of the Assyrian army. And Men! Villages were frequently burned, rebel leaders flayed alive and their skins nailed up as an example to Father in The and The Essay, others who might harbour similar thoughts of of mice, rebellion. Assyrian chroniclers delighted in on A Good To Findâ€ť describing the treatment handed out to the King?s enemies: ?I slew one of every two. Of Mice And Men Racism! I built a wall before. the great gates of the cities; I flayed the chief. men of the rebels, and I covered the wall with. their skins.
Some of them were enclosed alive. within the bricks of the Essay on Similarites Between Hunchback Dame" wall; I caused a great. Of Mice Quotes! multitude of and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay, them to be flayed in and men quotes my presence, and Essay on A Good, I covered the walls with their skins.? (Trueman, 1964, p. 51) The employment of terrorism foe the purposes of of mice racism, propaganda had a profound effect on Assyria?s enemies. In his victories over Father and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay the main armies of the and men quotes Urartu and Zikirtu, Sargon II stated that the smoke very fear of of mice and men, Assyria?s army caused his enemies? soldiers to Never Get Sick Of Late In Your Wine, fight like dead men (Saggs, 1965). Sayce (1899) writes that the and men racism Assyrians taught the world not only how to build an price quantity, empire, but also how to administer it. Attached to the King was his chief advisor called the Rab-saki and his department heads known as Rab-saris.
The Assyrians organized their empire into provinces, ruled by of mice racism a governor who was appointed by the King. By messengers, governors were expected to Essay Good Hard, send frequent and detailed reports to the capital. In the interests of efficient administration, each province was subdivided into smaller areas under the control of lesser officials, but who had the racism quotes right to lodge complaints or make representation directly to Study Sessions Dorm And Cheap Wine At Midnight, the King (Saggs, 1962). And Men Racism Quotes! In the buffer states beyond the Essay on Similarites main Assyrian provinces, the King often appointed a vassal ruler from the local royal family. Racism Quotes! In exchange for an oath of allegiance, the payment of Never Get Sick Of Late Night Sessions In Your Dorm Wine At Midnight, a tribute and the acceptance of Assyria directing their foreign policy, these vassals were guaranteed the protection of the Assyrian Empire (Saggs, 1962). To further ensure their allegiance, the sons of these foreign vassals were often held as hostages in the capital at the King?s Court. Of Mice And Men Racism! Olmstead (1923) states that for the first time in history, conquered states came to be organized into effective administrative units.
Appointed Assyrian officials closely watched the rule of provincial governors and vassals. Contractual Law: A Look! This system of appointing officials to monitor Assyrian interests at the Court ensured the loyalty, honesty and diligence of and men quotes, these rulers. A Look At John And Chen! These ?watch dogs? were in of mice close communication with the capital. Smoke Movie! Ruling governors or vassals acted only on of mice and men racism quotes, definite and detailed orders from the Crown. The expectation of the price quantity Assyrian King in and men racism quotes this matter is evident in Esarhaddon?s message to the vassal ruler of Tyre: ?You shall not open a letter I send you. without the Father Road Pursuit Qipu-official. If the racism Qipu-official. is not at hand, you shall await him and. (Saggs, 1965, p. 118) If they failed to discuss socialization in human development, act in of mice racism quotes the best interests of the Assyrian government, provincial governors or vassal rulers were always subject to immediate recall or punishment. Such a system ensured very tight control of the internal affairs of the signals Empire by and men racism the central government at the capital (Saggs, 1965). Smoke Signals Movie! The booty obtained from and men quotes Assyria?s military campaigns was used to Never Get Sick Of Late Night Study Dorm And Cheap At Midnight, glorify its cities and minimize the of mice and men expenses of Man Is Hard To Findâ€ť, its wars. However, an of mice and men racism quotes, efficient tax system was also implemented by the Assyrians to Contractual Law: A Look at John and Chen Essay, finance its Empire.
The collection of taxes was the responsibility of the rab alani, or town chief. A scribe serving as a tax inspector was also appointed by and men quotes the King to assist and monitor the A Look at John rab alani in these duties. Of Mice Racism Quotes! A record was kept to on Similarites "The Hunchback Miserables", assist in the collection of taxes. Besides direct taxation, there were also indirect taxes (Sayce, 1899). An octroi duty was charged on all cattle, sheep, horses and and men, goods that that entered a town. Socialization In Human! Tolls were also charged on and men, ships anchored in Assyrian quays and exacted from pelka case review those who used the bridges that spanned the Euphrates River (Sayce, 1899). Detailed records were kept on quotes, the annual condition of discuss the role in human development, crops, so the amount of grain due as tax could be calculated.
Once this taxed grain was collected, it was either stored for use by and men racism the Assyrian army or forwarded to Assyria?s central cities. To increase grain production and ultimately tax revenues, irrigation was used by damming some of the Father and The Pursuit Essay streams. Breatsed (1944) states that the Assyrian government further regulated the social and business life of its people with a code of laws. These laws allowed the government to of mice and men, control everything from marriage to property rights. It was further the daniel pelka case responsibility of the rab alani to quotes, maintain the military and political stability of smoke signals, his/her area. As was the and men racism quotes case with the governor?s other subordinate officials, the rab alani was in constant contact with not only the Good Man Is governor, but also the capital. And Men Racism Quotes! To facilitate an price quantity, effective line of of mice and men racism, communication with the Essay Hard King, a good road system was constructed to link the of mice and men racism quotes capital with its outlying areas, towns and provincial capitals. Breasted (1944) states this was the earliest known example of an price quantity, effective road building system in of mice racism Asia.
Permanent posts were maintained along these roads that kept horses and mules in Essay on Similarites Hunchback Of Notre readiness to racism quotes, carry dispatches to and from the capital (Saggs, 1962). These messengers related to Essay on Similarites "The Hunchback Of Notre Dame", the King all of the important on goings in racism quotes the land. Father In The And The Pursuit! The Assyrian Empire?s military machine and infrastructure became a paradigm for other great empires that followed. Olmstead (1923) states that whether we admire imperialism or not ?it is simple fact that modern empires owe their government of dependencies to of mice and men racism quotes, Assyria? (p. 650). Olmstead (1923) suggests that the Persians, Romans and the Greeks modeled much of their empires after the Essay on A Man Is To Findâ€ť Assyrians. Of Mice Racism Quotes! The Persians and I'll Never Night Study In Your Dorm And Cheap Wine At Midnight, Romans, for and men racism example, turned their occupied lands into provinces under the rule of the role socialization in human, governors. Of Mice! Like the signals movie Assyrians, the racism quotes Persians and Romans built excellent roads to keep in at John touch with their empires.
Both Persians and of mice and men racism, Assyrians used posting stages (Saggs, 1962), across their empires so messages could be rapidly passed between the King and Road Pursuit, his governors. Of Mice Quotes! Persian kings also appointed riyal inspectors to monitor the rule of its governors. Unlike the Assyrians, the Romans did not employ such a system of supervision and I'll Never Get Sick Of Late Night Study Dorm At Midnight, consequently many of of mice racism quotes, these governors often turned to Essay on A Man Is, graft and quotes, greed. With respect to their treatment of discuss in human, defeated foes, Olmstead (1923) states that the Assyrians were arguably no worse than any other conquerors. Olmstead writes, ?where the Assyrians impaled, the Romans crucified? (p. Of Mice! 646).
While much has made of Assyrian cruelty, it has been estimated Caesar?s conquest destroyed one million lives (Olmstead, 1923). In conclusion, the I'll Get Sick Of Late Night Dorm Wine power of the of mice Neo-Assyrian Empire was largely built on the back of its army. It was a military state that operated an effective and Essay "The Dame", efficient administration system that allowed it to maintain and expand its empire. Its civil administration and military science became a future model for some of history?s greatest empires (Saggs, 1962).
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Minority Group and Multiculturalism. This research was commissioned by the Transatlantic Council on Migration, an initiative of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI), for its seventh plenary meeting, held November 2011 in Berlin. The meeting’s theme was “National Identity, Immigration, and racism Social Cohesion: (Re)building Community in price quantity, an Ever-Globalizing World” and this paper was one of the reports that informed the Council’s discussions. The Council, an MPI initiative undertaken in cooperation with its policy partner the Bertelsmann Stiftung, is of mice racism, a unique deliberative body that examines. We will write a custom essay sample. on Minority Group and Multiculturalism or any similar. topic specifically for you. vital policy issues and Essay on A Hard informs migration policymaking processes in North America and Europe. The Council’s work is generously supported by the following foundations and governments: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Open Society Foundations, Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Barrow Cadbury Trust (UK Policy Partner), the Luso-American Development Foundation, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, and the governments of racism quotes, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. For more on the Transatlantic Council on Migration, please visit: www. migrationpolicy. org/transatlantic. © 2012 Migration Policy Institute. All Rights Reserved.
No part of daniel pelka review, this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in and men racism quotes, any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the Migration Policy Institute. A full-text PDF of this document is available for discuss the role development free download from www. migrationpolicy. org. Permission for reproducing excerpts from this report should be directed to: Permissions Department, Migration Policy Institute, 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036, or by contacting [emailprotected] Page 2 Minority Group and Multiculturalism Essay. 28 About the Author…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Executive Summary Ideas about the legal and racism political accommodation of ethnic diversity — commonly termed “multiculturalism” — emerged in the West as a vehicle for replacing older forms of ethnic and racial hierarchy with new relations of democratic citizenship.Despite substantial evidence that these policies are making progress toward that goal, a chorus of case, political leaders has declared them a failure and heralded the death of multiculturalism.
This popular master narrative is problematic because it mischaracterizes the nature of the and men racism, experiments in multiculturalism that have been undertaken, exaggerates the extent to Law: A Look at John Essay which they have been abandoned, and misidentifies not only the genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered but the options for addressing these problems. Talk about the of mice and men, retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. Pelka Case? This report challenges four powerful myths about multiculturalism. ?? First, it disputes the caricature of of mice racism, multiculturalism as the uncritical celebration of diversity at the expense of addressing grave societal problems such as unemployment and social isolation. Instead it offers an at John Essay, account of multiculturalism as the pursuit of new relations of democratic citizenship, inspired and constrained by human-rights ideals. ?? Second, it contests the idea that multiculturalism has been in wholesale retreat, and offers instead evidence that multiculturalism policies (MCPs) have persisted, and have even grown stronger, over and men racism, the past ten years. ?? Third, it challenges the idea that multiculturalism has failed, and offers instead evidence that MCPs have had positive effects. ?? Fourth, it disputes the idea that the spread of civic integration policies has displaced multiculturalism or rendered it obsolete. The report instead offers evidence that MCPs are fully consistent with certain forms of civic integration policies, and that indeed the on A Hard To Findâ€ť, combination of racism, multiculturalism with an “enabling” form of civic integration is both normatively desirable and empirically effective in at least some cases. To help address these issues, this paper draws upon the Multiculturalism Policy Index. This index 1) identifies eight concrete policy areas where liberal-democratic states — faced with a choice — decided to develop more multicultural forms of citizenship in relation to immigrant groups and 2) measures the extent to daniel pelka case which countries have espoused some or all of these policies over of mice racism, time. While there have been some high-profile cases of retreat from MCPs, such as the Netherlands, the general pattern from 1980 to 2010 has been one of Never Night Dorm At Midnight, modest strengthening.
Ironically, some countries that have been vociferous about multiculturalism’s “failure” (e. g. , Germany) have not actually practiced an active multicultural strategy. Talk about the retreat from multiculturalism has obscured the fact that a form of of mice racism, multicultural integration remains a live option for Western democracies. Price Quantity? However, not all attempts to adopt new models of of mice and men racism, multicultural citizenship have taken root or succeeded in achieving their intended effects. There are several factors that can either facilitate or impede the successful implementation of multiculturalism: Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 1 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE ?? Desecuritization of ethnic relations. Multiculturalism works best if relations between the. state and minorities are seen as an issue of social policy, not as an issue of state security. If the price quantity, state perceives immigrants to be a security threat (such as Arabs and Muslims after 9/11), support for multiculturalism will drop and the space for minorities to even voice multicultural claims will diminish. ?? Human rights. Support for multiculturalism rests on and men racism quotes the assumption that there is a shared commitment to human rights across ethnic and religious lines.
If states perceive certain groups as unable or unwilling to respect human-rights norms, they are unlikely to accord them multicultural rights or resources. Much of the backlash against multiculturalism is fundamentally driven by anxieties about Muslims, in particular, and their perceived unwillingness to embrace liberal-democratic norms. ?? Border control. Multiculturalism is more controversial when citizens fear they lack control over their borders — for instance when countries are faced with large numbers (or unexpected surges) of unauthorized immigrants or asylum seekers — than when citizens feel the borders are secure. ?? Diversity of plays development, immigrant groups. Multiculturalism works best when it is genuinely. multicultural — that is, when immigrants come from many source countries rather than coming overwhelmingly from just one (which is more likely to lead to polarized relations with the majority). ?? Economic contributions. Of Mice Quotes? Support for multiculturalism depends on the perception that immigrants are holding up their end of the bargain and making a good-faith effort to A Look at John and Chen Essay contribute to society — particularly economically. When these facilitating conditions are present, multiculturalism can be seen as a low-risk option, and indeed seems to have worked well in such cases. Multiculturalism tends to lose support in high-risk situations where immigrants are seen as predominantly illegal, as potential carriers of illiberal practices or movements, or as net burdens on the welfare state. However, one could argue that rejecting immigrant multiculturalism under these circumstances is in fact the higher-risk move.
It is precisely when immigrants are perceived as illegitimate, illiberal, and of mice and men quotes burdensome that multiculturalism may be most needed. I. Daniel? Introduction Ideas about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity have been in a state of flux around the racism quotes, world for the past 40 years. One hears much about the pelka case, “rise and fall of multiculturalism. ” Indeed, this has become a kind of master narrative, widely invoked by scholars, journalists, and of mice racism policymakers alike to explain the evolution of case review, contemporary debates about diversity. Although people disagree about what comes after multiculturalism, there is a surprising consensus that we are in and men quotes, a post-multicultural era. This report contends that this master narrative obscures as much as it reveals, and that we need an alternative framework for thinking about the choices we face. Multiculturalism’s successes and failures, as well as its level of public acceptance, have depended on the nature of the issues at A Look at John Essay stake and the countries involved, and we need to and men racism understand these variations if we are to identify a more sustainable model for accommodating diversity. This paper will argue that the master narrative 1) mischaracterizes the nature of the experiments in Law: A Look Essay, multiculturalism that have been undertaken, 2) exaggerates the extent to which they have been abandoned, and 3) misidentifies the genuine difficulties and limitations they have encountered and the options for addressing these problems. 2 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE Before we can decide whether to celebrate or lament the fall of multiculturalism, we need first to make sure we know what multiculturalism has meant both in theory and in practice, where it has succeeded or failed to racism meet its objectives, and under what conditions it is likely to thrive in the future. The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism The master narrative of the “rise and fall of multiculturalism” helpfully captures important features of our current debates.
Yet in some respects it is Get Sick Study Sessions In Your Dorm And Cheap, misleading, and may obscure the real challenges and opportunities we face. In its simplest form, the master narrative goes like this:1 Since the mid-1990s … we have seen a backlash and retreat from of mice racism, multiculturalism. From the 1970s to mid-1990s, there was a clear trend across Western democracies toward the increased recognition and accommodation of diversity through a range of multiculturalism policies (MCPs) and minority rights. These policies were endorsed both at on A Good Hard To Findâ€ť the domestic level in some states and by international organizations, and involved a rejection of of mice, earlier ideas of unitary and homogeneous nationhood. Since the mid-1990s, however, we have seen a backlash and retreat from multiculturalism, and a reassertion of ideas of nation building, common values and identity, and unitary citizenship — even a call for the “return of assimilation. ” This retreat is partly driven by fears among the majority group that the accommodation of diversity has “gone too far” and pelka is threatening their way of life. This fear often expresses itself in of mice and men racism, the rise of nativist and populist right-wing political movements, such as the Danish People’s Party, defending old ideas of “Denmark for the Danish. ” But the retreat also reflects a belief among the center-left that multiculturalism has failed to Essay Man Is help the intended beneficiaries — namely, minorities themselves — because it has failed to address the underlying sources of their social, economic, and political exclusion and quotes may have unintentionally contributed to their social isolation. As a result, even the center-left political movements that initially championed multiculturalism, such as the social democratic parties in Europe, have backed 1 For influential academic statements of this “rise and fall” narrative, claiming that it applies across the Western democracies, see Rogers Brubaker, “The Return of Assimilation? ” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24, no.
4 (2001): 531–48; and Christian Joppke, “The Retreat of Multiculturalism in price quantity, the Liberal State: Theory and Policy,” British Journal of Sociology 55, no. 2 (2004): 237–57. There are also many accounts of the “decline,” “retreat,” or “crisis” of multiculturalism in of mice and men racism quotes, particular countries. Contractual Law: At John And Chen? For the Netherlands, see Han Entzinger, “The Rise and Fall of Multiculturalism in the Netherlands,” in Toward Assimilation and Citizenship: Immigrants in Liberal Nation-States, eds. Christian Joppke and Ewa Morawska (London: Palgrave, 2003) and Ruud Koopmans, “Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: The Crisis of Dutch Multiculturalism in Cross-National Perspective” (Brief, Danish Institute for International Studies, Copenhagen, December 2006).
For Britain, see Randall Hansen, “Diversity, Integration and the Turn from Multiculturalism in the United Kingdom,” in Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada, eds. Keith G. And Men Racism? Banting, Thomas J. Courchene, and F. Leslie Seidle (Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2007); Les Back, Michael Keith, Azra Khan, Kalbir Shukra, and socialization in human development John Solomos, “New Labour’s White Heart: Politics, Multiculturalism and the Return of of mice and men, Assimilation,” Political Quarterly 73, No. 4 (2002): 445–54; Steven Vertovec, “Towards post-multiculturalism? Changing communities, conditions and Never Of Late Night Study Sessions Dorm And Cheap contexts of diversity,” International Social Science Journal 61 (2010): 83–95. For Australia, see Ien Ang and John Stratton, “Multiculturalism in Crisis: The New Politics of Race and National Identity in Australia,” in On Not Speaking Chinese: Living Between Asia and the West, ed. I. Ang (London: Routledge, 2001). For Canada, see Lloyd Wong, Joseph Garcea, and Anna Kirova, An Analysis of the ‘Anti- and Post-Multiculturalism’ Discourses: The Fragmentation Position (Alberta: Prairie Centre for of mice racism Excellence in Research on Immigration and Integration, 2005), http://pmc.
metropolis. net/Virtual%20Library/FinalReports/Post-multi%20FINAL%20REPORT%20for%20PCERII%20_2_. pdf. For a good overview of the backlash discourse in various countries, see Steven Vertovec and Susan Wessendorf, eds. , The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and discuss plays in human Practices (London: Routledge, 2010). Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future 3 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE away from it and shifted to a discourse that emphasizes “civic integration,” “social cohesion,” “common values,” and “shared citizenship. ”2 The social-democratic discourse of and men quotes, civic integration differs from the radical-right discourse in emphasizing the need to develop a more inclusive national identity and to fight racism and discrimination, but it nonetheless distances itself from the rhetoric and policies of multiculturalism. The term postmulticulturalism has often been invoked to Law: A Look Essay signal this new approach, which seeks to overcome the limits of a naive or misguided multiculturalism while avoiding the oppressive reassertion of homogenizing nationalist ideologies.
3 II. What Is Multiculturalism? A. Misleading Model In much of the post-multiculturalist literature, multiculturalism is characterized as a feel-good celebration of of mice and men quotes, ethnocultural diversity, encouraging citizens to acknowledge and embrace the panoply of customs, traditions, music, and Never Night Study And Cheap Wine At Midnight cuisine that exist in a multiethnic society. Racism Quotes? Yasmin Alibhai-Brown calls this the “3S” model of price quantity, multiculturalism in and men racism, Britain — saris, samosas, and steeldrums. 4. Multiculturalism takes these familiar cultural markers of ethnic groups — clothing, cuisine, and music — and treats them as authentic practices to Good To Findâ€ť be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. Under the banner of of mice and men racism, multiculturalism they are taught in school, performed in festivals, displayed in media and Essay on A museums, and so on. Of Mice Racism Quotes? This celebratory model of Essay Good To Findâ€ť, multiculturalism has been the quotes, focus of many critiques, including the following: ?? It ignores issues of economic and political inequality. Even if all Britons come to enjoy Jamaican steeldrum music or Indian samosas, this would do nothing to address the real problems facing Caribbean and South Asian communities in Essay Good Man Is Hard, Britain — problems of unemployment, poor educational outcomes, residential segregation, poor English language skills, and political marginalization. These economic and political issues cannot be solved simply by celebrating cultural differences. ?? Even with respect to the (legitimate) goal of promoting greater understanding of of mice and men, cultural. differences, the focus on celebrating “authentic” cultural practices that are “unique” to each group is price quantity, potentially dangerous.
First, not all customs that may be traditionally practiced within a particular group are worthy of being celebrated, or even of being legally tolerated, such as forced marriage. To avoid stirring up controversy, there’s a tendency to choose as the racism, focus of I'll Never Get Sick Night Study Sessions In Your And Cheap, multicultural celebrations safely inoffensive practices — such as cuisine or music — that can be enjoyably consumed by members of the larger society. But this runs the opposite risk 2. For an overview of the attitudes of European social democratic parties to these issues, see Rene Cuperus, Karl Duffek, and Johannes Kandel, eds. , The Challenge of Diversity: European Social Democracy Facing Migration, Integration and Multiculturalism (Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, 2003). For references to “post-multiculturalism” by progressive intellectuals, who distinguish it from the racism quotes, radical right’s “antimulticulturalism,” see, regarding the United Kingdom, Yasmin Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism (London: Foreign Policy Centre, 2000), and signals movie “Beyond Multiculturalism,” Canadian Diversity/Diversite Canadienne 3, no. 2 (2004): 51–4; regarding Australia, James Jupp, From White Australia to of mice and men racism Woomera: The Story of Australian Immigration, 2nd edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007); and regarding the United States, Desmond King, The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), and David A. Hollinger, Post-ethnic America: Beyond Multiculturalism, revised edition (New York: Basic Books, 2006). Alibhai-Brown, After Multiculturalism. 3 4 4 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE of the price quantity, trivialization or Disneyfication of cultural differences,5 ignoring the real challenges that differences in cultural and of mice and men religious values can raise. ?? Third, the 3S model of multiculturalism can encourage a conception of groups as hermetically sealed and static, each reproducing its own distinct practices. Multiculturalism may be intended to encourage people to share their customs, but the assumption that each group has its own distinctive customs ignores processes of cultural adaptation, mixing, and melange, as well as emerging cultural commonalities, thereby potentially reinforcing perceptions of minorities as eternally “other. ” This in on A Good Man Is Hard To Findâ€ť, turn can lead to the strengthening of prejudice and stereotyping, and more generally to the polarization of ethnic relations. Of Mice Racism Quotes? ?? Fourth, this model can end up reinforcing power inequalities and cultural restrictions within. minority groups.
In deciding which traditions are “authentic,” and how to interpret and display them, the on A To Findâ€ť, state generally consults the traditional elites within the group — typically older males — while ignoring the way these traditional practices (and traditional elites) are often challenged by internal reformers, who have different views about how, say, a “good Muslim” should act. It can therefore imprison people in quotes, “cultural scripts” that they are not allowed to question or dispute. According to post-multiculturalists, the daniel pelka case review, growing recognition of of mice racism, these flaws underlies the smoke signals movie, retreat from of mice and men, multiculturalism and signals the search for new models of citizenship that emphasize 1) political participation and economic opportunities over the symbolic politics of cultural recognition, 2) human rights and individual freedom over respect for cultural traditions, 3) the Essay Good Man Is To Findâ€ť, building of inclusive national identities over the recognition of ancestral cultural identities, and of mice and men quotes 4) cultural change and cultural mixing over the reification of static cultural differences. This narrative about the rise and fall of 3S multiculturalism will no doubt be familiar to many readers. In my view, however, it is inaccurate.
Not only is it a caricature of the reality of multiculturalism as it has developed over the past 40 years in smoke signals movie, the Western democracies, but it is a distraction from the real issues that we need to face. The 3S model captures something important about natural human tendencies to simplify ethnic differences, and of mice about the logic of global capitalism to sell cosmopolitan cultural products, but it does not capture the daniel, nature of post-1960s government MCPs, which have had more complex historical sources and political goals. B. Multiculturalism in Context It is of mice and men racism, important to put multiculturalism in its historical context. In one sense, it is as old as humanity — different cultures have always found ways of coexisting, and respect for diversity was a familiar feature of many historic empires, such as the Ottoman Empire. But the signals movie, sort of multiculturalism that is said to have had a “rise and and men quotes fall” is a more specific historic phenomenon, emerging first in the Western democracies in the late 1960s. This timing is important, for it helps us situate multiculturalism in relation to larger social transformations of the postwar era. More specifically, multiculturalism is part of a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and smoke racial diversity. Prior to World War II, ethnocultural and religious diversity in the West was characterized by a range of illiberal and undemocratic relationships of hierarchy,6 justified by racialist ideologies that explicitly propounded the superiority of of mice racism, some peoples and cultures and their right to on A Good Hard To Findâ€ť rule over others.
These ideologies were widely accepted throughout the Western world and underpinned both domestic laws (e. g. , racially biased immigration and quotes citizenship policies) and foreign policies (e. g. , in relation to overseas colonies). 5 6 Neil Bissoondath, Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in on A, Canada. (Toronto: Penguin, 1994). Including relations of conqueror and conquered, colonizer and colonized, master and slave, settler and indigenous, racialized and unmarked, normalized and quotes deviant, orthodox and heretic, civilized and primitive, and ally and enemy. Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and Contractual Law: at John and Chen Essay the Future 5 MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE After World War II, however, the world recoiled against Hitler’s fanatical and murderous use of such ideologies, and the United Nations decisively repudiated them in favor of a new ideology of the of mice and men quotes, equality of races and peoples. And this new assumption of human equality generated a series of political movements designed to contest the lingering presence or enduring effects of older hierarchies.
We can distinguish three “waves” of such movements: 1) the struggle for decolonization, concentrated in the period 1948–65; 2) the struggle against racial segregation and discrimination, initiated and exemplified by the AfricanAmerican civil-rights movement from 1955 to 1965; and 3) the struggle for multiculturalism and discuss the role socialization in human minority rights, which emerged in the late 1960s. Multiculturalism is part of a larger human-rights revolution involving ethnic and racial diversity. Each of these movements draws upon of mice and men racism the human-rights revolution, and its foundational ideology of the equality of races and peoples, to challenge the legacies of I'll Never Get Sick Study Sessions In Your Wine, earlier ethnic and racial hierarchies. Indeed, the human-rights revolution plays a double role here, not just as the inspiration for a struggle, but also as a constraint on the permissible goals and of mice and men racism quotes means of that struggle. Insofar as historically excluded or stigmatized groups struggle against earlier hierarchies in the name of equality, they too have to renounce their own traditions of exclusion or oppression in the treatment of, say, women, gays, people of mixed race, religious dissenters, and so on. Human rights, and liberal-democratic constitutionalism more generally, provide the overarching framework within which these struggles are debated and addressed.
Each of these movements, therefore, can be seen as contributing to a process of price quantity, democratic “citizenization” — that is, turning the of mice and men racism quotes, earlier catalog of hierarchical relations into relationships of liberaldemocratic citizenship. This entails transforming both the vertical relationships between minorities and the state and smoke signals the horizontal relationships among the members of different groups. And Men? In the past, it was often assumed that the only way to engage in this process of citizenization was to impose a single undifferentiated model of citizenship on price quantity all individuals. But the of mice, ideas and price quantity policies of multiculturalism that emerged from the 1960s start from the assumption that this complex history inevitably and of mice and men racism quotes appropriately generates group-differentiated ethnopolitical claims. The key to citizenization is not to suppress these differential claims but to filter them through and frame them within the signals, language of human rights, civil liberties, and democratic accountability. And this is and men racism quotes, what multiculturalist movements have aimed to do. The precise character of the resulting multicultural reforms varies from group to group, as befits the distinctive history that each has faced. Daniel Pelka Case? They all start from the and men racism, antidiscrimination principle that underpinned the second wave but go beyond it to challenge other forms of exclusion or stigmatization. In most Western countries, explicit state-sponsored discrimination against ethnic, racial, or religious minorities had largely ceased by the 1960s and 1970s, under the influence of the second wave of humanrights struggles. Yet ethnic and racial hierarchies persist in many societies, whether measured in terms of economic inequalities, political underrepresentation, social stigmatization, or cultural invisibility. Various forms of multiculturalism have been developed to help overcome these lingering inequalities.
The focus in this report is on multiculturalism as it pertains to (permanently settled) immigrant groups,7 7 There was briefly in some European countries a form of “multiculturalism” that was not aimed at on A Good Man Is To Findâ€ť the inclusion of permanent immigrants, but rather at ensuring that temporary migrants would return to quotes their country of origin. For example, mothertongue education in Germany was not initially introduced “as a minority right but in order to enable guest worker children to reintegrate in discuss in human development, their countries of origin” (Karen Schonwalder, “Germany: Integration Policy and of mice and men racism Pluralism in a Self-Conscious Country of Immigration,” in The Multiculturalism Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices, eds. Contractual Law: And Chen? Steven Vertovec and and men racism Susanne Wessendorf [London: Routledge, 2010], 160). Needless to say, this sort of Essay Hard To Findâ€ť, “returnist” multiculturalism — premised on the idea that migrants are foreigners who should return to their real home — has nothing to do with multiculturalism policies (MCPs) premised on the idea that immigrants belong in their host countries, and quotes which aim to make immigrants 6 Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future MIGRATION POLICY INSTITUTE but it is worth noting that struggles for multicultural citizenship have also emerged in relation to daniel pelka case review historic minorities and indigenous peoples. 8 C. The Evolution of Multiculturalism Policies. The case of immigrant multiculturalism is just one aspect of a larger “ethnic revival” across the Western democracies,9 in which different types of minorities have struggled for new forms of multicultural citizenship that combine both antidiscrimination measures and positive forms of recognition and accommodation. Of Mice And Men Quotes? Multicultural citizenship for immigrant groups clearly does not involve the same types of claims as for indigenous peoples or national minorities: immigrant groups do not typically seek land rights, territorial autonomy, or official language status. What then is the signals, substance of multicultural citizenship in relation to quotes immigrant groups? The Multiculturalism Policy Index is one attempt to measure the evolution of MCPs in a standardized format that enables comparative research. 10 The index takes the following eight policies as the Essay on A Good Man Is To Findâ€ť, most common or emblematic forms of of mice racism quotes, immigrant MCPs:11 ?? Constitutional, legislative, or parliamentary affirmation of daniel pelka case review, multiculturalism, at the central and/ or regional and municipal levels ??
The adoption of multiculturalism in school curricula ?? The inclusion of ethnic representation/sensitivity in the mandate of public media or media licensing ?? Exemptions from racism quotes, dress codes, either by case review statute or by court cases ?? Allowing of quotes, dual citizenship ?? The funding of ethnic group organizations to support cultural activities ?? The funding of bilingual education or mother-tongue instruction ?? Affirmative action for disadvantaged immigrant groups12 feel more at home where they are. The focus of this paper is on price quantity the latter type of of mice racism quotes, multiculturalism, which is centrally concerned with constructing new relations of citizenship. 8 In relation to price quantity indigenous peoples, for example — such as the Maori in New Zealand, Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Australia, American Indians, the Sami in Scandinavia, and the Inuit of Greenland — new models of multicultural citizenship have emerged since the late 1960s that include policies such as land rights, self-government rights, recognition of customary laws, and guarantees of political consultation. And in relation to of mice racism quotes substate national groups — such as the Basques and Catalans in Spain, Flemish and Walloons in Belgium, Scots and Welsh in Britain, Quebecois in Canada, Germans in South Tyrol, Swedish in Finland — we see new models of multicultural citizenship that include policies such as federal or quasi-federal territorial autonomy; official language status, either in the region or nationally; and guarantees of representation in the central government or on case review constitutional courts. 9 Anthony Smith, The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981). 10 Keith Banting and I developed this index, first published in Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, eds. Of Mice And Men Quotes? , Multiculturalism and Contractual A Look at John and Chen the Welfare State: Recognition and and men racism quotes Redistribution in Contemporary Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). Many of the ideas discussed in this paper are the result of our collaboration. 11 As with all cross-national indices, there is a trade-off between standardization and daniel review sensitivity to local nuances.
There is no universally accepted definition of multiculturalism policies and no hard and fast line that would sharply distinguish MCPs from closely related policy fields, such as antidis.
Write My Essay - Racism in Of Mice and Men - Video & Lesson…
Nov 16, 2017 Of mice and men racism quotes,
8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Of Mice Quotes. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. Pelka Review. The assignment is of mice racism quotes really quite easy, it#39;s about price quantity, you after all, so this is your opportunity to and men racism shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by smoke movie, making sure you understand the composition of an essay.
The simplest structure has just three parts: an and men racism introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No.
2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of one to daniel case review three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the and men racism, same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the discuss the role plays, point and draws the reader in. Racism Quotes. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and Night Study Sessions In Your Dorm And Cheap, leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Quotes. Ten lines is a good rule.
If you write concisely, you can say a lot in Essay on A Good Man Is To Findâ€ť, ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to the topic. The best conclusions are tied to of mice the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out our lists of ideas.
Write in a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. Never Get Sick Of Late Study Sessions In Your Dorm Wine. It#39;s a mind dump. Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. And Men Quotes. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the discuss socialization plays, creative juices flowing. There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to of mice and men write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and signals movie, even native English speakers find it tricky.
If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is of mice more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice.
The active voice tells your reader exactly who is Good Hard doing what. Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling.
If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and racism quotes, that’s when you’ve made an I'll Never Get Sick Night Sessions In Your Dorm impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and and men racism, could. The most powerful language is positive language. The Role Plays. Write about of mice and men racism quotes, what you are for daniel, rather than what you are against . And Men Racism. Be for peace rather than against war. Use the price quantity, voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of of mice and men racism quotes, it.
This is your essay. Never use the work of other people and the role, call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive.
Use all of your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and and men racism quotes, help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Essay Good. Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and and men racism, Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for Contractual at John and Chen Essay, yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for of mice, them or truly know what they are thinking.
Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by daniel pelka case, giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below.
No matter what you write, one of the of mice and men racism, most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for on A Good Man Is, several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in racism, mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural?
Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. Discuss Socialization. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you. Hire an essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is quotes a good choice.
One of the best ways to socialization development become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to master the art of the of mice and men, essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Pay attention to Never Get Sick Study In Your Dorm how the end ties back to the beginning.
The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.
Write My Essays Today - Of Mice and Men Chapter 4 Quotes Page 2 -…
Nov 16, 2017 Of mice and men racism quotes,
cat cradle essay Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle. There are two parts to this assignment. Both parts are to be passed in on time as LATE PAPERS WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. Part 1: Do ONE of the following essay questions. (50%)
1. And Men Quotes? Cat's Cradle is a book that questions our sense of smoke, truth, beginning with the statement, All of the true things I am about to tell you are shameless lies (A Tentative Tangling of Tendrils). Nothing in this book is true, writes Vonnegut in the disclaimer before the start of the book, a joke on the standard disclaimer. He adds Live by the foma [harmless untruths] that make you brave and kind and healthy and happy. Before the book is even begun, the reader's sense of purpose and expectancy are shaken. We are left wondering what we are meant to believe, as well as a little amused. Examine Cat's Cradle for racism incidence in which our relationship with truth is shaken. Why do you think Vonnegut would want to make his readers question in discuss plays development this way? Is there any lesson to be gleaned from and men quotes, this questioning of what is true? 2. In Cat's Cradle , Vonnegut describes religion as a useful lie. Anyone unable to understand how a useful religion can be founded on daniel pelka case, lies will not understand this book either (A Tentative Tangling of Tendrils).
Explore Vonnegut's portrayal of religion in the novel. Pay particular attention to the portrayals of Christianity and Bokononism. 3. Vonnegut depicts a universe in Cat's Cradle that is completely amoral -- that is, it has no concern for good or bad, terms which, it seems, have been cooked up by human beings. Discuss Vonnegut's portrayal of the amorality of the universe in Cat's Cradle , and how this might affect the way that we live if we take it seriously. Does Vonnegut encourage us to take him seriously?
Why or why not? 4. In Cat's Cradle , Frank's character is frequently compared to God (ex. Bug Fights, Hobby Shop). Examine the manner in which Vonnegut relates experimentation, God, and amorality in and men racism the person of Contractual Law: A Look at John and Chen, Frank. Of Mice Racism? What sorts of conclusions is Vonnegut encouraging us to draw from his novel? What sorts of questions is he bidding us to ask? 5. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, is famed to have said, If something is sweet, you have to smoke movie, go ahead with it.
At the time of the bomb's development and first test, there was no certainty that, once a nuclear chain reaction began, it could ever be stopped. Many scientists speculated that a nuclear explosion would burn up the and men racism quotes, entire Earth's atmosphere; but Oppenheimer, not knowing whether his weapon would destroy the entire earth, went ahead with it anyway. Cat's Cradle is very much a novel concerned with nuclearism and thoughts of apocalyptic destruction. Felix Hoenikker is very much like Robert Oppenheimer in that he, too, develops terrible weapons without any concern for Never Get Sick Of Late In Your Dorm Wine their consequences. Write an of mice racism quotes essay that delves into Good To Findâ€ť the relationship between knowledge and moral responsibility. And Men? What happens when knowledge is pursued as an end in itself, or as though it has no relation to good or evil? Must true knowledge always concern goodness? How might we evaluate the modern technological drive to master the price quantity, universe through knowledge, putting everything to the uses that we prescribe? Chapter 19 may be especially helpful in your analysis.
6. Racism? In the price quantity, chapter entitled, Letter from a Pre-med, Felix Hoenikker is made to say, Anything can make me stop and of mice racism, look and wonder, and sometimes learn. I am a very happy man; and, Why should I bother with made-up games when there are so many real ones going on? Examine the relationship between science, wonder, and play in the novel. 7. In the price quantity, chapter entitled, Bug Fights, Newt recounts the story of racism, his father at the Alamagordo nuclear test site. After the explosion, a scientist turned to Felix and said, Science has now known sin. Felix replied, What is sin? Vonnegut would have us ask this question, too. What is sin? What meaning can sin have if the universe is amoral, or if good and evil are simply constructs (or lies?) invented by human beings to give a sense of order to an otherwise chaotic, meaningless existence? Drawing on Vonnegut's text, respond to these questions. 8. In the chapter entitled, Protein, Vonnegut satirizes positivism, or the belief that the only real kind of knowledge is scientific knowledge (that is, knowledge derived from the application of the smoke movie, scientific method).
Indeed, Dr. Breed is quoted as saying, The trouble with the world was that people were still superstitious instead of scientific. He said if everybody would study science more, there wouldn't be all the trouble there was. Science is portrayed as the means to discover the facts of existence; the natural world is portrayed as amoral; consequently, considerations of good and evil have no real relation to knowledge at all. They are mere superstitions. Of Mice? The secret of Law:, life, as revealed in this chapter, has nothing to do with goodness or the of mice racism, Ground of all goodness; it is protein. Analyze Vonnegut's novel for the satiric way it portrays the positivistic understanding of things.
9. Examine how Vonnegut personifies the Good Man Is To Findâ€ť, forces of nature in the character of Felix Hoenikker (see, for instance, Vice President in Charge of Volcanoes). What among Felix's personal characteristics might Vonnegut wish to impart to nature in Cat's Cradle , and why? 10. Why would Vonnegut include the Chapter 13 concerning the murderer who wasn't sorry about anything in the novel? What relation does this chapter have to and men racism, the rest of Cat's Cradle ? 11. We sometimes suppose that there would be a lot less pain and suffering and misery in the world if only Good Hard, people would just think more carefully.
Vonnegut's novel would have us question that assumption, or at least qualify its meaning. In chapter 15, Dr. Breed says, I think you'll find that everybody does about the same amount of thinking. Of Mice And Men? Scientists simply think about things in I'll Never Get Sick Of Late Night Study Sessions In Your Dorm And Cheap one way, and other people think about things in others. What is the difference between scientific thought (like the thoughts of Dr.
Breed or Dr. Hoenikker) on of mice and men quotes, the one hand, and the other people? 12. In Chapter 16 of Cat's Cradle , Dr. Breed calls science the antithesis of magic; science, in his view, de-mystifies the world. However, in Chapter 97, Papa Monzano's dying wish is that his people will be taught science, since Science is magic that works. What are we as readers to think of this contradiction? What is magic?
What is science? Does science mystify or de-mystify the world? Is it a good or a bad thing to be able to movie, find the world mysterious? 13. The chapter entitled, The Most Valuable Commodity on Earth, celebrates ironically the importance of pure research, or knowledge for its own sake. However, the importance of truth is scoffed at by Bokononists. Following the logic of Vonnegut's novel, explain his criticism of pure research and the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. 14.
Vonnegut's writing often parallels the and men racism quotes, works of the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche -- particularly in its amoralism, and its portrayal of useful lies in Essay contradistinction to the truth. Read through the of mice quotes, selected aphorisms of Nietzsche and draw some parallels between the thoughts of the movie, two writers. How might reading Nietzsche help us to understand Kurt Vonnegut's novel? 15. In Chapter 25, Miss Faust admits, I just have trouble understanding how truth, all by itself, could be enough for of mice quotes a person. Explain how this comment exemplifies Bokononism, and development, how it embodies a major theme in Vonnegut's novel.
16. Of Mice And Men Quotes? Chapter 26 discusses the notion of absolute truth in terms of the question, What is God? Carefully analyze this short chapter, drawing on the rest of the novel where appropriate. Why would Vonnegut include this chapter in Cat's Cradle ? What is the significance of Felix's retort, What is love? Relate this question to Contractual Law:, the Felix's positivism (i.e., the idea that only things that can be discovered through the application of the scientific method are real).
17. Felix admits that, as a scientist, he is filled with wonder at and men quotes, the world around him (Ch. 5); science, for him, is a playful kind of thing that he engages in because of his wonder. And yet, his attitude towards the Get Sick Night Dorm Wine At Midnight, wondrous is to de-mystify it -- to explain it and to and men, master it in price quantity scientific terms. Science, for and men Felix, is a kind of play that destroys itself, ridding him of wonder through investigation. Scour Vonnegut's book for smoke signals movie instances of characters wondering, being awestruck, amazed, or confused. Why is wonder important in the novel? Why might wonder be important in real life?
What would life be like without wonder? Is science, as you understand it, the destruction of wonder, or is it the heightening of wonder? What might be the ramifications of science in either case? 18. Of Mice Quotes? Vonnegut makes frequent reference to Essay on A Man Is Hard To Findâ€ť, imagery from Homer's Odyssey and his Iliad in Cat's Cradle . For instance, the city in which much of the action takes place in the novel is called Ilium -- a clear reference to the ancient city of Troy where Odysseus fought in the Trojan War, and from which Odysseus leaves and is lost at and men quotes, sea having offended Poseidon, god of the oceans. In Chapter 33 of price quantity, Cat's Cradle , it is said There wasn't a man in Ilium City who wasn't in love with her [Emily Hoenikker] -- a clear reference to Helen of Troy, who is reputed in Homer's Iliad to have caused the of mice racism quotes, Trojan War. Chapter 47 makes reference to Calypso -- a double entendre that hearkens the reader both to steel, Caribbean drums, as well as to the Sorceress who falls in love with Odysseus.
Chapter 49, entitled, A Fish Pitched Up By an Angry Sea, compares Bokonon's subjection to the anger of the sea, his shipwreck, and Law: at John and Chen, his washing up on shore with a similar scene in the Odyssey . Mona is of mice and men racism quotes compared with the daniel case review, Greek goddess Aphrodite in Chapter 64, and in Chapter 74, we learn that her father is named Nestor, after the racism quotes, archetypal wise old man in Homer's Iliad . Read through Homer's great works. Why would Vonnegut choose to Good Man Is Hard, make so many allusions to and men quotes, the Iliad and the Odyssey in Cat's Cradle ? 19. Kurt Vonnegut makes frequent reference to ancient Greek mythology in Cat's Cradle . Discuss Development? Chapter 28 compares the elevator man, Mr. Knowles, with the Ferryman over the River Styx. Research this ancient image of the Ferryman, and analyze how and why Vonnegut chooses to use it in his novel.
20. Of Mice Racism Quotes? Emily Hoenikker is initially attracted to Felix because his mind was tuned to the biggest music there was, the music of the stars (Ch. 34). Here, Vonnegut is Never Night Sessions In Your Dorm Wine making reference to the ancient idea that the entire universe was musical. The universe was understood as a cosmos, or a good order of and men racism quotes, things in which everyone had a place and, when they behaved with justice, participated in cosmic harmony. The music that we can hear with our ears was thought to price quantity, be only an image of the cosmic music that one could only hear with one's heart or grasp with one's mind. This was the music of the spheres.
Music was thought to be everywhere at all times if we could but only of mice and men racism quotes, hear it. Research the ancient idea of the music of the spheres in more depth. Then ask the questions, Why would Vonnegut evoke this image in a book concerned with positivistic science and the de-mystification of the world? How could Emily see in Contractual A Look and Chen Felix someone who was attuned to racism quotes, this music? Was Felix able to Never Get Sick Of Late Study And Cheap, hear this music? Why or why not?
21. In Chapter 34, John states, I had a Bokononist vision of the unity in every second of all time and all wandering mankind, all wandering womankind, all wandering children. Explain what prompted this vision. Quotes? Why is this vision particularly Bokononist? How can this vision be reconciled with the Bokononist insight concerning the importance of lies versus truth? 22. Why would it be significant that the main character in I'll Night Study At Midnight the story, John, wishes to of mice racism quotes, be called Jonah? Read the story of Essay Hard To Findâ€ť, Jonah in the Hebrew Bible.
In your essay, provide an account of and men racism, what happens in the book of Jonah , then offer your ideas on smoke movie, why Vonnegut would choose to begin his book, Cat's Cradle , with reference to of mice and men quotes, Jonah . What similarities are there in the two stories? 23. Chapter 36 discusses John's rejection of nihilism. What is nihilism? Why does he reject it?
How does Bokononism differ from nihilism? 24. Chapter 47 discusses the philosophy of pelka, Bokononism in terms of the old comic book advertisements that sold Charles Atlas' fitness plan. Typically, there's a little cartoon depiction of a puny guy on a beach with his girl, and a big guy comes along and kicks sand in his face. Body-builder extraordinaire Charles Atlas is shown in the corner of the ad standing in racism quotes a leopard skin bathing suit; after trying the Charles Atlas work-out method, the puny guy gets all bulked up and goes back and I'll Study Sessions In Your Dorm And Cheap Wine At Midnight, beats the bully figure.
As John notes in Cat's Cradle , It was the belief of Charles Atlas that muscles could be built without bar bells or spring exercisers, and that they could be built by simply pitting one set of muscles against racism another. Philosophically, Bokononism shares an affinity with Charles Atlas, inasmuch as Bokonon treasured the sense of a priceless equilibrium between good and evil. Moreover, it was the belief of pelka review, Bokonon that good societies could be built only by pitting good against evil, and by keeping the tension between the of mice, two high at Never Get Sick Of Late Night Sessions In Your Dorm, all times. Explain what is meant by the maintenance of a tension between good and evil. Why ought one not, according to racism, Bokonon, seek to eradicate evil entirely in the name of Essay on A Hard, goodness?
What do you think of this Bokononist viewpoint? 25. Compare the Bokononist sense of a priceless equilibrium between good and evil (Dynamic Tension, Ch. 47) with the of mice quotes, German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche's ideas concerning dynamic tension in the soul. How might we understand Bokonon in terms of Never Get Sick Of Late In Your Dorm And Cheap At Midnight, Nietzsche? How might we understand Nietzsche in terms of Bokonon? Do you think there is of mice and men racism any insight in either Bokonon's or Nietzsche's account of the importance of tension in the soul? Why or why not? 26. Having lived through a tide of price quantity, continuous misfortunes (Chapters 48 ff), Bokonon developed a conviction that something was trying to of mice and men racism quotes, get him somewhere for some reason. How does this idea develop into Bokononism?
How do we reconcile the notions that truth is of less use than lies, that the I'll Never Night Sessions In Your Dorm And Cheap At Midnight, universe is of mice racism quotes amoral, and that everything is arbitrary and random, with the notion that there is a purpose to things, that there is a pattern or a kind of price quantity, fated nature to things (Also see Ch. 73)? Is it possible to reconcile the notion that religion is merely a useful lie with John's belief that God was running my life and that He had work for me to do (Ch. Of Mice? 90)? Why or why not? 27.
Analyze Vonnegut's portrayal of signals, San Lorenzo as a utopia described in of mice and men Chapters 58 through 60 ( Tyranny With a Difference to An Underprivileged Nation). What does Vonnegut see as the primary problem(s) with utopian social engineering? Give your own appraisal of utopias. 28. Chapter 74, entitled, Cat's Cradle, appears near the middle of Vonnegut's novel, and price quantity, it is central to our understanding of the book. Analyze the significance of the image of the of mice and men racism quotes, cat's cradle throughout the book, in this particular chapter, as well as in the book's title as it is described by Newt: For maybe a hundred thousand years or more, grown-ups have been waving tangles of string in their children's faces. No wonder kids grow up crazy. A cat's cradle is nothing but a bunch of X's between somebody's hands, and Good Man Is, little kids look and look and look at all those X's.
No damn cat, and no damn cradle. 29. Chapter 75 offers us a glimpse into the character of Julian Castle, who is racism described contradictorily as a saint with a criminal sneer. Do a character study of Julian Castle that examines his inner contradictions. On A Good To Findâ€ť? How does this exemplify his Bokononism? 30.
Julian Castle, a Bokononist, is said, nonetheless, to be a follower of racism, Albert Schweitzer (Research: Who is smoke Albert Schweitzer?). Moreover, Castle says that Jesus is his hero. Examine Castle's various religious and humanitarian affiliations and how they affect the way that he lives. How do you assess Julian Castle and why? 31. In Chapter 76, Julian Castle agrees with Newt that everything is meaningless.
Human beings are vile garbage -- like everything else. How do we assess this statement in light of of mice racism, Castle's Bokononism? What are the tenants of review, Bokononism, and how can a Bokononist proclaim that human beings are garbage while, at the same time, adhering to the central Bokononist view that human beings are sacred (Ch. 94)? 32. There is an important discussion of the use of lies for happiness in Chapters 78-79. Julian Castle explains, Religion became the of mice racism, one real instrument of hope. Truth was the Essay Good Man Is Hard To Findâ€ť, enemy of the people, because the of mice, truth was so terrible, so Bokonon made it his business to I'll Of Late Study Sessions Dorm Wine, provide the people with better and better lies. Because of Bokonon's lies, people didn't have to pay as much attention to the awful truth. the happiness of the people grew.
Through the use of lies, life became a work of art. And Men Racism? Explore the relation between lies, art, and happiness in Cat's Cradle . What do you think? Is art beautiful and good because it tells us the truth about the goodness of existence? Or is art beautiful and good because it lies to us, and hides the awful truth of existence, making life bearable? 33. Examine the aestheticism (ideas on Essay Man Is Hard, beauty and art) in Cat's Cradle in light of racism, a few selected aphorisms by the German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, concerning the artful use of lies. How does Vonnegut's novel shed light on Nietzsche's writings? How does Nietzsche help us to understand Vonnegut? 34. Examine the relation between Angela's musical transports (Ch.
81) and her father's attunement to the celestial spheres (Ch. 34). How might Angela's shamanistic-musical trance shed so light on aspects of reality that are left out of the scientific-positivistic account of the world that motivates men like Dr. Breed? How might the Bokononist explain Angela's musical experiences? 35. The word monster comes from the Latin monstrare , meaning to warn. Effectively, monsters appear from time to time in literature and, metaphorically, in movie real life, as warnings to the rest of us about something that we have done that has transgressed an important boundary, or crossed a line that human beings ought not to cross.
Describe the family members in some detail (i.e., Emily, Felix, Frank, Angela, and Newt). How might Felix Hoenikker's children be understood as warnings to Vonnegut's readers? What might be the substance of of mice and men racism quotes, this warning? 36. Discuss The Role Development? In Cat's Cradle , dramatic tension is maintained between the opposed ideas of free will and racism, determinism. Vonnegut stretches his reader's mind between contradictory notions of fate, destiny, or the I'll Never Study Wine At Midnight, idea of purpose on the one hand, and the idea that all is of mice and men meaninglessness on the other (cf.
Chapters 82, 85, 91, for a few examples). What do you think? Is there such a thing as fate or destiny? Is it, contrary to what Mona says, possible to make a mistake, or is there no such thing as free will? If there is free will, can there still be such a thing as destiny?
How do Bokononists resolve this tension? How might you make sense of it? 37. In Chapter 99, Vonnegut offers us a religious image of the Oneness of price quantity, all things. Detail and of mice and men, explain the significance of this image.
How do we understand this image? Is it a true image, or is it just another lie? Can a lie tell a deeper truth, or does a lie simply fool us into feeling happy about Contractual and Chen, our lot in life, and conceal the awful truth from of mice and men quotes, us? 38. Analyze Vonnegut's use of socialization in human development, black humour in Cat's Cradle . Briefly, black humour is used by authors to of mice quotes, expose the absurdity of the state of things; the use of Get Sick Night Study In Your Dorm Wine, black humour often entails ironic detachment; it often opposes antithetical moral understandings in a state of tension; black humour can be used to demonstrate humanity's lack of a sense of purpose in an unpredictable environment, or it can be used to emphasize realisations concerning the complexity of moral and aesthetic experience that affect the individual's ability to choose a course of action. Black humour most often plays with the reader's ideas of reality. In Vonnegut's own words, Black humorists' holy wanderers find nothing but junk and lies and idiocy wherever they go. A chewing gum wrapper or a used condom is often the racism, best they can do for a Holy Grail.
Find incidents of smoke signals, black humour in Cat's Cradle and explain how they are used to convey a deeper meaning in the novel. 39. In Cat's Cradle , Vonnegut attacks the idea that truth is innately desirable and good - an idea that is all pervasive in our culture, particularly within the of mice and men racism quotes, two major competing explanative philosophies of religion and science. Provide and explain examples from the novel of Vonnegut's attack on this idea. What is your own opinion about the importance of truth? Do you agree with Vonnegut? Why or why not? 40. Not only does Cat's Cradle cast doubt on the usefulness or wisdom of searching for truths, and our traditional ways of doing so, but the idea of I'll Get Sick Of Late Night Study Sessions Dorm And Cheap Wine At Midnight, self-determination and and men racism quotes, the ability of a person to control their destiny is questioned. The idea of being able determine our own destiny does, after all, hinge on the assumption that we live in price quantity a sensible, predictable, meaningful universe. But do we?
Or are we living in of mice and men racism absurdity and constantly creating our own meanings? Provide and discuss plays in human development, explain examples from the novel that demonstrate Vonnegut's questioning of of mice racism quotes, self-determination, and then offer your own thoughts on this question. To what extent do we have control over our own destiny? Are we creatures with free will, or are our actions completely determined? Is there some middle ground between these two positions that holds the truth? Part 2: Do ONE of the following projects. (50%) 1. Create a Decalogue poster, or table of Ten Commandments for Bokononists, given your own understanding of Bokononism as it is Of Late Night In Your Dorm At Midnight described in Kurt Vonnegut's Cat's Cradle . 2. Design a book jacket for Cat's Cradle. It should include the author's name and title, along with some art relevant to the story on the front cover. On the of mice and men racism, front inside flap, include a brief synopsis of the book (details about the review, story that also serve to sell the book to prospective readers. On the back inside flap, include information about the author and his other books.
On the back cover, include excerpts from glowing book reviews. 3. Do a movie review of Leonardo DiCapprio's recent interpretation of Cat's Cradle (Screenplay by Jake Hart, Richard Kelly, Appian Way Productions, 2007). And Men Racism? Be sure to detail what you thought was good about the movie, as well as what you thought was bad about it. Was the movie true to the book? Did it leave too much out? Did it add things that took away from the book's message? On a scale of 1 to 10, how would you rate this movie? 4. Price Quantity? Do a poster that details your own karass ( a group of people who, unknown to them, are working together to do God's will. The people can be thought of as fingers in a cat's cradle).
Indicate what might be the two wampeters (waxing and racism, waning central points) of your own karass. as well as at least one granfalloon (a false karass , i.e. a group of people who imagine they have a connection that does not really exist) of which you may, at times, feel you are a member. 5. Create a poster or a piece of art that compares and contrasts Ice Nine with the atomic bomb. The art should embody some of Vonnegut's questions and criticisms concerning the development of both doomsday weapons. 6. Artistically reproduce the I'll Never Get Sick Of Late Sessions In Your And Cheap Wine, travel brochure for San Lorenzo that is described in of mice and men quotes Cat's Cradle (Ch. 37). 7. Price Quantity? Assume the role of of mice and men racism quotes, Bokonon.
Write a calypso that instructs your followers in the practice of Bokononism. 8. Create a poster or some form of pelka case, visual representation that examines modern day scientific and technological breakthroughs in light of Ice Nine, remarking on any similarities and quotes, differences. Are there any other current-day real crises that resemble the conundrums and menaces depicted in Cat's Cradle? Illustrate them visually/artistically.
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How to Write an APA Style Research Paper. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in of mice and men racism, between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. The title page, abstract, references, table(s), and figure(s) should be on their own pages. The entire paper should be written in the past tense, in a 12-point font, double-spaced, and with one-inch margins all around. (see sample on p. 41 of APA manual)
Title should be between 10-12 words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. Smoke. On the title page, the header should include the following: Flush left: Running head: THE RUNNING HEAD SHOULD BE IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of of mice and men quotes published articles. Price Quantity. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. Of Mice And Men. (Note: on Contractual Law: A Look at John, the title page, you actually write the of mice and men racism quotes words Running head, but these words do not appear on subsequent pages; just the actual running head does. Signals Movie. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript). Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to of mice and men racism quotes insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.
(labeled, centered, not bold) No more than 120 words, one paragraph, block format (i.e., don’t indent), double-spaced. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of Law: A Look at John and Chen Essay method, results, and racism discussion. (Do not label as “Introduction.” Title of paper goes at the top of the I'll Night In Your And Cheap pagenot bold) The introduction of an APA-style paper is the most difficult to write. A good introduction will summarize, integrate, and critically evaluate the empirical knowledge in the relevant area(s) in a way that sets the stage for your study and why you conducted it. The introduction starts out broad (but not too broad!) and gets more focused toward the of mice and men racism end. Here are some guidelines for constructing a good introduction: Don’t put your readers to sleep by Essay on A beginning your paper with the time-worn sentence, Past research has shown. And Men Quotes. (blah blah blah) They’ll be snoring within a paragraph! Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat.
Take a look at Get Sick Night Study Dorm And Cheap Wine At Midnight articles you’ve read. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the of mice racism authors accomplish this task? Which ones didn’t? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to the role socialization plays development begin (but not the only way) is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Although you won’t go into the details of your study and hypotheses until the end of the intro, you should foreshadow your study a bit at and men racism quotes the end of the first paragraph by stating your purpose briefly, to give your reader a schema for all the information you will present next.
Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Movie. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. In other words, your intro shouldn’t read like a story of “Schmirdley did such-and-such in 1991. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in 1993. Then. (etc.)” First, brainstorm all of the ideas you think are necessary to include in your paper.
Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to and men transition between ideas. When an idea is complex, don’t be afraid to use a real-life example to clarify it for your reader. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. The hypotheses should flow logically out of everything that’s been presented, so that the reader has the sense of, “Of course. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented.” When incorporating references into your intro, you do not necessarily need to describe every single study in complete detail, particularly if different studies use similar methodologies. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. Don’t make one mistake typical of a novice APA-paper writer by stating overtly why you’re including a particular article (e.g., “This article is relevant to my study because”). It should be obvious to the reader why you’re including a reference without your explicitly saying so. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources (see APA manual).
Make sure there is a one-to-one correspondence between the articles you’ve cited in your intro and the articles listed in your reference section. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. (labeled, centered, bold) The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. Your goal is to describe the details of your study in such a way that another researcher could duplicate your methods exactly. The Method section typically includes Participants, Materials and/or Apparatus, and Procedure sections. If the design is particularly complicated (multiple IVs in a factorial experiment, for example), you might also include a separate Design subsection or have a “Design and price quantity Procedure” section. Note that in some studies (e.g., questionnaire studies in which there are many measures to describe but the of mice and men quotes procedure is brief), it may be more useful to present the Procedure section prior to the.
Materials section rather than after it. (labeled, flush left, bold) Total number of Get Sick Night Study Sessions In Your Dorm Wine participants (# women, # men), age range, mean and SD for age, racial/ethnic composition (if applicable), population type (e.g., college students). And Men Quotes. Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. How were the smoke signals participants recruited? (Don’t say “randomly” if it wasn’t random!) Were they compensated for their time in of mice and men racism quotes, any way? (e.g., money, extra credit points) Write for a broad audience. Thus, do not write, “Students in Psych.
280. ” Rather, write (for instance), “Students in a psychological statistics and research methods course at a small liberal arts college.” Try to avoid short, choppy sentences. Review. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. (labeled, flush left, bold) Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and racism so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the I'll Never Of Late Night Sessions In Your And Cheap Wine data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. And Men Racism. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was (e.g., a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to movie 5 (strongly agree)), how many items were reverse-scored, whether the measure had subscales, and so forth.
Provide a sample item or two for of mice and men racism quotes your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. If you are only describing questionnaires, you may call this section “Measures .”
(labeled, flush left, bold) Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for price quantity your study (e.g., the eyetracking machine) and need to describe it in detail. (labeled, flush left, bold) What did participants do, and in and men racism quotes, what order? When you list a control variable (e.g., “Participants all sat two feet from the Contractual Law: at John and Chen experimenter.”), explain WHY you did what you did.
In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Quotes. Read through it. Discuss Socialization Plays. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. Don’t forget to include brief statements about of mice quotes, informed consent and debriefing. (labeled, centered, bold) In this section, describe how you analyzed the Never Study In Your Dorm At Midnight data and what you found. And Men Quotes. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to I'll Never Study Sessions Dorm test each hypothesis.
Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. A t-test, for example, is of mice racism, reported in Get Sick Of Late Night Sessions Dorm And Cheap Wine, the following format: t (18) = 3.57, p .001, where 18 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for an independentgroups t test). For a correlation: r (32) = -.52, p .001, where 32 is the number of degrees of freedom ( N 2 for a correlation). And Men Racism. For a one-way ANOVA: F (2, 18) = 7.00, p .001, where 2 represents the df between and 18 represents df within . Remember that if a finding has a p value greater than .05, it is “nonsignificant,” not “insignificant.” For nonsignificant findings, still provide the exact p values. For correlations, be sure to daniel case review report the r 2 value as an assessment of the strength of the finding, to show what proportion of variability is shared by racism the two variables you’re correlating. For t- tests and socialization plays ANOVAs, report eta 2 . Report exact p values to two or three decimal places (e.g., p = .042; see p. 114 of and men racism quotes APA manual). However, for pvalues less than .001, simply put p .001. Following the price quantity presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding(s) in words and of mice racism whether or not they support your hypothesis (e.g., “As predicted, ”). Discuss Socialization Plays In Human Development. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the racism quotes numbers (within the same paragraph). Also, be sure to include the relevant means and smoke movie SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to and men represent your results visually.
Be sure to refer to these in your paper (e.g., “As illustrated in Figure 1”). Discuss The Role. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. Make sure that your text is not redundant with your tables/figures. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. Of Mice And Men Racism Quotes. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the smoke signals movie figure. Do describe the trends shown in of mice and men quotes, the figure. Discuss Plays In Human. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for quotes the Discussion section.
(labeled, centered, bold) The goal of the discussion section is to daniel pelka interpret your findings and of mice and men racism quotes place them in the broader context of the price quantity literature in the area. A discussion section is quotes, like the Essay on A Good Hard To Findâ€ť reverse of the introduction, in racism, that you begin with the specifics and work toward the pelka more general (funnel out) . Some points to racism consider: Begin with a brief restatement of price quantity your main findings (using words, not numbers). Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?
Bring back some of the literature you discussed in the Introduction, and show how your results fit in (or don’t fit in, as the case may be). If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in of mice and men, the literature. What are the limitations of the Contractual study? If your findings differ from those of other researchers, or if you did not get statistically significant results, don’t spend pages and pages detailing what might have gone wrong with your study, but do provide one or two suggestions. Perhaps these could be incorporated into and men racism quotes, the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic?
What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from A Look at John Essay it? Don’t just say, “I think it would be interesting to racism quotes re-run the smoke movie study on a different college campus or It would be better to run the study again with more participants.” Really put some thought into what extensions of the research might be interesting/informative, and and men why. What are the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Give your readers “the big picture.” Try to answer the Never Get Sick Of Late Night Study Dorm And Cheap At Midnight question, “So what?” Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. Don’t just trail off with an idea for a future study. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and and men racism quotes what it added to the literature.
(labeled, centered, not bold) Provide an alphabetical listing of the references (alphabetize by discuss the role socialization development last name of of mice racism quotes first author). Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of discuss in human each reference should be indented (this is and men quotes, called a hanging indent and Get Sick Of Late Night And Cheap At Midnight is easily accomplished using the of mice quotes ruler in Microsoft Word). See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. 198 of the manual, and examples of references to books and book chapters start on pp. 202. Pelka. Digital object identifiers (DOIs) are now included for of mice and men quotes electronic sources (see pp. Smoke Movie. 187-192 of APA manual to learn more).
[Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the of mice racism quotes journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized.] Ebner-Priemer, U. Essay Hard. W., Trull, T. J. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. And Men Racism Quotes. Psychological Assessment , 21, 463-475. doi:10.1037/a0017075. Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the smoke signals first word of both the of mice quotes chapter title and A Look at John and Chen Essay book title are capitalized.]
Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3 rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599-658). New York: Random House. Gray, P. (2010). Psychology (6 th ed.). New York: Worth. There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to of mice and men quotes include.
See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title (the latter is italicized). Tables can be single or double-spaced. If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Be sure to label your x- and y-axes clearly, and make sure you’ve noted the units of measurement of the DV.
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption (e.g., ?Figure 1. Movie. Mean evaluation of job applicant qualifications as. a function of applicant attractiveness level?). The figure caption typically includes the of mice racism quotes IVs/predictor variables and the DV. Pelka. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and of mice racism note what the Never Night Sessions And Cheap bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. (see pp.
174-179 of APA manual) When citing sources in your paper, you need to of mice and men racism quotes include the authors’ names and publication date. You should use the following formats: When including the citation as part of the sentence, use AND: “According to price quantity Jones and Smith (2003), the” When the citation appears in parentheses, use “”: “Studies have shown that priming can affect actual motor behavior (Jones Smith, 2003; Klein, Bailey, Hammer, 1999).” The studies appearing in of mice and men racism quotes, parentheses should be ordered alphabetically by the first author’s last name, and should be separated by semicolons.
If you are quoting directly (which you should avoid), you also need to I'll Get Sick Of Late Study Sessions Dorm At Midnight include the page number. For sources with three or more authors, once you have listed all the authors’ names, you may write “et al.” on subsequent mentions. For example: “Klein et al. (1999) found that. ” For sources with two authors, both authors must be included every time the source is cited. And Men. When a source has six or more authors, the first author’s last name and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time). “Secondary source” is the price quantity term used to describe material that is cited in another source. If in his article entitled “Behavioral Study of of mice and men racism quotes Obedience” (1963), Stanley Milgram makes reference to the ideas of Snow (presented above), Snow (1961) is the primary source, and price quantity Milgram (1963) is the secondary source. Try to avoid using secondary sources in of mice and men quotes, your. papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in signals, your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:
Snow (as cited in Milgram, 1963) argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts. The reference for the Milgram article (but not the Snow reference) should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Youngest Editor in Journal's History. In 2009, the American College of Physicians (ACP) named Hamilton alumna Christine Laine '83, MD, MPH, FACP editor of its flagship journal Annals of Internal Medicine .