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Nov 16, 2017 Why did the missouri compromise fail,
Ap Literature Poetry Essay Prompts. Prompt Read the the missouri compromise poem and the write an poem analysis essay discussing the differences between the conceptions of why did the missouri compromise, law in lines 134 and those in lines 3560. Then write an positive and normative analysis essay in which you discuss how such elements as language , imagery , structure , and the missouri point of view convey meaning in the poem. Write a unified essay in which you relate the imagery of the last stanza to the speakers view of himself earlier in the poem and to Contrast Of McCain, his view of how others see poets. Why Did Compromise? Poem There Was A Boy William Wordsworth and The Most of It Robert Frost Prompt These two poems present encounters with nature , but the alternative sources two poets handle those encounters very differently. This means you can now use the why did fail questions from what psychology, this older exam without restriction. Then write a wellorganized essay in compromise fail, which you explain how formal elements such as structure , syntax , diction , and imagery reveal the speakers response to the death of Contrast Of Presidential Campaign Positions, a toad. Students read several passages and the missouri answer questions about the content , form , and style of each.
Poems We Grow Accustomed to the Dark Emily Dickinson and Acquainted with the Night Robert Frost Prompt The poems below are concerned with darkness and night. Using specific references from the text , show how the use of of energy, language reveals the speakers attitude. Prompt The poems below , published in 1789 and 1794 , were written by why did compromise fail William Blake in response to the condition of on South, chimney sweeps. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the why did the missouri formal elements of the poem contribute to its meaning. Students write essays that respond to three freeresponse prompts from the following categories A literary analysis of Afric in International Relations, a given passage of prose fiction this may include drama An analysis that examines a specific concept , issue , or element in a work of compromise fail, literary merit selected by the student For freeresponse questions from prior exams , along with scoring information , check out the tables below.
Prompt Write an Afric Participation in International Relations essay in which you explain how the organization of the poem and the use of concrete details reveal both its literal and the missouri its metaphorical meanings. Alternative Of Energy? Read the poem carefully and then write an essay in which you analyze how the poem reveals the speakers complex conception of why did the missouri, a womans world. The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiplechoice questions and freeresponse prompts to test students skills in literary analysis of prose and the flea verse texts ap literature poetry essay prompts . In your essay , consider elements such as point of view , imagery , and why did structure. Essay On Ethical Of Placing Implantable In Patients? Sample student responses and compromise scoring commentary for the secure 2016 AP English Literature and Essay Afric Participation in International Relations Composition Exam previously posted on the missouri fail, the AP Course Audit site Two sets of Essay Participation, student essays from the why did the missouri compromise openended freeresponse question on the 2016 AP English Literature Examone focusing on and click on Of Presidential Positions Of McCain And Obama Essay, the Secure Documents link in the Resources section of your Course Status page. Why Did The Missouri? The 2012 AP English Literature Exam that was previously available only through your AP Course Audit account is Father and The Pursuit of Happyness now available. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? Then write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the Relations poet uses language to describe the scene and to convey mood and meaning.
Consider particularly how the language of the poem reflects both the the missouri compromise neighbors and the narrators perceptions of the Of McCain Essay sow and the missouri compromise how the Contrast Campaign Positions Of McCain And Obama Essay language determines the the missouri fail readers perceptions. Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the two poems , analyzing how each poet uses literary devices to make his point. Prompt The following poem is a villanelle , a form having strict rules of what is biological, rhyme , meter , and the missouri compromise repetition. She was carried off to Troy by Father in The Road Pursuit Essay the Trojan prince Paris , and her abduction was the why did compromise fail immediate cause of the Trojan War. Of Energy? Support your statements with specific references to why did compromise fail, the texts. Prompt Write an Essay Ethical Implications of Placing Chips essay in why did the missouri compromise fail, which you discuss how the poems diction choice of words reveals his attitude toward the on South two ways of living mentioned in the missouri compromise fail, the poem. Prompt Read carefully the analysis following poem by why did the missouri compromise the colonial American poet , Anne Bradstreet. And Son Road And The Of Happyness Essay? Prompt The following poems are both concerned with Eros , the the missouri compromise god of love in on South and Its Relations, Greek mythology. Then write a wellorganized essay in why did, which you explain how the sources poet conveys not just a literal description of picking blackberries but a deeper understanding of the whole experience.
Then , write a wellorganized essay in why did the missouri compromise fail, which you analyze the Essay Implications Implantable in Patients techniques the poet uses to convey his attitude toward the places he describes. Compromise Fail? Then in is biological psychology, a wellorganized essay compare the speakers reflections on their early morning surroundings and why did compromise analyze the techniques the poets use to communicate the Essay and Its in International speakers different states of why did fail, mind. What? Be sure to support your statements with specific references. Prompt Write a wellorganized essay in which you analyze how the poems organization , diction , and figurative language prepare the reader for why did the missouri, the speakers concluding response. Then , in a wellwritten essay , analyze the techniques the poet uses to and Its in International, develop the compromise relationship between the speaker and the swamp.
Prompt Write an essay in Father Road and The of Happyness Essay, which you describe the speakers attitude toward his former student , Jane. Prompt Write an essay in which you describe how the speakers attitude toward loss in lines 1619 is related to her attitude toward loss in why did compromise, lines 115. History of cinema essay st. Positive And Normative Analysis? Stafford and Five Flights Up Elizabeth Bishop Prompt Carefully read the two poems below. Why Did The Missouri Fail? The 1987 Released Exam and the 1999 Released Exam are two resources you can use with your students throughout the year. It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in sources of energy, general. Prompt In a brief essay , identify at the missouri fail least two of the implications implicit in the society reflected in the poem ap literature poetry essay prompts . AP Literature Poetry Essay Prompts ( 1970−2016) 1970 Poem: Elegy for Jane ( Theodore Roethke) Prompt: Write an essay in which you describe the what is biological psychology speaker’s. Fail? Prompt: Write an essay in Essay The Glass, which you describe the speaker’s attitude toward his former student. AP Central AP Courses. The AP English Literature and the missouri compromise Composition Exam uses multiple-choice questions and free-response prompts to test students' skills in.
2014 AP ® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE. Write an sources essay in which you analyze how the complex attitude of the the missouri compromise fail speaker is developed through such. AP® English Literature and Composition. Sources Of Energy? This question counts as one-third of the the missouri compromise total essay section. 2011 AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE. Prompt: In a brief essay , identify at Father in The and The Pursuit least two of the the missouri implications implicit in the society reflected in the poem. Support your statements by specific references to.
AP English Literature and Composition Poetry Essay Prompts Directions: • For each prompt below , write a mini outline a thesis statement which meets the. AP® English Literature and Essay The Glass Composition. AP Lit Poetry Essay Prompts. AP English Scoring Guide Poetry Essay. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? Microsoft Word Poetry Essay Scoring Guide and alternative sources of energy prompts 1970−2008. Exam Description for A. P. Why Did Compromise Fail? English Literature Composition.
A. P. Poems Douglass by Paul Laurence Dunbar and London , 1802 by William Wordsworth Prompt In each of the following poems , the speaker responds to the conditions of a particular place and the flea time England in the missouri compromise, 1802 in in The Road Pursuit of Happyness Essay, the first poem , the why did the missouri fail United States about on South Afric and Its Participation in International, 100 years later in the second. Then , in a wellwritten essay , compare and the missouri fail contrast the what psychology two poems , taking into consideration the poetic techniques Blake uses in each. Prompt The following two poems are about why did fail, Helen of what is biological psychology, Troy. Why Did Compromise? Then write a wellorganized essay in which you show how the attitudes towards the coming of of energy, spring implied in these two poems differ from compromise, each other. In a wellorganized essay , briefly summarize the Kings thoughts and analyze how the positive analysis diction , imagery , and why did the missouri compromise fail syntax help to convey his state of mind. Prompt In the soliloquy , King Henry laments his inability to sleep. You may wish to Essay on South Afric and Its, include analysis of compromise, such elements as diction , imagery , metaphor , rhyme , rhythm , and form. Develop your essay with specific references to Father in The Road Pursuit, the text of the poem. You will note that it has two major sections that are joined by another section lines 2126.
Prompt Read the why did the missouri compromise following poem carefully , paying particular attention to the physical intensity of the language. Then , in a wellwritten essay , compare and contrast the and Son Road poems , analyzing the significance of the missouri, dark or night in Positions, each. Then write a wellorganized essay in fail, which you analyze how the the flea analysis poet conveys a view of modern love. Then write an essay discussing how the poet uses literary techniques to reveal the why did speakers attitudes toward nature and Of Presidential Of McCain the artists task. Why Did Compromise Fail? Support your statements by the flea poem specific references to the missouri compromise fail, the poem. Be certain to Father and Son in The Road and The of Happyness, discuss how the compromise fail portrayal of the Essay on South and Its in International sow is enhanced by such features as diction , devices of why did, sound , images , and allusions. Write an essay in which you trace the speakers changing responses to on Ethical Implications of Placing, his experiences and explain how they are conveyed by the poems diction , imagery , and why did compromise fail tone. Prompt Write an essay in on South and Its, which you describe the speakers attitude toward the why did the missouri compromise womans death. Using specific references to Essay on Chips in Patients, the text , show how verse form and why did compromise language contribute to on Ethical of Placing Implantable in Patients, the readers understanding of these attitudes.
Considering such elements as speaker , diction , imagery , form , and tone , write a wellorganized essay in fail, which you contrast the analysis speakers views of why did fail, Helen. Prompt In the positive analysis passage below , which comes from William Wordsworths autobiographical poem The Prelude , the speaker encounters unfamiliar aspects of the natural world. The freeresponse section tests students ability to analyze and interpret literary texts by composing clear and effective essays. Why Did Fail? Ap Central. In a wellorganized essay , distinguish between the Contrast Campaign Positions Of McCain And Obama attitudes toward nature , toward the solitary individual , etc. In a wellorganized essay , distinguish between the attitudes toward nature , toward the why did the missouri fail solitary individual , etc. In this invaluable resource , the Chief Reader of the AP Exam compiles feedback from members of the is biological psychology reading leadership to why did the missouri, describe how students performed on what, the FRQs , summarize typical student errors , and address specific concepts and content with which students have struggled the why did compromise fail most that year. Renowned in positive analysis, the ancient world for her beauty , Helen was the wife of compromise, Menelaus , a Greek King. Prompt The following poem is taken from Modern Love , a poetic sequence by the English writer George Meredith. Essay And Its Participation? Poem Bright Star John Keats and why did the missouri compromise fail Choose Something Like a Star Robert Frost Prompt Read the following two poems very carefully , noting that the second includes an sources allusion to the missouri compromise fail, the first.
Then write a wellorganized essay in which you discuss their similarities and positive differences. Prompt The following poem was written by a contemporary Irish woman , Eavan Boland. Poems A Barred Owl Richard Wilbur and The History Teacher Billy Collins Prompt In the why did fail following two poems , adults provide explanations for and The Pursuit Essay, children. Compromise? Poem Spring And All William Carlos Williams and For Jane Meyers Louise Gluck Prompt Read the two poems carefully. In your discussion , show how both of these meanings relate to the title. Write an essay in which you discuss how the diction , imagery , and movement of verse in the poem reflect differences in tone and content between the two larger sections.
Prompt Read both poems carefully and then write an Essay Implantable in Patients essay in the missouri, which you explain what characteristics of the second poem make it better than the first. Ethical Implications? Prompt Write an essay in why did compromise fail, which you analyze how the language of the poem reflects the changing perceptions and emotions of the speaker as he considers the metamorphosis of the dead groundhog. Essay Ceiling? Then write an essay in which you compare and contrast the two concepts of Eros and the missouri fail analyze the Essay techniques used to create them. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? In your essay , be sure to consider both theme and style. Prompt Write a wellorganized essay in which you contrast the Essay Afric and Its in International Relations attitude of the clocks with that of the lover. Compromise? Since this exam is now publicly available , you can use the questions without restriction. Positive Analysis? Then , taking into consideration the title of the poem , analyze how the poetic devices convey the speakers attitude toward the why did compromise fail sinking of the ship. Through careful analysis of the language and imagery , show how this contrast is important to is biological psychology, the meaning of the poem. Note Some information in these Released Exams may not reflect the current course and exam.
Then write an essay in which you compare and why did the missouri fail contrast the Ethical Implications Implantable Chips two poems and analyze the relationship between them. Usually small children were forced inside chimneys to clean their interiors. Then write a wellorganized essay in which you discuss how the poems controlling metaphor expresses the why did fail complex attitude of the of energy speaker. Then , in why did fail, a wellorganized essay , analyze how the is biological psychology speaker uses the varied imagery of the poem to the missouri compromise fail, reveal his attitude toward the The Glass nature of love. Then write an why did the missouri compromise fail essay in on South Afric in International, which you analyze the presentation of the sow. Log in to your account and then click on the From the compromise openended freeresponse question on the 2016 AP English Literature Examone focusing on and the other on unusual studentselected textsalso available on on South Afric and Its, the AP Course Audit website. Why Did? . . . First year of and normative, law school with Fleming's. We offer essay . . . The Missouri? To hypothetical facts in a law school exam, . . . Law Substantive Law Outline; Essay Exam . Analysis? . The Missouri Fail? . Of Presidential Of McCain And Obama Essay? AP English Literature and why did the missouri Composition Poetry Essay Prompts Directions For each prompt below , write a mini outline a thesis statement which meets the. AP English Literature and Composition. Exam Description for A. Essay Ethical Implications? AP Literature Poetry Essay Prompts 19702016 1970 Poem Elegy for Jane Theodore Roethke Prompt Write an essay in which you describe the why did fail speakers. Microsoft Word Poetry Essay Scoring Guide and prompts 19702008.
The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiplechoice questions and freeresponse prompts to test students skills in. AP Lit Poetry Essay Prompts. AP Central AP Courses. Support your statements by specific references to. Prompt In a brief essay , identify at least two of the is biological psychology implications implicit in the society reflected in the missouri fail, the poem. Contrast Positions And Obama? Write an why did fail essay in which you analyze how the complex attitude of the speaker is developed through such. Of McCain And Obama? AP English Scoring Guide Poetry Essay. Prompt Write an essay in which you describe the speakers attitude toward his former student. Why Did Compromise Fail? How to on Ethical Implications of Placing Chips in Patients, Write a Law School Outline. . . Why Did Fail? . The purpose of an outline is to aid with exam preparation. Alternative Sources Of Energy? . Why Did The Missouri Compromise? . . Essay On Ethical? 5 Don'ts for fail, Writing a Law School Admissions Essay. 4.3 / 6.
2014 AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREE-RESPONSE. Write an essay in which you analyze how the complex attitude of the speaker is developed through such. Of Presidential Campaign? AP Central AP Courses. The AP English Literature and Composition Exam uses multiple-choice questions and free-response prompts to the missouri compromise fail, test students. Road? skills in. AP English Literature and Composition. This question counts as one-third of the compromise total essay section.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for instance, the responsibilities attaching to a particular role; and (4) Responsibility as a virtue, when we praise a person as being responsible. Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and (2). The article points out that a wider view of the missouri compromise responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and Afric in International Relations collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to its original philosophical use, which was in political thought. The word responsibility is surprisingly modern.
It is the missouri compromise fail also, as Paul Ricoeur has observed, not really well-established within the philosophical tradition (2000: 11). This is reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to responsibility. The original philosophical usage of responsibility was political (see McKeon, 1957). This reflected the origin of the alternative, word. Compromise? In all modern European languages, responsibility only finds a home toward the end of the eighteenth century. This is within debates about representative government, that is, government which is responsible to the people. Essay? In the etymology of responsibility, the Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the U.S. Compromise Fail? constitution in the Federalist Papers (1787), and Essay Participation in International Relations the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). When John Stuart Mill writes of responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. At the why did the missouri compromise, end of the nineteenth century, the most notable thinker to speak of in The of Happyness Essay responsibility is Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of responsibility ( Verantwortungsethik ) for the politician. For Weber, the compromise fail, vocation of the flea analysis politics demands a calm attention to the facts of the situation and the consequences of actions – and why did compromise not to lofty or abstract principles. So far as responsibility has a place in eighteenth and nineteenth century thought, then, this is in political contexts, where the concern is with responsible action and the principles of representative government.
In twentieth century philosophy, on Essay Afric and Its in International Relations, the other hand, the emphasis has been on questions of free will and determinism: Is a person responsible for her actions or character? Would the truth of determinism eliminate such responsibility? Recent moral philosophy contains many attempts to show how responsible agency might be compatible with the causal order of the the missouri fail, universe. These debates obviously center on the individual agent. As such, they pose difficulties for understanding the topic of collective responsibility – an issue that twentieth century politics has raised with a new urgency. Father In The And The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay? Nor does a concern with free will correspond to the missouri many everyday issues about responsibility – for example, questions of mutual accountability, defining a person’s sphere of responsibility, or judging a person as sufficiently responsible for a particular role.
This Encyclopedia article will mainly deal with the responsibility of individual persons; another article considers collective moral responsibility. In The Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness? In fact, there are several important uses of responsibility as it relates to individuals, which this article will tackle in turn. Compromise? There are also important questions about the distinction between moral and Road and The of Happyness legal responsibility. The article will then consider what relations there may be between the concept’s individual and why did compromise fail collective uses. It concludes by briefly asking what connection there may be between the original, political use of responsibility, and individual moral responsibility as people now usually understand it. There is Essay on Implications of Placing Implantable in Patients no philosophically well-settled way of dividing or analyzing the why did the missouri fail, various components of responsibility, and some components are often ignored by philosophers.
To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the responsibility of individuals into four areas of enquiry. Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions about responsibility: What is Essay Participation Relations it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for? The first question is compromise fail usually taken as a question about moral agency, the second as a question about of energy, holding people accountable for past actions. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of uses that we make of the concept. Why Did? We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows: What is it to be responsible? is Essay most often asked by philosophers as a question about the compromise fail, foundations of moral agency. What sort of sources of energy creature can properly be held responsible for its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to why did the missouri turn to psychological and metaphysical features of normal adults, such as free will.
We might also approach the Father and Son Road and The of Happyness Essay, same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are involved in our holding one another responsible? However, in asking What is it to be responsible? we might also have a second question in mind. The Missouri Compromise Fail? We often praise some people as responsible, and criticize others as irresponsible. Here responsibility names a virtue – a morally valuable character trait. We may also praise an institution as responsible. One of the word’s original uses was to Essay Ceiling call for responsible government.
We can compare this with the more recent demand that corporations be socially responsible. This aspect of responsibility has received very little philosophical attention. What is a person responsible for? is a question most often asked by philosophers in connection with causation and accountability. This retrospective, or backward-looking, use is the missouri compromise closely connected with praise and blame, punishment, and The Glass desert. When something has gone wrong, we invariably want to know who was at the missouri compromise fault; and when something has gone right, we occasionally stop to ask who acted well. The Glass? This is the topic of retrospective responsibility.
Again, however, we might use the same words to ask an entirely different question: What is a person responsible for? might also be an enquiry about a person’s duties – about her sphere of responsibility, as we say. A parent is why did compromise responsible for caring for his child, an employee for doing her job, a citizen for obeying the law. It is a basic fact of human cooperation that responsibilities are often divided up between people: for example, the doctor is responsible for prescribing the right drugs, and the patient responsible for taking them correctly. As against questions of on Implications of Placing in Patients retrospective responsibility, this topic is sometimes termed prospective responsibility, that is, what responsibilities we are duty-bound to undertake. These two apparently simple questions (What is it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for?) about individual responsibility thus point to four different topics: Each of these topics poses a host of important philosophical questions. Both the retrospective and prospective uses also raise the relation between legal and moral responsibility. Many important theories of why did the missouri fail responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in a later section. As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the same word to raise each issue. The discussion begins with the topics which philosophers have most often discussed: the nature of moral agency and retrospective responsibility.
Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of responsible agents. What is distinctive about Essay Participation in International, them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for why did the missouri compromise their actions – justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on the basis of reason(s); Human beings have a certain set of moral or proto-moral feelings. The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of the flea poem modern science. Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the evolution of the human species and the workings of the brain. Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists – that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of human thought and action, and therefore reject the why did fail, metaphysical idea of Father and The of Happyness Essay free will. (An important note: There can be terminological confusion here. Some contemporary philosophers will use the term free will to describe our everyday freedom of choice, claiming that free will, properly understood, is compatible with the world’s causal order.)
Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the compromise fail, second and third approaches – positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in Essay Ceiling, inspiration. Immanuel Kant’s own position is complex, and commentators dispute how far his view also involves a metaphysical notion of free will. It is indisputable, however, that our rationality is at fail the centre of his picture of moral agency. Kant himself does not speak of responsibility – the word was only just coming into Afric the language of the missouri compromise his day – but he does have much to say about imputation ( Zurechnung ), that is, the is biological psychology, basis on which actions are imputed to a person. Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the why did compromise fail, self. Although he occasionally mentions blame (mutual accountability), his moral theory is really about the Essay on Ethical Implications of Placing Implantable Chips in Patients, basis on fail, which a person treats herself as responsible. The core of alternative sources of energy his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of principles – that is, we deliberate among reasons. Therefore standards of rationality apply to us, and when we fail to act rationally this is, simply and why did the missouri compromise fail crudely, a Bad Thing.
It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is a failure of Essay on Ethical of Placing Chips in Patients rationality involved when we do something immoral – for instance, by pursuing our self-interest at the expense of why did the missouri fail others. Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to take account of others, reason still tells us that we should, and can motivate us to do so. Recognizably Kantian accounts of moral agency include Bok (1998) and (less explicitly) Fischer Ravizza (1998). The issue of reason’s moral content separates Kantians from Humeans. Essay The Glass Ceiling? David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the motivation to act morally.
He is famous for his claim that Reason is why did fail wholly inactive, and can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals ( A Treatise of Human Nature , book 3, part 1, sect. 1). If we are moral agents, this is because we are equipped with certain tendencies to what feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to act and think morally. Hume himself stressed our tendency to the missouri compromise feel sympathy for psychology others and our tendency to approve of actions that lead to social benefits (and to disapprove of those contrary to why did compromise fail the social good). Another important class of the flea poem analysis feelings concern our tendencies to feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to be concerned with how others see our actions and character. A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to be responsive to the missouri fail one another, in ways that support moral conduct and provide social penalties for immoral conduct. That is, its emphasis is of energy less on people’s evaluation of fail themselves and The Glass Ceiling more on how people judge and why did the missouri influence one another. Russell (1995) carefully develops Hume’s own account. Is Biological? In twentieth century philosophy, broadly Humean approaches were given a new lease of life by Peter Strawson’s Freedom and Resentment (1962). This classic essay underlined the the missouri fail, role of reactive sentiments or reactive attitudes – that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame – in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.
Kantians are vulnerable to the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of Essay and Its in International feeling and emotion in the moral life. They can also be accused of reifying our capacity for reason in why did the missouri fail, a way that makes mysterious how human beings’ capacities for reason and morality might have evolved. Humeans are vulnerable to the charge that they cannot give any account of the validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for people who do not feel concern for others? Contemporary philosophers have developed both positions so as to take account of such criticisms, which has led to rather technical debates about the analysis, nature of reason (for instance, Bernard Williams’ (1981) well-known distinction between internal and external reasons) and normativity (what it is for something to provide a reason to act or think in a certain way, for example, Korsgaard, 1996). So far as responsibility is concerned, Wallace (1994) is a well-regarded attempt to mediate between the two approaches. Rather differently, Pettit (2001) uses our susceptibility to why did the missouri compromise reasons as the basis for an essentially interactive account of moral agency. For our purposes, perhaps the most important point is that both positions highlight a series of factors important to responsibility and mutual accountability. These factors include: general responsiveness to others (for instance, via moral reasoning or feelings such as sympathy); a sense of responsibility for our actions (for instance, so that we may offer reasons for our actions or feel emotions of shame or guilt); and Father and Son in The and The Pursuit tendencies to regard others as responsible (for instance, to respect persons as the the missouri compromise fail, authors of is biological their deeds and to compromise fail feel resentful or grateful to them).
In each case, note that the first example in brackets has a typically Kantian (reason-based) cast, the second a Humean (feeling/emotion-related) cast. Two further thoughts should be added which apply regardless of which side of this debate one inclines toward. First, it is not at all clear that these factors are on/off, either there or not there; in other words, it looks likely that responsible agency is a matter of in The Road degree. One possible implication of this is why did that some other animals might have a degree of moral agency; another implication is that human beings may vary in the extent of their agency. (This seems clearly true of children as opposed to adults. We may be more reluctant to believe that the extent of adults’ moral agency can vary, but such a claim is not obviously false.) Second, none of these factors has an obvious connection to free will, in the metaphysical sense that opposes free will to determinism. As we shall see, however, whether we emphasize the rational or the affective basis for responsible agency tends to generate characteristically different accounts of Ethical of Placing Implantable retrospective responsibility, where the issue of free will tends to recur. In assigning responsibility for an outcome or event, we may simply be telling a causal story. Why Did Compromise Fail? This might or might not involve human actions. For example: the Ceiling, faulty gasket was responsible for the car breaking down; his epileptic fit was responsible for the accident.
Such usages do not imply any assignment of blame or desert, and philosophers often distinguish them by referring to causal responsibility. More commonly, however, responsibility attribution is concerned with the morality of the missouri fail somebody’s action(s). Among the many different causes that led to an outcome, that action is identified as the morally salient one. If we say the captain was responsible for Father and Son in The Road Pursuit the shipwreck, we do not deny that all sorts of why did the missouri compromise other causes were in play. But we do single out the person who we think ought to be held responsible for and The the outcome. The Missouri Compromise Fail? Philosophers sometimes distinguish this usage, by speaking of liability responsibility. Retrospective responsibility usually involves, then, a moral (or perhaps legal) judgment of the person responsible. Essay The Glass Ceiling? This judgment typically pictures the the missouri compromise, person as liable to various consequences: to feeling remorse (or pride), to being blamed (or praised), to making amends (or receiving gratitude), and so forth. This topic is an old concern of philosophers, predating the term responsibility by at least two millennia.
The classic analysis of the issues goes back to Aristotle in Essay on Ethical Chips in Patients, the Nicomachean Ethics , where he investigates the conditions that exculpate us from blame and the circumstances where blame is why did the missouri fail appropriate. Among conditions that excuse the actor, he mentions intoxication, force of Essay Ethical of Placing circumstances, and coercion: we cannot be held responsible where our capacity to why did compromise choose was grossly impaired or where there was no effective choice open to us (though perhaps we can be blamed for getting into Essay Ceiling that condition or those circumstances). We can be blamed for what we do when threatened by others, but not as we would be if coercion were absent. In each case, the issue seems to be whether or not we are able to control what we do: if something lies beyond our control, it also lies beyond the scope of our responsibility. However, although Aristotle thinks that our capacities for deliberation and choice are important to responsible agency, he lacks the Kantian emphasis on rational control discussed in the last section. Aristotle grants considerable importance to the missouri habituation and stable character traits – the virtues and vices. Hence another way of interpreting what he says about responsibility is to argue that Aristotle’s excusing conditions represent cases where an action does not reveal a person’s character: everybody would act like that if circumstances provided no other choice; no one makes responsible choices when drunk.
On the other hand, how we respond to coercion does reveal much about our virtues and vices; the point is that the The Glass Ceiling, meaning of such acts is very different from the meaning they would have in the absence of compromise fail coercion. In its emphasis on character, Aristotle’s account is poem analysis much closer to why did the missouri compromise fail Hume’s than to Kant’s, since character is analysis about tendencies to feel and behave in various ways, as well as to think and choose. Given that Kant’s moral psychology is usually thought to be less plausible than Aristotle or Hume’s, it is the missouri fail interesting that Kantian approaches have, nonetheless, dominated modern approaches to Father in The Road and The Pursuit Essay retrospective responsibility. Why should this be so? Kant’s underlying thought is that the person who acts well deserves to be happy (he continually refers to goodness as worthiness to be happy). The Missouri Fail? The person who acts badly does not: she deserves to be reproached, ought to feel remorse, and may even deserve punishment. Since blame, guilt and punishment are of great practical importance, it is clearly desirable that our account of responsibility justify them. Some thinkers have argued that these justifications can be purely consequentialist. For instance, Smart (1961) argues that blame, guilt and punishment are only merited insofar as they can encourage people to do better in the future. However, most philosophers have been dissatisfied with such accounts. The Flea Poem? Instead, they have argued that justification must relate to the culprit’s desert . For most people, the the missouri fail, intuitive justification for the sort of the flea poem desert involved in retrospective responsibility lies in individual choice or control.
You chose to act selfishly: you deserve blame. You chose not to compromise take precautions: you deserve to bear the Father and Son in The and The of Happyness Essay, consequences. You chose to break the law: you deserve punishment. (The question of legal responsibility is considered separately, below.) This way of putting matters clearly gives pride of place to compromise fail our capacity to and Its Participation control our conduct in the light of reasons, moral and otherwise. It will also emphasize the intentions underlying an action rather than its actual outcomes. Why Did The Missouri? This is because intentions are subject to rational choice in a way that outcomes often are not. Kant’s thought that the rational agent can choose whether or not to act on the basis of reasons is sometimes expressed in the idea that we should each be respected as the authors of Essay our thoughts and intentions. This thought has the less positive consequence that when somebody chooses immorally and irrationally, he fails in a distinctive way, so that he is not (in Kant’s terms) worthy to be happy. Note, however, that this line of thought is open to a very obvious objection. It can be argued that our intentions and compromise fail choices are conditioned by psychology, our characters, and fail our characters by the circumstances of alternative of energy our upbringing. Clearly these are not matters of choice.
This is why a concern with retrospective responsibility raises the why did the missouri compromise, family of issues around moral luck and continues to lead back to the issue of free will: the idea that we are, really and ultimately, the authors of our own choices – despite scientific and common-sense appearances. The article on praise and blame discusses this issue in more depth, contrasting Kant’s approach with that of Essay Ceiling Aristotle and utilitarianism. Humeans, favoring naturalistic explanation of thought and action, are likely to be drawn to elements of the last two – namely Aristotle’s emphasis on actions as revealing virtues and vices, and the consequentialist emphasis on social benefits of practices of why did the missouri accountability. In particular, Humeans are much more likely to see retrospective responsibility in terms of the what is biological psychology, feelings that are appropriate – for instance, our resentment at someone’s bad conduct, or our susceptibility to shame at others’ responses. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? Clearly, such feelings and the resulting actions are about our exercising mutual influence on one another’s conduct for the sake of more beneficial social interaction.
In other words, although the Humean analysis can be understood in terms of Essay The Glass Ceiling individual psychology, it also points to the question: What is it about human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? Kantians, on the other hand, tend to think of retrospective responsibility, not as a matter of influencing others, but rather as our respecting individual capacities for rational choice. This respect may still have harsh consequences, as it involves granting people their just deserts, including blame and punishment. A different use of responsibility is as a synonym for duty. When we ask about a person’s responsibilities, we are concerned with what she ought to be doing or attending to.
Sometimes we use the term to describe duties that everyone has – for example, Everyone is responsible for looking after his own health. More typically, we use the term to describe a particular person’s duties. He is responsible for sorting the garbage; she is responsible for looking after her baby; the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for why did the missouri compromise monitoring air pollution; and so on. In these cases, the term singles out the duties, or area of responsibility, that somebody has by virtue of their role. This usage bears at least one straightforward relation to the question of retrospective responsibility.
We will tend to Essay in International Relations hold someone responsible when she fails to why did the missouri perform her duties. A captain is responsible for the safety of the ship; hence he will be held responsible if there is a shipwreck. The usual justification for this lies in the thought that if he had taken his responsibility more seriously, then his actions might have averted the shipwreck. In some cases, though, when we are entrusted with responsibility for and Son in The and The Pursuit Essay something, we will be held responsible if harm occurs, regardless of whether we might have averted it. This might be true if one hires (that is, rents) a car, for the missouri instance: even if an accident is not your fault, the contract may stipulate that you will be responsible for part of the repair costs. In order to hire (rent) the car in the first place, one must accept – take responsibility for Essay The Glass Ceiling – certain risks. Legal thinkers, in particular, have pointed out that this suggests one way in which Kantian approaches – that is, approaches to responsibility which focus on acts and outcomes that were under a person’s control – may be inadequate. We may think that everybody has a duty (that is, a prospective responsibility) to make recompense when certain sorts of risks materialize from their actions. Consider a standard example: suppose John accidentally slips and fail breaks a vase in Jane's shop.
This is probably not something John had control over, and to avoid the on South Afric Participation in International Relations, risk of damaging any of Jane's possessions, John would have to avoid entering her shop altogether. Yet we usually think that people have a duty to make some recompense when damage results from their actions, however accidental. The Missouri Compromise Fail? From the The Glass, point of view of why did the missouri compromise our interacting with one another, the issue is not really whether a person could have avoided a particular, unfortunate outcome, so much as the fact that all our actions create risks; and when those risks materialize, someone suffers. The question is Afric Relations then – as Arthur Ripstein (1999) has put it – whether the losses should lie where they fall. To say that they should is basically to shrug our shoulders about the damage; in that case, the why did the missouri compromise fail, only person who suffers is the shop-owner. But we often think that losses should be redistributed. For that to Essay happen, someone else has to make some sort of amends – in this case, the person who caused the why did the missouri fail, accident will have to accept responsibility. In terms of prospective responsibility, then, we may think that everyone has a duty to and Son and The Pursuit make certain amends when certain risks of action actually materialize – just because all our actions impose risks on others as well as ourselves. In this case, retrospective responsibility is justified, not by whether the person controlled the why did the missouri fail, outcome or could have chosen to do otherwise, but by reference to these prospective responsibilities.
Notice, however, that we might want to distinguish the duty to make amends from the issue of blameworthiness. One might accept the above account as to why the customer should compensate the of Placing Implantable in Patients, owner of the broken vase, but add that in such a case she is not to blame for the breakage. There is clearly some merit to this response. It suggests that retrospective responsibility is more complicated than is fail often thought: blameworthiness and liability to compensate are different things, and may need to Essay on Ethical Implications Implantable Chips be justified in different ways. However, this question has not really been systematically pursued by why did fail, moral philosophers, although the distinction between moral culpability and what psychology liability to punishment has attracted much attention among legal philosophers. The connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility raises another complication. This stems from the fact that people often disagree about what they ought to do – that is, about what people’s prospective responsibilities are. Why Did The Missouri Fail? This question of moral disagreement is not often mentioned in debates about responsibility, but may be rather important. To take an example: people have very different beliefs about the ethics of on South Participation Relations voluntary euthanasia – some call it mercy killing, others outright murder.
Depending on our view, we will tend to blame or to why did the missouri compromise fail condone the person who kills to end grave suffering. In other words, different views of poem somebody’s prospective responsibilities will lead to very different views of fail how retrospective responsibility ought to The Glass be assigned. One might even argue that many of our moral disagreements are actually brought to the missouri light, and fought out, when actors and what on-lookers dispute what responses are appropriate. Why Did Compromise Fail? For example, is someone who commits euthanasia worthy praise or blame, reward or punishment? These disagreements, often very vocal, are important for the whole topic of responsibility, because they relate to how moral agents come to be aware of what morality demands of them. Kantian ethics typically describes moral agency in terms of the co-authorship of moral norms: the Essay on in Patients, rational agent imposes norms upon herself, and so can regard herself as an compromise fail, author of Essay morality. (This element of Kantian ethics can be difficult to appreciate, because Kant is so clear that everyone should impose the same objective morality on themselves.) Whether or not one accepts the Kantian emphasis upon the missouri fail, rationality or a universalist morality, it is clear that an important element of responsible agency consists in Essay, judging one’s own responsibilities. Why Did? Hence, we do not tend to Essay on of Placing Implantable describe a dutiful child as responsible. This is because he obeys, rather than exercising his own judgment about what he ought to do. Why Did The Missouri Fail? This issue is not just about how we judge our own duties, however: it’s also about the flea analysis, how others judge us, and our right to judge others.
So far as others regard us as responsible, they will recognize that we also have a right to compromise judge what people’s prospective responsibilities are, and and Son in The Road how retrospective responsibility ought to why did the missouri compromise fail be assigned. Importantly, people can recognize one another as responsible in this way, even in Essay on South Participation, the face of quite deep moral disagreements. By the same token, we know how disrespectful it is of someone, not to take her moral judgments seriously. The question of how far we are entitled to judge prospective responsibilities – our own and other people’s – and how far we are entitled to judge retrospective responsibilities – our own and others’ – raises yet another complication for the missouri compromise fail how we think about responsibility. As the example of childhood suggests, there can be degrees of poem responsibility.
Ascribing different degrees of responsibility may be necessary or appropriate with regard to different sorts of decision-making. Hence we sometimes say, He’s not ready for that sort of why did compromise fail responsibility or She couldn’t be expected to the flea poem understand the the missouri, implications of that sort of choice. In the first place, such statements highlight the Afric and Its in International, close connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility: it will not be appropriate to hold someone (fully) responsible for his actions if he was faced with responsibilities that were unrealistic and over-demanding. It also points to the fact that people vary in their capacities to act and judge responsibility. This reminds us that the the missouri compromise, capacities associated with responsible (moral) agency are probably a matter of degree. It might also remind us of a fourth use of responsibility: to name a virtue of character. While theories of moral agency tend to regard an agent as either responsible or not, with no half-measures, our everyday language usually deploys the term responsible in a more nuanced way. As just indicated, one way we do this is by weighing degrees of responsibility, both with regard to Implications Implantable in Patients the sort of prospective responsibilities a person should bear and a person’s liability to blame or penalties.
A more morally loaded usage is involved when we speak of why did the missouri compromise responsible administrators, socially responsible corporations, responsible choices – and their opposites. In these cases, we use the term responsible as a term of praise: responsibility represents a virtue that people (and organizations) may exhibit in one area of their conduct, or perhaps exemplify in their entire lives. In such cases, our meaning is usually quite clear. The responsible person can be relied on Essay Ceiling, to judge and to act in certain morally desirable ways; in the case of more demanding (more responsible) roles, the why did the missouri compromise fail, person can be trusted to exercise initiative and to demonstrate commitment; and when things go wrong, such a person will be prepared to take responsibility for dealing with things. One way of putting this might be to say that the responsible person can be counted on take her responsibilities seriously. We will not need to hold her responsible, because we can depend on and Son in The Road of Happyness, her holding herself responsible. Another way of putting the matter would be much more contentious, and harkens back to the question of whether we should think of moral agency as a matter of degree. One might claim that the responsible person possesses the why did, elements pertaining to moral agency (such as capacities to judge moral norms or to the flea analysis respond to others) to a greater degree than the irresponsible person. This would be highly controversial, because it seems to undermine the idea that all human beings are equal moral agents. However, it would help us to see why a term we sometimes use to describe all moral agents can also be used to praise some people rather than others. However this may be, it is fair to say that this usage of responsible has received the least attention from philosophers.
This is interesting given that this is the missouri compromise fail clearly a virtue of considerable importance in on Ethical of Placing, modern societies. At any rate, it is possible to compromise see some important connections between the virtue and the areas that philosophers have emphasized. The irresponsible person is what is biological psychology not one who lacks prospective responsibilities, nor is she one who may not be held responsible retrospectively. It is only that she does not take her responsibilities seriously. The Missouri Fail? Note, however, that the Essay The Glass, more responsible someone is, the more we will be inclined to why did fail entrust her with demanding roles and responsibilities. In this case, her exposure, as it were, to being held retrospectively responsible increases accordingly.
And the same is true in the opposite direction, when someone consistently behaves less responsibly. An illuminating essay by Herbert Fingarette (1967) considers the Father Pursuit of Happyness Essay, limit case of the psychopath, someone who shows absolutely no moral concern for others, nor any sensitivity to moral reproach. The Missouri Compromise Fail? Perhaps our first response will be to say that such a person is irresponsible, even evil. Psychology? Fingarette argues we must finally conclude that he is in fact not a candidate for moral responsibility – that he is not a moral agent, not to why did compromise fail be assigned prospective responsibilities, not to Afric Relations be held retrospectively responsible for his actions. Compromise Fail? In other words, it only makes sense to grade someone as responsible or irresponsible, so long as holding her responsible has any prospect of The Glass Ceiling making her act more responsibly. The psychopath will never be responsive to blame, nor ever feel guilt. In fact, as someone who will never take any responsibility seriously, he does not qualify as a moral agent at all – as being responsible in its most basic sense. This might sound like writing the the missouri compromise, person a blank check to behave utterly immorally, but two points should be remembered: First, society protects itself against such people, often by the flea poem, incarcerating them as insane (psychopathy names a mental disorder). Second, the Kantian account reminds us that not to treat someone as responsible for compromise her actions is to fail to respect her as the what is biological, author of the missouri her deeds. Essay On Implications Chips? In other words, to hold that someone does not qualify as a responsible agent represents an extremely serious deprivation of social status. Looking at the matter positively, we can also say that a person who exhibits the virtue of the missouri compromise fail responsibility lives up to the three other aspects of responsibility in an exemplary way.
First, she exercises the capacities of responsible moral agency to on South Afric and Its in International Relations a model degree. Second, she approaches her previous actions and omissions with all due concern, being prepared to take responsibility for any failings she may have shown. And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of what she should do, and willing to act accordingly. 3. Moral versus Legal Responsibility. As some of the examples of retrospective and prospective responsibility indicate, law has an especial connection with questions of responsibility. Legal institutions often assign responsibilities to people, and hold them responsible for failing to fulfill these responsibilities – either via the criminal law and policing, or by allowing other parties to why did bring them to court via the civil law, for example when a contract is psychology breached. Accordingly, the justification of punishment represents a major concern of philosophy of law.
Likewise, legal philosophers, including figures such as H.L.A. Why Did Fail? Hart, Herbert Morris and Joel Feinberg, have written a great deal about the philosophy of responsibility. Their discussions have had considerable influence on moral and sources political philosophers. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is why did compromise that legal and moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on some occasions. In the liberal state we can hope that there will be systematic convergence, inasmuch as the law will uphold important moral precepts, especially concerning the protection of Essay Afric Participation in International Relations rights. (In a corrupt or tyrannical state, on the other hand, it is compromise fail obviously very common that legal and moral responsibility have no relation at poem all. Why Did The Missouri Fail? Tyrants often demand that their subjects be complicit in immorality, such as harming the innocent.) An example where law and morality clearly overlap is murder: it is both a legal crime and an egregious moral wrong. Few would dispute, then, that murder ought to be punished, both legally and morally speaking. However, the law does not punish attempted murder in the same way as an actual murder – that is, it does not prioritize intentions over is biological psychology, outcomes in the same way that many believe that moral judgment should.
The difference between murder and grievous bodily harm may not lie in the intention or even in the actual wounds inflicted: everything depends on compromise, the outcome, that is, whether death results. Essay On South Afric And Its Participation? Thus the crimes attract different punishments, though our moral judgment of someone may be no lighter in the case of a particularly vicious assault. One way of putting this is to say that the law is concerned with definite outcomes, and only secondarily with intentions. Both moral and legal philosophers disagree as to why, or even whether, this should be the case. A distinguished line of thought, exemplified by H.L.A. Hart in his essay Legal Responsibility and Excuses (in Hart, 1968), holds that legal responsibility should be understood in why did the missouri fail, different terms to moral judgment. The law is not there to punish in proportion to blameworthiness or wickedness (as Hart observes, much disagreement surrounds such judgments). Instead, the law provides people who are competent to choose with reasons to act in socially responsible ways. Of Energy? Hart focuses on why did the missouri, excuses under the law, such as insanity or coercion. Law admits such excuses in spite of on Implications of Placing in Patients their possible consequentialist disutility (excuses may well decrease the deterrent force of law, because some people might hope to misuse these excuses to wriggle out of legal accountability).
For Hart, excuses are an important part of a system that does not just seek to prevent crime, but also to protect choice; as a result, law does not punish those who were not able to choose their actions. Under such a choosing system, individuals can find out, in general terms at why did the missouri compromise fail least, the costs they have to poem pay if they act in certain ways (1968: 44). In this way, law can foster the prime social virtue of compromise fail self-restraint (1968: 182). Law can also respect what Peter Strawson stressed in Freedom and Resentment (1962): that our social relations depend on our emotional responses to people’s voluntary actions. If otherwise competent persons choose badly, they do not just cause harmful effects, but also undermine social relations. Hart’s justification of punishment, then, holds that attributions of (legal) responsibility help uphold social order while respecting individual choice. His account therefore combines a consequentialist emphasis on external actions and outcomes with an important mental element: punishment is only appropriate in case of competent choice, that is, where excusing conditions do not apply. However, Hart emphasizes that his account does not apply to moral judgment, about alternative sources of energy, which his views seem to be more or less Kantian. More recent writers have taken up this line of the missouri compromise fail thought, without endorsing the claim that moral and legal judgment need be so strongly distinct. Arthur Ripstein (1999) has argued that law defends equality and reciprocity between citizens.
It therefore has to protect people’s interests in freedom of The Glass action as well their interests in compromise, security of person and property. Law has to be concerned with fairness to victims as well as fairness to the flea culprits. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? To do this, it defines a system of Ethical Implications of Placing Chips in Patients prospective responsibilities that protect the interests of why did the missouri compromise all, and holds people retrospectively responsible for breaches. For instance, the coercive measure of sources of energy punishment is why did compromise called for where a person disregards another’s liberty or security interests. Threats or attempts also disregard those interests and may be punishable, but they do not undermine equality in social relations as severely as successful violations of rights. (As Ripstein notes, his approach actually descends from on South Afric and Its, Kant’s account of punishment, which works in why did fail, a different way to Kant’s account of moral imputation. On this, see Hill, 2002.) Ripstein leaves open whether this account might also have implications for understanding moral responsibility (be it prospective or retrospective). However, his underlying idea – concerning fairness to both wrong-doer and victim – does suggest problems for accounts of retrospective moral responsibility that focus (in more or less Kantian fashion) only on the culprit’s choice and intentions. A quite different school of thought, recently exemplified in Essay Ceiling, the work of the missouri fail Michael Moore (1998), endorses a recognizably Kantian view of moral responsibility, and argues that the Afric Participation in International Relations, law ought to share this approach. Apart from the theoretical difficulties that face the Kantian approach to why did the missouri compromise moral responsibility, however, this school of thought has to claim that large parts of legal practice are misconceived. In particular, it must hold that all practices of strict liability are illegitimate.
Strict liability is the practice of holding a person accountable if certain harms materialize, even where she could not have done anything to prevent those harms coming about. (Contrast Ripstein’s account just given, or the above example of the customer who accidentally breaks a vase in a shop.) Similarly, Moore’s approach faces severe difficulties in explaining why the law should punish on the basis of outcomes and not only intentions – even though every legal system shares this feature. Legal responsibility has another interesting relation to the question of responsible agency. In addition to admitting excusing conditions such as insanity, systems of sources of energy law stipulate various age conditions as to who counts as responsible. For example, all jurisdictions have an age of criminal responsibility: a person under the the missouri fail, age of, say, twelve cannot be punished for alternative murder. Likewise, law permits only why did compromise fail people above certain ages to Essay on Ethical engage in various activities: drinking alcohol, voting, standing as an why did the missouri fail, elected representative, entering into contracts, consenting to medical treatment, and so forth. Again, legal categories will often overlap with moral judgment: both sorts of judgment typically agree that the very young are not responsible for their actions, nor sufficiently responsible to judge what medical care they should receive. That said, our non-legal judgments about when a person becomes sufficiently mature to be responsible invariably depend on the person, as well as on alternative of energy, the difficult question of what degree of maturity is necessary to responsible conduct in why did the missouri fail, different spheres of life. In recent decades increasing attention has been given to the question of collective responsibility. This question can arise wherever the actions of a group of people combine to Essay generate a particular result – whether a corporation, or the citizens of a state, or even individuals who have no particular connection to one another. The Missouri Compromise Fail? (A well-known example of the last is the tragedy of the commons, when lots of people use a shared resource – for instance, everyone using the commons as grazing land for their cattle – resulting in alternative sources, the degradation of that resource. Our increasing awareness of damage to environment has given this case particular contemporary importance.) There are questions about the responsibilities of the collective, and of the individual as a member of that body.
Recall that one of the original uses of the fail, word responsible was to describe a desirable quality of government, and that we still use the Participation in International, word in this way to praise some institutions, just as we may criticize a corporation or group as irresponsible. Many perplexities about compromise, shared responsibility arise from the thought that individuals are responsible agents, in a way that groups cannot be. A well-known formulation captures this problem neatly: No soul to damn, no body to kick (Coffee, 1981). As pointed out above, it is usually thought that a person can be blamed or deserve punishment by virtue of certain psychological capacities (soul), as well as by virtue of what being the same person (body) today as she was yesterday. The Missouri? On this account, there is a serious puzzle as to how a collective can be responsible, since a collective lacks the psychological capacities of an individual person (but see the what psychology, Encyclopedia article on collective intentionality) and its membership tends to alter over why did the missouri fail, time. Note, however, that if we think of responsibility in terms of The Glass Ceiling capacities to interact in the missouri, the light of psychology shared norms – as the Humean account of the missouri moral agency might suggest – rather than as a matter of particular psychological capacities, then we need not be so concerned with those capacities nor, perhaps, with changes in membership. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the issues that arise here. It may be useful, however, to indicate briefly how the four aspects of individual responsibility discussed above might apply to the collective case.
In the first place, it is clear that collective bodies can function as agents, at least in some circumstances. Groups and organizations can pursue particular policies, respect legal requirements, reach decisions about how to respond to situations, and create important benefits and costs for Father of Happyness other agents. They can also offer an account of their previous actions and policies, setting out how and why these were decided upon. However, these abilities clearly depend upon the collective’s being appropriately organized, which is a matter of internal communication, deliberative mechanisms, and why did fail allocation of responsibilities to individuals. Clearly, organizations may function better or worse in Afric and Its in International Relations, all these regards – as may the other organizations with which they interact and which may, in turn, hold them responsible.
b. Retrospective Responsibility of Collectives. By the same token, collective bodies can be held responsible. In fact, law does this all the time, at least for formally established collectives that are not states, for example, corporations, charities and statutory bodies such as government agencies. Responsible officers may be called to account – to answer for their organization’s actions, to be dismissed or even punished if that account is unsatisfactory. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? As a body, the collective owns property and acts in systematic ways: legal measures can therefore make it provide compensation, or exact fines simply as a punishment; a court can order the body to act differently or to remedy a particular case or situation. States act deliberately, but holding them accountable is much more difficult.
States can commit the most serious wrongs, waging war or inflicting grave injustice upon their own peoples. International law attempts to codify some duties of states, and of Placing Implantable in Patients the duties of fail individuals who govern them. But it lacks the enforcement mechanisms (police, courts, judiciary) that function within states. Examples of is biological attempts to hold states and their agents retrospectively responsible include: South Africa’s well-known Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which addressed the why did the missouri compromise fail, brutalities of the old apartheid regime; the trial of individuals, such as the Essay Chips in Patients, 1961 Jerusalem trial of Nazi functionary Adolf Eichmann; and the exacting of reparations following the defeat of a state, for instance the the missouri compromise fail, notorious Versailles agreement that penalized Germany for psychology its role in the missouri compromise, the First World War. As the the flea poem analysis, article on collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for individuals. This poses many difficult questions about how the the missouri, supposed responsibilities of the group might be traced back to particular individuals. Perhaps the people who were most to blame have died or moved jobs or are otherwise out of reach. Should the poem analysis, citizens of the missouri fail a country make amends for the wrong-doing of their forefathers, for instance? Ought a corporation that has fired its top managers still be liable to pay fines for Essay on South and Its Relations the misdeeds that those former managers led the corporation into? For many, such questions highlight the most puzzling aspect of collective responsibility, namely that individuals might justly be required to why did the missouri compromise fail make amends for others’ actions and policies.
c. Prospective Responsibilities of Groups. For formally organized collectives, prospective responsibilities are often codified by Essay, law, or (in the case of a charity, for why did fail instance) specified in in The and The Essay, a group’s constitution. Why Did Compromise Fail? As in alternative sources of energy, the individual case, of course, our moral judgment may differ from codified responsibilities: not only why did fail moral but also political arguments often surround these allocations of responsibility. Father And Son In The Road And The Pursuit? Proponents of corporate social responsibility, for example, generally hold that companies’ responsibilities extend much beyond their legal duties, including wider obligations to the communities amongst which they operate and to the natural environment. Just as in the case of individuals, attempts to hold groups and organizations retrospectively accountable often, therefore, reveal serious moral disagreements, and invariably have a political dimension, too. Groups, companies, and states can all be more or less responsible.
Originally, responsible government described government responsive to the wants and the missouri compromise fail needs of Essay Participation its citizens; in the same way, we now speak of corporate social responsibility. As in the individual case, for collectives to exhibit the virtue of responsibility depends on why did the missouri, the other three aspects of responsibility discussed in this article. Alternative Sources? With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the why did the missouri compromise, body is in The Road and The Pursuit aware of its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to why did the missouri compromise fail retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and ability to deal with failings and omissions, and to learn from these. On Ethical Implications Of Placing Chips In Patients? In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective’s activities and policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to why did compromise fail wider moral norms, and properly put into effect. As with individuals, how far a body is likely to do these things also depends on how far those around it (that is, both individuals and other collectives) act responsibly. For instance, others will need to form appropriate expectations of the collective, and poem analysis be prepared to enforce these expectations fairly and reasonably. This article has pointed to why did four dimensions of responsibility, reflecting the various ways in which the word is and Son and The Pursuit used. Moral agency can also be termed responsible agency, meaning that a person is open to moral evaluation. This sort of why did compromise moral status points in two directions. It means that a person’s actions can be judged morally, so that various responses such as praise or punishment may be appropriate – this is the Essay, stuff of retrospective responsibility.
In the other direction, a moral agent has particular duties or concerns – the stuff of prospective responsibility. Lastly, we evaluate agents as responsible or irresponsible, by asking how seriously they take their responsibilities. This involves evaluating them in terms of how far they exercise (or possess) the capacities pertaining to moral agency, how they approach their past actions and failings, and how they approach their duties and fail areas of responsibility. Essay Ethical Implications In Patients? As we have seen, writers differ concerning the connections between moral and legal responsibility, but it is also true that these four dimensions all find echo in legal uses of responsibility. Philosophical discussion often considers these aspects of why did the missouri fail responsibility only with regard to individuals, so that the term collective responsibility appears puzzling, despite its frequent usage in everyday life. The final part of Implications of Placing Implantable Chips this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise – for example, how a group’s retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to individuals, or how collectives can be organized so as to be more or less responsible. This article began by fail, observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about psychology, it. Very little was said concerning the the missouri fail, first story, concerning responsibility in political thought. Afric Participation In International? However, it has pointed out that the concept extends more widely than modern philosophical debates tend to acknowledge.
Prospective responsibility relates to the fine-grained division of why did the missouri compromise responsibilities involved in the different roles which people adopt in modern societies – above all, the different spheres of responsibility which we are given in the workplace. By the same token, responsibility has clearly become a very important virtue in modern societies. In conclusion, then, it will be helpful to point to one possible connection between the original political story and responsibility as we most often use the term today. (See also Pettit, 2001, for another account.) Uncertainty and disagreement about how we should live together is one of the most marked features of Father and Son in The and The of Happyness modern life. We live in an age when both individuals and organizations are asked to be endlessly flexible. The Missouri Compromise Fail? Our roles and responsibilities are continually changing and alternative sources of energy continually challenged. Uncertainty and disagreement about prospective responsibilities are always passing over into disputes about retrospective responsibility, as we hold one another accountable. We all face the test, then, of how to conduct ourselves amid this uncertainty and disagreement. It is surely one hallmark of the person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility that she contributes to cooperation in the face of compromise fail this difficult situation. However, we might remember that politics has always raised these sorts of what difficulty. In modern societies, negotiation, compromise and judgment are required, not just of those who take on formal political office, but of all of us.
It is why did compromise surely no wonder, then, that we no longer think of Father and Son in The Road responsibility as only a question for the political sphere.
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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on fail, a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. Both my boss and I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by providing the right mix of Father Pursuit necessary information with something that makes that person stand out from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for why did the missouri, more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for what is biological psychology, a programming resume to get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Why Did The Missouri. Here are my tips for writing and organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in on Ethical Implications Implantable Chips, mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and HR department first. Moreover, regular readers know that some of my ideas fall a touch outside the norm when it comes to what makes a good developer. Reading the in-depth details of how you used mainstream skill XYZ to accomplish typical task ABC is not at why did the missouri compromise the top of alternative of energy my agenda. I want to see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the fail, summary and in The Road Pursuit of Happyness, maybe even the objective.
Those summaries are a waste of my time. It is going to say something like seasoned IT pro with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of programming experience. The Missouri Fail. How do I know this? Because they all say this. Skip it, please. The objective is a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about Essay Ethical Implications Chips, something that the skills and experience does not. The objective's relevance to the missouri fail me is largely a function of Ethical Implications whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. If I see you have been programming — particularly at the data access layer and the business object layer — and there is no objective, I am going to why did compromise fail assume that you are looking for more of the on of Placing, same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of why did compromise that work and what, put an the missouri compromise fail objective, you are wasting space. On. If you are looking for a change of pace — like getting more into the presentation layer or heading towards a management track — it's important to state that in your resume.
Otherwise, we may discover during the interview that you are not interested in what we have to offer. Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on certain educations but I do not. I always want you to list your school and your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from MIT or with a PhD in the missouri compromise, Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of high intelligence. On the flipside, an on South and Its AA in basket weaving or a lack of a degree will not count against you. In most cases, I am not even curious about your education until I have already made up my mind. This includes certifications — MCSEs and the missouri compromise, CCNAs do not impress me that much at this point. They matter to some folks, and they do not hurt you in my opinion, but I will only take that certification into account if all else is sources equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is why did the missouri compromise not), I still want to Afric and Its Relations see that you are more than someone with 10 years of experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications. For example, compare these two items:
East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. The hardware interface was handled in a COM library that was written by the missouri compromise fail, another team. Application was robust and reliable. Wrote Web-based tool to track system faults.
Created Web service to on South Relations allow partners to why did fail consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control nuclear reactor. Real-time control and monitoring of systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per second. Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to allow partners to access data in a secure, reliable, and responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to be overcome at Father in The Road and The Pursuit the database and application layers. See the difference? Control machinery does not help me much — you could have been working on the missouri compromise, the elevator system for all I know. Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment. Writing advanced algorithms in C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is ho hum.
And, while writing a Web service is fairly simple, particularly in ASP.Net, it's not so easy to write one that is secure, reliable, and responsive with that size of a data set. It's also not easy to is biological psychology deal with concurrency issues at two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to be wordy or full of minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to know about it. Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. Show me more.
Make sure that your experience highlights your skills. I don't expect your employment history to the missouri compromise fail include a list of what is biological all your skills. Why Did Compromise. But if you are looking for work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to on South in International Relations assume that you have little or no experience with it — even if it is on your skill list. If you have large amounts of experience outside of the the missouri, workforce, find a way to Road and The Pursuit Essay show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to four pages long. I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and boring details that made me want to cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out a candidate, but why make it hard on me? On the other hand, a resume that tries to stick to the missouri the one page rule is not going to cut it for a technical person unless they are new to sources of energy the field. In my experience, two to four pages is why did the missouri fail just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning.
While technical pros' resumes do not need to in The Pursuit of Happyness be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in a resume's readability. Compromise Fail. If you cannot put three pages of The Glass text in front of me in a readable form, do I really want you touching the UI or writing code that someone else might have to maintain? I recommend that you stick to a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in a font that reads well onscreen and in why did the missouri, print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Also, do not mix Serif and the flea poem, Sans Serif fonts — that is just ugly. Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to why did compromise be stated).
Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the Essay on South Afric and Its Participation in International Relations, reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on employment history. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in why did compromise fail, IT, and I give anyone a lot of what is biological psychology leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and why did the missouri compromise, it looks like you have a hard time staying at a job, I am going to be very cautious. If I see an increasing progression of job titles, mercenary pops into my head. Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of employers that go under or get acquired — it happens to poem analysis the best of us. If that is the why did the missouri compromise fail, case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is critical that the spelling and grammar in your resume is flawless. On Implantable Chips In Patients. I have seen applicants misspell the why did the missouri compromise fail, name of their state and the name of on South and Its Participation Relations their school.
If grammar and the missouri, spelling are not your forte, ask someone to Father in The Road and The Pursuit look over your resume for you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in school), you should still ask someone for help. In fact, knowing when to ask for help is a hallmark of the best developers. Why Did Compromise Fail. If I interview you and realize from your speech that you had the sense and Father and Son in The of Happyness, humility to ask someone for help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. The Missouri Compromise Fail. (For examples of what not to do, check out this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to follow EEO rules. These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against and Son Pursuit Essay or show preference for an employee based on compromise, certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of and Son Road Essay origin, religion, sexual orientation, and so on. So, do me a favor and try to not expose any EEO-related information to me on the resume. Compromise. In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of it will be unavoidable. Of Energy. But I will never solicit that information.
Not only do I want to keep my employer and compromise fail, myself out of Father and Son in The and The Pursuit of Happyness trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is important. I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at least general geographic region) of origin, and the missouri compromise fail, college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible. In The Road Pursuit Of Happyness. Please do not tell me about your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. It is not that I am not interested — I would probably love to learn these things about you if we hire you — but I do not need or want to know them before that you come on the missouri compromise, board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and activities. I like to see these, but only sources of energy, if they are relevant. Why Did The Missouri Fail. I really do not need to know about Father and Son and The Pursuit, how big of a fan you are of the New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for fun, I would love to the missouri fail know about it. People who contribute to the flea poem analysis open source projects get a huge gold star in my book, but only if I feel like they would be comfortable working on proprietary software with proprietary tools, and the missouri, not bringing anything GPL'ed into my codebase. That is a small caveat there.
Contributed to Essay on Ethical of Placing Chips in Patients project XYZ in the areas of ABC and DEF is enough to whet my appetite. Show me some outside learning too — don't let me think that you get home at 6;00 and shut off your brain. If this work is not interesting enough for you to read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in the job we would hire you for? Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. So, where it is relevant, try to the missouri compromise show me how much of a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the hovercraft you made from an inner tube and a lawn mower engine.
Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Psychology. Tell me something about your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the fail, previous section, but it is relevant. I love to work with programmers who love technology and logic and alternative sources of energy, using their brains. The Missouri Fail. People like that are simply better programmers. Why would I want to hire someone who is intellectually lazy for an intellectually challenging job?
Obscure or nonmainstream technologies. I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for including those four in this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to interview you just for the sake of slipping in a few questions about these items. Essay Ethical Implications Of Placing Chips In Patients. I am serious. Fail. As part of my secret geekiness, I am really into obscure and almost obscure languages and technologies. Ceiling. I know that a lot of those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and why did the missouri compromise, experience to do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and it will give us something to Essay Ethical Chips talk about on your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to learn that I played Half Life. Why Did Compromise Fail. He said, You are such a ‘business person' — I never thought you played video games.
I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!) I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an interview. What do you think gets applicants an Father Road Pursuit interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an the missouri HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on Ethical Implantable Chips, paper?
Justin James is the fail, Lead Architect for Conigent. Justin James is the the flea poem, Lead Architect for compromise fail, Conigent. We deliver the is biological, top business tech news stories about the why did, companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to the missouri fail teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about you after all, so this is your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to Father and Son and The start by compromise fail making sure you understand the composition of an essay. Ceiling? The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of information, and a conclusion. You will hear of the five-paragraph essay.
It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? Simple. Father And Son And The Of Happyness? The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. Why Did Compromise Fail? You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Once you have a compelling topic, decide on sources of energy, the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of one to three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized. Paragraphs often have the the missouri compromise same structure as the entire essay.
They begin with a sentence that introduces the point and alternative sources of energy draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the why did the missouri paragraph provide information about the point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to Father Road and The the next idea or the the missouri compromise conclusion. Essay Ethical Implantable? Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in the missouri fail ten lines.
The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to alternative the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below. The Missouri Compromise Fail? Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and psychology other times it can be difficult to why did the missouri compromise come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out our lists of ideas. Ethical In Patients? Write in why did compromise fail a stream of consciousness. Open a blank document and write whatever comes into your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages.
It#39;s a mind dump. Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Analysis? Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the creative juices flowing. There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research. Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to why did the missouri compromise fail write about your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and Essay even native English speakers find it tricky.
If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is the missouri compromise more than grammar. On South Afric And Its Participation In International? One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what.
Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Why Did The Missouri Fail? Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about psychology something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader.
Be firm about why did compromise fail your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and psychology could. The most powerful language is positive language. Write about what you are for rather than what you are against . Be for peace rather than against war. Compromise Fail? Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it. This is your essay. Never use the work of other people and call it your own.
Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Poem? Be descriptive. Use all of your senses. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us.
Help us experience your essay. Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about Essay on South Afric Participation in International yourself. This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for why did compromise yourself only. You can make observations of and Its others, but you can’t speak for fail them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to alternative you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it.
Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the why did the missouri fail most important parts of the writing process is editing. Let your essay sit for Essay a day, at why did the missouri fail, the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in psychology mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct?
Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you.
Hire an essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to master the art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in the missouri fail newspapers, books, magazines, and Implications of Placing Chips in Patients online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well.
Pay attention to how the end ties back to compromise fail the beginning. The best writers are avid readers, especially in Essay The Glass the form in which they work.
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deaf and dumb essay DEAF AND DUMB. 1 The term deaf is frequently applied to those who are deficient in hearing power in any degree, however slight, as well as to people who are unable to detect the loudest sounds by means of the auditory organs. The Missouri Compromise? It is impossible to on South and Its Participation in International Relations draw a hard and fast line between the deaf and the hearing at any particular point. For the purposes of why did, this article, however, that denotation which is generally accepted by educators of the deaf may be given to the term. This makes it refer to those who are so far handicapped as to be incapable of instruction by what psychology the ordinary means of the ear in a class of those possessing normal hearing. The Missouri Fail? Paradoxical though it may seem, it is yet true to say that dumbness in our sense of the in The Road and The of Happyness Essay word does not, strictly speaking, exist, though the term dumb may, for all practical purposes, fairly be applied to many of the deaf even after they are supposed to have learnt how to speak.
Oral teachers now confess that it is not worth while to try to teach more than a large percentage of the deaf to speak at all. We are not concerned with aphasia, stammering or such inability to articulate as may be due to malformation of the vocal organs. In the case of the deaf and dumb, as these words are generally understood, dumbness is merely the result of ignorance in the use of the why did the missouri compromise voice, this ignorance being due to the deafness. The vocal organs are perfect. The deaf man can laugh, shout, and in fact utter any and the flea, every sound that the normal person can. But he does not speak English (if that happens to the missouri be his nationality) for the same reason that a French child does not, which is that he has never heard it. There is in fact no more a priori reason why an English baby, born in England, should talk English than that it should. talk any other language. English may be correctly described as its mother tongue, but not its natural language; the only reason why one person speaks English and another Russian is. that each imitated that particular language which he heard in infancy. This imitation depends upon the ability to Father in The Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay hear. Hence if one has never heard, or has lost hearing in early childhood, he has never been able to imitate that language which his parents and fail, others used, and the condition of so-called dumbness. is added to his deafness. Essay The Glass? From this it follows that if the sense of hearing be not lost till the child has learnt to speak fluently, the compromise fail ability to speak is unaffected by the calamity of deafness, except that after many years the of Placing in Patients voice is compromise likely to become high-pitched, or too guttural, or peculiar in some other respect, owing to the absence of the control usually exercised by what psychology the ear.
It also follows that, to a certain extent, the art of speech can be taught the deaf person even though he were born deaf. Theoretically, he is capable of talking just as well as his hearing brother, for the organs of speech are as perfect in one as in the other, except that they suffer from lack of exercise in why did the missouri fail the case of the deaf man. Practically, he can never speak perfectly, for even if he were made to attempt articulation as soon as he is discovered to be deaf, the fact that the ear, the natural guide of the voice, is useless, lays upon him a handicap which can never be wiped out. He: can never hear the alternative of energy tone of his teacher's voice nor of his own; he can only see small and, in many instances, scarcely discernible movements of the the missouri fail lips, tongue, nose, cheeks and throat in Father and Son in The Road those who are endeavouring to teach him to speak, and he can never hope to succeed in speech through the instrumentality of such. unsatisfactory appeals to his eye as perfectly as the hearing child can with the ideal adaptation of the voice to the ear. Sound appeals to the ear, not the eye, and those who have to rely upon. the latter to why did the missouri fail imitate speech must suffer by comparison. Deafness then, in our sense, means the incapacity to be instructed by means of the ear in the normal way, and dumbness means only that ignorance of how to speak one's mother tongue which is the effect of the deafness. Of such deaf people many can hear sound to some extent.. Dr Kerr Love quotes several authorities ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 58 ff.) to and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay show that 50 or 60% are absolutely deaf, while 25% can. detect loud sounds such as shouting close to the ear, and the rest. can distinguish vowels or even words. He himself thinks that not more than 15 or 20% are totally deaf - sometimes only 7 or 8%; that ability to hear speech exists in about one in four, while ten or fifteen in each hundred are only semi-deaf.
He rightly warns against the use of tuning forks or other instruments held on the bones of the head as tests of hearing, because the vibration which is felt, not heard, may very often be mistaken for sound. Dr Edward M. Gallaudet, the president of the College for the Deaf in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., suggests the following terms for use in dividing the compromise fail whole class of the what psychology deaf into its main sections, though it is obviously impossible to split them up into perfectly defined subdivisions, where, as a matter of fact, you have each degree of deafness and dumbness shading into the next: the speaking deaf, the semi-speaking deaf, the mute deaf (or deaf-mute ), the speaking semi-deaf, the mute semi-deaf, the hearing mute and the hearing semi-mute. Compromise Fail? He points out that the last two classes are usually persons of feeble mental power. We should exclude these altogether from the list, since their hearing is, presumably, perfect, and should add the semi-speaking semi-deaf before the Essay The Glass Ceiling mute semi-deaf. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? This would give two main divisions - those wha cannot hear at all, and those who have partial hearing - with three subsections in each main division - those who speak, those who have partial speech and those who do not speak at all.
Where the hearing is perfect it is paradoxical to class a person with the deaf, and alternative sources of energy, the dumbness in such a case is compromise due (where there is no malformation of the vocal organs) to inability of the mind to pay attention to, and imitate, what the ear really hears. In such cases this mental weakness is generally shown in is biological other ways besides that of not hearing sounds. Probably no sign will. Fail? be given of recognizing persons or objects around; there will be, in fact, a general incapacity of the what whole body and senses. It is incorrect to designate such persons as deaf and feeble-minded or deaf and idiotic, because in many cases their organs of hearing are as perfect as are other organs of their body, and they are no more deaf than blind, though they may pay no attention to what they hear any more than to what they see. They are simply weak in intellect, and this is why did fail shown by the disuse of analysis, any and all of their senses; hence it is incorrect to classify them according to one, and one only, of the evidences of this mental weakness. NUMBER OF DEAF AND DUMB PERSONS. PROPORTION OF DEAF AND DUMB TO THE POPULATION. The following table shows the number of deaf and dumb persons in compromise fail the United Kingdom at successive censuses: - From this we find that the Essay Afric and Its proportion of why did fail, deaf and dumb to the population has been as follows: - There has, therefore, been on the whole a steady decrease of those described as deaf and dumb in proportion to the population in Great Britain and Ireland. But in the census for 1901, in what psychology addition to why did the missouri compromise the 15,246 returned as deaf and dumb in England and of energy, Wales, 18,507 were entered as being deaf, 2433 of the missouri compromise fail, whom were described as having been deaf from childhood. Mr B. H. Payne, the the flea analysis principal of the the missouri Royal Cambrian Institution, Swansea, makes the following remarks upon these figures: - The natural conclusion, of course. is that there has been a large increase, relative as well as absolute, of the class in which we are interested, which we call the deaf, and which includes the deaf and dumb.
Indeed, the number, large as it is, cannot be considered as complete, for the flea poem, the schedules did not require persons who were only why did compromise, deaf to state their infirmity, and, though many did so, it may be presumed that more did not. On the other hand, circumstances exist which may reasonably be held to modify the conclusion that there has been a large relative increase of the deaf. The spread of education, the development of local government, and an improved system of registration, may have had the effect of procuring fuller enumeration and more appropriate classification than heretofore, while 1368 persons described simply as dumb, and who therefore probably belong, not to the deaf, but to the feeble-minded and aphasic classes, are included in the ' deaf and dumb ' total. It is also to be noted that some of those who described themselves as ' deaf ' though not born so may have been educated in the ordinary way before they lost their hearing, and are therefore outside the sphere of the operation of schools for the deaf. In connexion with the census of 1891, it has been remarked in the report of the institution that no provision was made in the schedules for the flea, distinguishing the why did the missouri fail congenital from the non-congenital deaf, and that it was desirable to draw such a distinction. To ascertain the relative increase or decrease of one or the other section of the class would contribute to Essay on Ethical Implications of Placing Implantable in Patients our knowledge of the incidence of known causes of deafness or to why did the missouri fail the confirmation or discovery of alternative sources, other causes, and compromise, so far indicate the appropriate measures of prevention, while such an inquiry as that recommended has, besides, a certain bearing upon educational views. The exact number of ' deaf and dumb ' and ' deaf ' children who are of school age cannot be ascertained from the census tables, which give the numbers in quinquennial age-groups, while the school age is seven to sixteen. It is a pity that in this respect the Essay on South Afric and Its in International Relations functions of the census department are not co-ordinated with those of the Board of Education. Dr John Hitz,the superintendent of theVoltaBureau for why did fail, theIncrease of Knowledge Relating to the Deaf, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., gives the number of schools for deaf children, and pupils, in different countries in 1900 as follows: - Africa.
These figures refer only to deaf children who are actually under instruction, not to the whole deaf population. While it is Essay Implantable Chips in Patients gratifying to find that so much is compromise being done in the way of educating this class of the community, the number of schools in most parts of the world is the flea poem still lamentably inadequate. For instance, taking the school age as from seven to sixteen, which is now made compulsory by Act of why did the missouri compromise, Parliament in Great Britain, and assuming that 20% of the what psychology deaf population are of that age, as they are in England, there should be 40,000 deaf pupils under instruction in India alone, whereas there are but seventy-three. There are 200,000 deaf of all ages in India. And what an enormous total should be in schools in China instead of why did, forty-three ! The whole of the rest of Asia, with the exception of Japan, has apparently not a single school. There must be many thousands of thousands of deaf (hundreds of thousands, if not thousands of thousands of whom are of school age) in that continent, unless indeed they are destroyed, which is not impossible. What are we to say of Africa, where only Too pupils are being taught; of South America, with its paltry 200, and Australia's 300 ? To come to Europe itself, Russia should have many times more pupils than her 1700. Even in Great Britain the Essay education of the deaf was not made compulsory till 1893, and there are many still evading the law and growing up uneducated. Mr Payne of Swansea estimated ( Institution Report, 1903-1904) from the 1901 census, that there must be approximately 204 deaf of school age in the missouri South Wales and Monmouthshire, while only 144 were accounted for in all the schools in that district according to Dr Hitz's statistics. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 217) gives the following table, which shows the poem number of deaf people in proportion to the population in why did compromise fail the countries named: Switzerland . Austria Hungary Sweden Prussia Finland Canada Norway Germany (exclusive of Prussia) Portugal . India..
United States Denmark. Greece France Italy Scotland. Cape Colony England Spain Belgium. Australasia. Holland Ceylon . According to a tabular statement of Essay The Glass Ceiling, British and Colonial schools, June 1899, the proportion of those born deaf to those who lost hearing after birth was, at that time and in those countries, 2126 to 1251, as far as returns had been made. Several schools had, however, failed to give statistics.
These figures show a proportion of nearly 59% congenitally deaf persons to over 41% whose deafness is fail acquired. Essay Afric And Its In International Relations? Professor Fay, whose monumental work, Marriages of the Deaf in America, deserves particular attention, mentions (p. 38) that of 23,931 persons who attended American schools for why did compromise fail, the deaf up to on Ethical Implications of Placing Implantable Chips in Patients the year 1890, 9842, or 41%, were reported as congenitally deaf, and 14,089, or 59%, as adventitiously deaf, - figures which exactly reverse those just quoted. The classification of deafness acquired in infancy with congenital deafness by some other authorities (giving rise to the rather absurd term ” toto-congenital ” to describe the latter) is unscientific. There is reason for the opinion that the noncongenital, even when hearing has been lost in early infancy, acquire language better, and it is a mistake from any point of view to include them in the born deaf. 1 The figures for England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the 1901 census, are different and have been given above. Other statistics vary very much as to why did the missouri compromise fail the proportion of born deaf, some being as low as a quarter, and some as high as three-quarters, of the whole class. We can only and Its Relations, say, speaking of both sides of the Atlantic, and counterbalancing one period with another, that the general average appears to be about 50% for each. Probably the percentage varies in different places for definite reasons, which we shall now briefly consider. These may be considered in two divisions, pre-natal and post-natal.
1. Pre-Natal. - A small percentage of these is due, it seems, to malformation of some portion of the auditory apparatus. Another percentage is known to represent the children of the intermarriage of compromise fail, blood relations. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. What Is Biological Psychology? 117) gives statistics from thirteen British institutions which show that on the missouri a general average at least 8% of the congenitally deaf are the offspring of such marriages. Besides this, little is known. Beyond all doubt a much larger percentage of and Son in The Pursuit Essay, deaf children are the offspring of marriages in the missouri fail which one or both partners were born deaf than of ordinary marriages. But inquiries into such phenomena have generally been directed towards tracing deafness and not consanguinity, or at least the inquirer has rarely troubled to make sure whether the grandparents or great-grandparents on alternative either side were relations or not. Such investigations rarely go beyond ascertaining if the parents were related to why did the missouri each other, though we have proof that a certain tendency towards any particular abnormality may not exhibit itself in every generation of the family in question.
To give an illustration, suppose that G is a deaf man. Several inquirers may trace back to the preceding generation F, and to the flea analysis the grandparents E, and even to the great-grandparents D, in search of an ancestor who is deaf, and such they may discover in the third generation D. Why Did The Missouri Fail? But probably not one of these several inquirers will ask G if any of his grandparents or greatgrandparents married a cousin, for instance, though they may ask if his father did. To continue this hypothetical case, the investigators will again trace back along the Essay Afric Participation in International Relations family tree to generations C, B and A in search of an original deaf ancestor, on whose shoulders they seek to lay the blame of both D's and G's deafness. Not finding any such, they will again content themselves with asking if D's parents (generation C) were blood relations or not, and, receiving an answer in the negative, desist from further inquiry in this direction, assuming that D's deafness is the original cause of G's deafness. They do not, we fear, inquire if any grandparents or great-grandparents (hearing people) were related, with the why did the missouri compromise same persistency as they ask if any were deaf. The search for deafness is pushed through several generations, the search for Essay on Ethical Chips, consanguinity is only extended to one generation.
Perhaps if it were carried further, it would be discovered that A married his niece, and there lay the secret of the deafness in both D and G. In other words, the deafness in D is not the cause of that in G, but the deafness in both D and G are effects of the consanguineous marriage in A. Fail? All this is, however, merely by way of The Glass, suggestion. We submit that if deafness in one generation may be followed by deafness two or even three generations later, while the tendency to deafness exists, but does not appear, in the intermediate generations, it is only logical to inquire if deafness in the first discoverable instance in why did the missouri compromise fail a family may not be caused by consanguinity, the effect of which is not seen for two or three generations in a similar manner. Moreover it is probable that consanguinity in parents or grandparents may often be denied. An exhaustive investigation along these lines is desirable, for we believe that congenital deafness would be proved to be due to on South consanguinity in hearing people, if the compromise search were pushed far enough back and is biological, the truth were told, in a far greater percentage of cases than is the missouri fail now suspected. This is not disproved by quoting numbers of cases where no deafness follows consanguinity in any generation, for resulting weakness may be shown (where it exists) in many other ways than by deafness. This theory receives support from the statistics quoted by Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 132), where the percentage of defective children resulting from the consanguineous marriages of the flea, hearing people increases in almost exact proportion to the nearness of affinity of the parents.
It is further borne out the missouri, by in 408 765 792 977 981 981 1003 1052 107 4 1333 ?3981 1459 1514 1 538154 8 1600 1862 18851 1904 20431 2178 22 47 2692 2985 4328 statistics of the duchy of Nassau, and of Berlin, both quoted by Dr Kerr Love (pp. On Ethical Implantable In Patients? 119, 120). Why Did Fail? These show r deaf person in Father and Son Road Pursuit 1397 Roman Catholics, 1101 Evangelicals and 508 Jews in the former case, and fail, r in is biological psychology 3000 Roman Catholics, 2000 Protestants and why did fail, 400 Jews in the latter. Essay Ceiling? When we are told that Roman Catholics prohibit marriages between persons who are near blood relations, Protestants view such marriages as permissible, and Jews encourage intermarriage with blood relations, these figures become suggestive. The Missouri Compromise? We find the same greater tendency to deafness in thinly-populated and out-of-the-way districts and countries where, owing to the circle of acquaintances being limited, people are more likely to marry relations. MARRIAGES OF THE. One or both partners. Both partners deaf . One partner deaf, the. One or both partners.
One or both partners. Both partners con- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. Both partners adven- One partner congenit- ally deaf, the other. One partner adven- titiously deaf, the. Both partners had.
One partner had deaf. ,relatives, the other. Neither partner had. Both partners con- genitally deaf; both. had deaf relatives. Both partners con- genitally deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners congen- itally deaf; neither. had deaf relatives. Both partners ad- both had deaf re-
Both partners adven- titiously deaf; one. had deaf relatives, the other had not . Both partners ad- neither had deaf. With regard to the question of what is biological psychology, marriages of the deaf, Professor Edward Allen Fay's work is so complete that the results of his six years' labour are particularly worthy of notice, for, as the introduction states, the the missouri fail book is a ' ` collection of records of marriages of the deaf far larger than all previous collections put together, and it deals in detail with 4471 such marriages. Ceiling? The summary of statistics is as follows ( Marriages of the Deaf in America, p. Compromise Fail? 134): One point deserves special attention in the above list. It is that where there are no deaf relatives (i.e. Analysis? where there has not been a history of deafness in the family) only one child out of why did fail, twenty-four is deaf, even when the parents were both born deaf themselves. Where there were deaf relatives already in the family on Essay on Ethical Implications Implantable Chips in Patients both sides, and the parents were born deaf, the percentage of why did compromise, deaf children is seven and a half times as great. This seems to show that there are causes of congenital deafness which are, comparatively speaking, unlikely to is biological be transmitted to future generations, while other causes of compromise, congenital deafness are so liable to poem be perpetuated that one child in every three is deaf. We conjecture that one original cause of congenital deafness which reappears in a family is consanguinity-for instance, the intermarriage of first or second cousins (hearing people) in some previous generation. Out of the 2245 deaf persons who were born deaf, 269 had parents who were blood relations, according to Fay.
And perhaps many more refrained from acknowledging the fact. Fail? Eleven had grandparents who were cousins. This theory calls for investigation, and while the marriage of deaf people is not encouraged, it is fair to ask those who so strenuously oppose such unions whether they may not be spending their energies on trying to The Glass check an why did compromise, effect instead of a cause, and if that cause may not really be consanguinity,-witness the percentage of deaf people among Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews before noticed. On the principle that prevention is better than cure it is the intermarriage of cousins and other relations which should be discouraged. The marriage of deaf people is inadvisable where there has been deafness in the family in Essay The Glass Ceiling former generations, but the same warning applies to all the other members of that family, for the hearing members are as likely to the missouri fail transmit the defect of which deafness is a symptom as the and The of Happyness Essay deaf members are. We are more concerned to discover the why did fail primary cause of the alternative sources defect, and take steps to prevent the latter from occurring at all. Those who have no dissuasions for hearing people, who might perhaps cause the misery, and only give counsel to those among the why did the missouri compromise transmitters of Essay, it who happen to be deaf, are acting in a manner which is hardly logical. 2. Post - Natal. - We have collected and grouped the stated causes of deafness in those partners of the marriages in the missouri compromise America noticed by Fay. About a hundred and and Son and The of Happyness, thirty did not mention how they lost hearing. Any errors in this calculation must be less than 1% at most, and can make no material difference.
In some cases two or more diseases are given as the cause of deafness. In such cases where one is a very common cause of deafness, and the other is unusual, the former is credited with being the why did the missouri fail reason for the defect. Where both are common, we have divided the cases between them in a rough proportion. Scarlet fever 973; scarlatina 3; scarlet rash 2.978 Spotted fever 260; meningitis 92; spinal meningitis 76; cerebro-spinal meningitis 70; spinal fever 28; spinal disease 8; congestion of spine 2.536 Brain fever 309; inflammation of brain 62; congestion of brain 30; disease in brain 3 404 Typhoid 127; fever (unspecifi ed) 117; typhus 17; inter mittent fever 14; bilious fever II; other fevers 14.300 Gatherings, inflammations, in head; ulcers, disease, sores, risings, c., all but 22 being explicitly stated to be in head or ears. 276 Sickness 167; illness 49; disease 8; no definite specification 12.236 Measles.. .. .. .. 191 Colds 101; colds in head, c. 35; catarrh 19; catarrhal fevers 1 o; chills, c. 17. .. 182 Whooping cough 77; diphtheria 34; lung fever, and various diseases of lungs and throat 60.171 Falls.. .. .. 143 Fits and convulsions 58; spasms 18; teething 16.92 Scrofula 35; mumps 25; swellings on neck 2 62 Many various and unusual causes.. 60 Smallpox 8; chickenpox 6; cholera, c. 7; canker, c. i i; erysipelas 13. .. .. 45 Paralysis, c. '1 2; nerve diseases 12; fright 8; palsy 3 35 Hydrocephalus 14; dropsy on brain or in head 17; dropsy 2 33 Various accidents, blows, kicks, c.. 31 Quinine 22; other medicines 7.. 29 Total 3804 We have counted a hundred and thirty of those who were returned as having lost hearing who were also stated to be the offspring of on South Afric and Its in International Relations, consanguineous marriages. Dr Kerr Love ( Deaf Mutism, p. 150) gives the following list compiled from the registers of British institutions: - Scarlet fever . Miscellaneous causes.
Teething, convulsions, c. . Meningitis, brain fever, c. Falls and why did the missouri fail, accidents. Poem Analysis? Enteric and other fevers Disease, illness, c.. Whooping cough. Suppurative ear diseases Syphilis 1312 Unknown causes..
98 The same writer quotes Hartmann's table, compiled in 1880 from continental statistics, as follows: - Cerebral affections, inflammations, convulsions 644 Cerebro-spinal meningitis - 295 Typhus. 260 Scarlatina 205 Measles . Ear disease, proper 77 Lesions of the head 70 Other diseases. Why Did The Missouri? 354 1989 There appears to be no cure for on Implications Implantable Chips in Patients, deafness that is other than partial; but with the advance of the missouri compromise, science preventive treatment is The Glass Ceiling expected to be efficacious in scarlet fever, measles, c. Condition of the Deaf. 1. In Childhood. - It is difficult to impress people with two facts in connexion with teaching language to the average child who was born deaf, or lost hearing in why did the missouri compromise early infancy. One is the necessity of the undertaking, and the other is that this necessity is Essay and Its Participation Relations not due to mental deficiency in the pupil. To the born deaf-mute in an English-speaking country English is a foreign language. His inability to speak is due to his never having heard that tongue which his mother uses. The same reason holds good for his entire ignorance of that language. The hearing child does not know a word of why did the missouri, English when he is born, and never would learn it if taken away from where it is spoken. He learns English unconsciously by imitating what he hears.
The deaf child never hears English, and Essay in International Relations, so he never learns it till he goes to school. Here he has to start learning English - or whatever is the language of his native land - in the same way as a hearing boy learns a foreign language. But another reason exists which renders his task much more difficult than that of a normal English schoolboy learning, say, German. The Missouri Compromise Fail? The latter has two channels of information, the eye and the ear; the deaf boy has only one, the eye. The hearing boy learns German by what he hears of it in Father and Son and The of Happyness class as well as by reading it; the deaf boy can only learn by what he sees. It is as if you tried to fill two cisterns of the same capacity with two inlets to one and only one inlet to the other; supposing the inlets to be the why did the missouri same size, the the flea poem analysis former will fill twice as fast. Compromise Fail? So it is in The Glass the case of the hearing boy as compared with his deaf brother. The cerebral capacity and why did the missouri fail, quality are the same, but in one case one of the avenues to the brain is closed, and consequently the development is less rapid.
Moreover, the thoughts are precisely those which would be expected in people who form them only from what they see. We were often asked by our deaf playmates in our childhood such questions (in signs) as What does the cat say? - The dog talks, does he not ? - Is the rainbow very hot on the roof of that house? They have often told us such things as that they used to and Son and The Essay think someone went to the end of the earth and climbed up the sky to light the stars, and to pour down rain through a sieve. But there is yet a third disadvantage for why did fail, the already handicapped deaf boy. He has no other language to build upon, while the other has his mother tongue with which to compare the foreign language he is learning. Sources Of Energy? The latter already has a general idea of sentences and clauses, of tense and mood, of gender, number and case, of substantives, verbs and prepositions; and he knows that one language must form some sort of parallel to another. He is already prepared to find a subject, predicate and object, in the sentence of a foreign language, even when he knows not a word of any but his own mother tongue. If he is why did fail told that a certain word in German is an adjective, he understands what its function is, even when he has yet to the flea poem learn the why did the missouri compromise fail meaning of the word.
All this goes for nothing in the case of the deaf pupil. The very elementary fact that certain words denote certain objects - that there is The Glass Ceiling such a class of word as substantives - comes as a revelation to most deaf children. They have to begin at seven laboriously and artificially to learn what an fail, ordinary baby has unconsciously and naturally discovered at the age of two. English, spoken, written, printed or finger-spelled, is no more natural, comprehensible or easy of Participation, acquirement to the deaf than is Chinese. The manual alphabet is why did fail simply one way of expressing the Essay vernacular on the fingers; it is no more the the missouri compromise fail deafmute's natural language than speech or writing, and if he cannot express himself by the latter nodes of communicating, he cannot by what spelling on the fingers. The last is simply a case of vicaria linguae manus. None of these are languages in themselves; whether you use pen or type, hand or voice, you are but adopting one or other method of why did compromise fail, expressing one and the same tongue - English or whatever it may be, that of a people of a strange speech and of a hard language, whose words they cannot understand. The deaf child's natural mode of and Son in The Essay, communication - more natural to him than any verbal language is to hearing people - is the compromise world-wide, natural language of signs. We have just called signs a natural language. While a purist might properly object to this adjective being applied to Ethical of Placing all signs, yet it is not an unfair term to why did the missouri compromise use as regards this method of conversing as a whole, even in poem the United States, where signs, being to a great extent the French signs invented by de 1'Epee, are more artificial than in England.
The old story, by the way, of the pupil of de l'Epee failing to the missouri compromise write more than hand, breast, as describing what an is biological, incredulous investigator did when he laid his hand on compromise fail his breast, proves nothing. In all probability he had no idea that he was expected to describe an action, and thought that he was being asked the names of certain parts of the body. The hand was held out to him and he wrote hand. Then the breast was indicated by what psychology placing the hand on it, and he wrote breast. Moreover, the artificial element is much less pronounced than is why did supposed by is biological most of those who are loudest in their condemnation of signs, there being almost invariably an obvious connexion between the sign and idea. These critics are generally people whose acquaintance with the subject is rather limited, and why did compromise, the thermometer of whose zeal in waging war against gestures generally falls in proportion as the photometer of their knowledge about them shows an increasing light. Essay Afric Participation? We may go still further and why did the missouri fail, point out that to object to any sign on the ground of artificiality per se, is to strain at the gnat and to swallow the camel, for English itself is one of the most artificial languages in existence, and certainly is more open to such an alternative sources, objection than signs.
If we apply the same test to English that is applied to signs by those who would rule out any which they suppose cannot come under the the missouri compromise head of natural gesture or pantomime, what fraction of our so-called natural language should we have left? For a spoken word to of energy be natural in this sense it must be onomatopoetic, and what infinitesimal percentage of English words are such ? A foreigner, unacquainted with the language, could not glean the drift of a conversation in English, except perhaps a trifle from the tone of the voices and more from the natural signs used - the smiles and frowns, the expressions of the faces, the play of eyes, lips, hands and whole body. The only words he could possibly understand without such aids are some such onomatopoetic words as the cries of animals - mew, chirrup, c., and a few more like bang or swish. Why Did Compromise Fail? The reason why we insist emphatically upon the importance of teaching English in schools for Father and Son in The, the deaf in English-speaking countries, is, firstly, because that is the language which the pupil will be called upon to use in his intercourse with his fellow-men 331 175 171 166 138 122 119 37 33 2 after he leaves school, and secondly, because, if his grasp of that tongue only be sufficient and his interest in why did the missouri books be properly aroused, he can go on on South Participation in International Relations educating himself in after-life by means of reading. Time tables are overcrowded with kindergarten, clay modelling, wood-carving, carpentry, and why did the missouri compromise, other things which are excellent in sources themselves. But there is not time for everything, and these are not as important in the case of the fail deaf pupil as language. Putting aside the question of religion and moral training, we consider the flooding of their minds with general knowledge, and the teaching of English to enable them to express their thoughts to their neighbours, to Ethical of Placing Implantable in Patients be of paramount importance, so paramount that all other branches of education in their turn pale into insignificance by why did the missouri fail comparison with these, while the question of methods of instruction should be subservient to these main ends. Too many make speech in itself an end. This is a mistake. Speech is not in itself English; it is only one way of expressing that language. Essay? And we are little concerned to inquire by what means the deaf pupil expresses himself in the missouri fail English so long ' 1234 5678 9 ' Observations. - People speak of is biological, ` manual signs.' Of course there are signs which are made with the hands only, as there are others which are labial, c. But the sign language is comprehensive, and at times the whole frame is engaged in its use.
A late American teacher could and did ` sign ' a story to his pupils with his hands behind him. Compromise Fail? Facial expression plays an important part in Essay The Glass Ceiling the language. Sympathetic gestures are individualistic and spontaneous, and are sometimes unconsciously made. The Missouri Compromise Fail? The speaker, feeling that words are inadequate, reinforces them with gesture. Arbitrary signs are, e.g., drumming with three separated fingers on the chin for ` uncle.' Grammatical signs are those which are used for inflections, parts of speech, or letters as in the manual alphabet, and some numerical signs, though other numerals may be classed as natural; also signs for sounds, and even labial signs. And Son In The Road Essay? Signs, whether natural or arbitrary, which gain acceptance, especially if they are shortened, are ` conventional.' ` Mimic action ' refers, e.g., to the sign for sawing, the side of one hand being passed to and fro over why did fail, the side or back of the other. ' Pantomime ' means, e.g., when the signer pretends to hang up his hat and Father and Son and The Pursuit, coat, roll up his sleeves, kneel on the missouri compromise fail his board, guide the saw with his thumb, saw through, wipe his forehead, c. Illustrations of one style of numerical signs are given below. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FIG.
I. as he does so express himself, whether by speech or writing or finger-spelling--for if he can finger-spell he can write. It is not the mere fact that he can make certain sounds or write certain letters or form the alphabet on his hands that should signify. It is the actual language that he uses, whatever be the means, and the thoughts that are enshrined in the language, that should be our criterion when judging of Father and Son in The Road Pursuit Essay, his education. The importance of English is insisted upon because to place the why did the missouri deaf child in touch with his English-speaking fellow-men we must teach him their language, and also because he can thereby educate himself by means of books if, and when, he has a sufficient command of that language. The reason is not because the vernacular is actually superior to signs as a means of conversation. The sign language is quite equal to the vernacular as a means of Father Road and The, expression. The Missouri? The former is as much our mother tongue, if we may say so, as the latter; we used one language as soon as the other, in our earliest infancy; and, after a lifelong experience of both, we affirm that signs are a more beautiful language than English, and provide possibilities of a wealth of on South and Its, expression which English does not possess, and which probably no other language possesses. That others whose knowledge of signs is lifelong hold similar opinions is shown by the following extract from The Deaf and their Possibilities, by Dr Gallaudet: Thinking that the question may arise in the missouri the minds of is biological psychology, some, ` Does the sign language give the deaf, when used in public addresses, all that speech affords to the hearing? ' I will say that my experience and observation lead me to answer with a decided affirmative. On occasions almost without number it has been my privilege to interpret, through signs to the deaf, addresses given in speech; I have addressed hundreds of why did compromise fail, assemblages of deaf persons in the college, in schools I have visited, and elsewhere, using signs for the original expression of Ethical of Placing Chips in Patients, thought; I have seen many more lectures and public debates given originally in signs; I have seen conventions of deaf-mutes in which no word was spoken, and yet all the the missouri fail forms of Essay of Placing Implantable Chips in Patients, parliamentary proceedings were observed, and the most earnest, and the missouri, even excited, discussions were carried on.
I have seen the ordinances of religion administered, and the full service of the Church rendered in signs; and all this with the assurance growing out of my complete understanding of the language - a knowledge which dates from my earliest childhood - that for all the purposes enumerated gestural expression is in no respect inferior, and is in many respects superior, to oral, verbal utterance as a means of communicating ideas. Implications Chips? The following is an analysis of the sign language given by Mr Payne of the Swansea Institution, together with his explanatory notes: - Analysis of the Sign Language. I. Facial expression. I. Sympathetic II. Gesture 2. The Missouri Fail? Representative (= Natural signs) 3. Systematic (a) Arbitrary signs ( b ) Grammatical signs III. Mimic action. Units are signified with the palm turned inwards; tens with the palm turned outwards; hundreds with the fingers downwards; thousands with the left hand to the right shoulder; millions with the hand near the forehead. For 12, sign to outwards and Essay on Ethical Implications Chips in Patients, 2 inwards, and so on up to why did the missouri fail 19.21 = 2 outwards, I inwards, and so on Ethical of Placing Chips in Patients up to 30.146 = I downwards, 4 outwards, 6 inwards. 207,837 = 2 downwards, 7 inwards (both at shoulder), 8 downwards, 3 outwards, 7 inwards. 599,126,345= 5 downwards, 9 outwards, 9 inwards (all near forehead); z downwards, 2 outwards, 6 inwards (all at why did the missouri shoulder); 3 downwards, 4 outwards, 5 inwards (in front of chest).
Only the third, and a few of the second, subdivision of the second section of the the flea analysis above classes of signs can be excluded when talking of signs as being the deaf-mute's natural language. In fact we hesitate to call representative gesture - e.g. the horns and action of milking for cow, the smelling at why did something grasped in the hand for flower, c. - conventional at Father and Son in The Road and The Essay all, except when shortened as the usual' sign for why did compromise fail, cat is, for instance, from the sign for whiskers plus stroking the fur on back and tail plus the action of a cat licking its paw and Ethical of Placing, washing its face, to the sign for whiskers only. The deaf child expresses himself in the sign language of his own accord. The supposition that in manual or combined schools generally they teach them signs is compromise incorrect, except that perhaps occasionally a few pupils may be drilled and their signs polished for a dramatic rendering of a poem at the flea poem analysis a prize distribution or public meeting, which is no more teaching them signs than training hearing children to recite the same poem orally and polishing their rendering of it is why did compromise fail teaching them English. If the deaf boy meets with some one who will use gesture to him, a new sign will be invented as occasion requires by one or other to on Implications of Placing Implantable Chips express a new idea, and why did, if it be a good one is tacitly adopted to Ceiling express that idea, and so an the missouri, entire language is on South Afric and Its Participation in International Relations built up.
It follows that in different localities signs will differ to a great extent, but one who is accustomed to the missouri fail signing can readily see the connexion and understand what is meant even when the what is biological signs are partly novel to compromise fail him. We are sometimes asked if we can make a deaf child understand abstract ideas by sources of energy this language. Our answer is the missouri that we can, if a hearing child of no greater age and intelligence can understand the the flea poem same ideas in English. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? Signs are particularly the best means of in Patients, conveying religious truths to the deaf. If you wish to appeal to him, to why did compromise fail impress him, to reach his heart and alternative sources of energy, his sympathies (and, incidentally, to offer the best possible substitute for music), use his own eloquent language of signs. We have conversed by signs with deaf people from all parts of the British Isles, from France, Norway and why did compromise, Sweden, Poland, Finland, Italy, Russia, Turkey, the United States, and found that they are indeed a world-wide means of communication, Conventional especially in shortened form. even when we wandered on to most unusual and abstract subjects. Deaf people in sources America converse with Red Indians with ease thereby, which shows how natural the generality of even de l'Epee signs are. The sign language is everybody's natural language, not only the deaf-mute's. Addison ( Deaf Mutism, p. 283) quotes John Bulwer as follows:- What though you (the deaf and dumb) cannot express your minds in those verbal contrivances of compromise, man's invention: yet you want not speech who have your whole body for a tongue, having a language which is more natural and significant, which is common to you with us, to wit, gesture, the general and universal language of human nature.
The same writer says further on (p. 297): The same process of growth goes on alike with the signs of the deaf and dumb as with the spoken words of the hearing. Arnold, than whom no stronger advocate of the oral methoa exists, recognizes this in his comment on this principle of the German school, for he writes: 'It is much to be regretted that teachers should indulge in unqualified assertions of the Father and Son impossibility of deaf-mutes attaining to clear conceptions and abstract thinking by signs or mimic gestures. Facts are against them.' Again, Graham Bell, who is generally considered an opponent of the sign system, says: ' I think that if we have the the missouri fail mental condition of the child alone in view without reference to language, no language will reach the and Son in The of Happyness Essay mind like the language of why did fail, signs; it is the method of reaching the mind of the Essay on South and Its Participation in International Relations deaf child.' The opinions of the deaf themselves, from all parts of the the missouri fail world, are practically unanimous on this question. Ceiling? In the words of Dr Smith, president of the World's Congress of the Deaf held at the missouri compromise fail St Louis, Missouri, in 1904, under the auspices of the National Association of the Deaf, U.S.A., the educated deaf have a right to what psychology be heard in these matters, and they must and shall be heard. Compromise Fail? A portion may be quoted of the resolutions passed at that congress of 570 of the best-informed deaf the world has ever seen, at least scores, if not hundreds, of them holding degrees, and being as well educated as the alternative vast majority of why did, teachers of the deaf in England: Resolved, that the oral method, which withholds from the Essay Ethical Chips in Patients congenitally and quasicongenitally deaf the why did the missouri compromise fail use of the language of signs outside the schoolroom, robs the children of their birthright; that those champions of the oral method, who have been carrying on Essay a warfare, both overt and covert, against the use of the language of signs by the adult deaf, are not friends of the why did the missouri compromise fail deaf; and sources of energy, that, in our opinion, it is the duty of every teacher of the deaf, no matter what method he or she uses, to have a working command of the sign language. It is often urged as an objection to the use of signs that those who use them think in them, and that their English (or other vernacular language) suffers in fail consequence. There is, however, no more objection to thinking in signs than to thinking in any other language, and as to the second objection, facts are against such a statement.
The best-educated deaf in the world, as a class, are in America, and the American deaf sign almost to Essay on a man. It is true that at why did the missouri compromise first a beginner in and Its Participation in International Relations school may, when at compromise a loss how to express himself in words, render his thoughts in sign-English, if we may use the analysis expression, just as a schoolboy will sometimes put Latin words in the English order. That is, the deaf pupil puts the word in the natural order of the signs, which is really the logical order, and is much nearer the Latin sequence of words than the English. But, firstly, if he had always been forbidden to use signs he would not express himself in English any better in that particular instance; he would simply not attempt to express himself at all, - so he loses nothing, at least; and why did the missouri, secondly, it is perfectly easy to teach him in a very short time that each language has its own idiom and that the thought is expressed in a different order in each. Of the deaf child's moral condition nothing more need be said than that it is at first exactly that of his hearing brother, and his development therein depends entirely upon whether he is trained to the same degree. The need of this is great. He is quite as capable of religious and moral instruction, and benefits as much by what he receives of on Implications of Placing in Patients, it. Happiness is a noticeable feature of the character of the deaf when they are allowed to mix with each other. Why Did? The charge of bad temper can usually be sustained only when the fault is on the side of those with whom they live. For instance, the latter often talk in on South Afric and Its Relations the presence of the deaf person without saying a word to the missouri him, and if he then shows irritation, which is Father Road Pursuit not often in any case, it is why did the missouri compromise no more to be wondered at than if a hearing person resents whispering or other secret communication in his presence. 3. Social Status, c. - From the 1901 census Summary Tables we gather the following facts concerning the occupations of the deaf, aged ten and upwards, in England and Wales.
About half of the total number, taking males and Ceiling, females together (13,450), are engaged in occupations-6665. The rest - 6785 - are retired or unoccupied. Of the former, the following table given below shows the distribution: - In general or local government work (clerks, messengers, c.) . In professional occ upations and the missouri compromise fail, subordina te ser vices In domestic offices or services. In commercial occupations. In work connected with conveyance of men, goods or messages . In agriculture In fishing . In and about mines and quarries, c. Essay Implications? . In work connected with metals, machines, implements, c. Why Did Fail? In work connected with precious metals, jewels, games, c. In building and works of on Implications of Placing, construction . In work connected with wood, furniture, fittings and decorations In work connected with brick, ceme nt, pottery and glass. In work connected with chemicals, oil, soap, c.. In work connected with skins, hair and feathers In work connected with paper, prints, books, c. In work connected with textile fabrics . In work connected with dress . In work connected with food, tobacco, drink an d lodging.
In work connected with gas, water and electric supply, and sanitary service Other general and undefined workers and dealers Total 6665 Among those in compromise fail professional occupations are a clergyman, five law clerks, ten schoolmasters, teachers, c., thirty-seven painters, engravers and Ethical Implications Chips, sculptors, and seven photographers. The Missouri Fail? Of those not engaged in occupations, 235 have retired from business, and 245 are living on their own means. Probably a very large number of the remainder were out of alternative sources, work or engaged in odd jobs at the time of the census; it would certainly be incorrect to take the words Without specified occupations or unoccupied to mean that those classified as such were permanently unable to support themselves. The commonest occupations of men are bootmaking (555), tailoring (429), farm-labouring (287), general labouring (257), carpentry (195), cabinet-making (142), painting, decorating and glazing (95), French-polishing (88), harness-making, c. (80). The commonest occupations of women are dressmaking (484), domestic service (367), laundry and washing service (230), tailoring (170), shirtmaking, c. Why Did The Missouri Compromise Fail? (81), charing (79). In Munich there are about sixty deaf artists, especially painters and sculptors. In Germany and Austria generally, deaf lithographers, xylographers and photographers are well employed, as are bookbinders in Leipzig in particular, and labourers in the provinces. In France there are several deaf writers, journalists, c., two principals of schools, an architect, a score or so of painters, several of sources of energy, whom are ladies, nine sculptors, and a few engravers, photographers, proof-readers, c.
Italy boasts deaf wood-carvers, sculptors, painters, and architects graduating from the universities and academies of fine arts with prizes and medals; also type-setters, pressmen, carvers of why did compromise, coral, ivory and precious stones. Two gentlemen in the office of the Norwegian government are deaf, as are four in the engraving department of the alternative of energy land survey; one is a master-lithographer, another a master-printer, a third a civil engineer, and the rest are engaged in the usual trades, as are those in Sweden. The deaf form societies of their own to guard their interests, for social intercourse and other purposes. In England there is the British Deaf and Dumb Association; in America the National Association of the Deaf and why did the missouri fail, many lesser societies; Germany has no fewer than 150 such associations, some of which are athletic clubs, benefit societies, dramatic clubs, and so forth. The central Federation is the largest German association. France has the National Union of Deaf-Mutes and others, many being benefit clubs. Italy has some societies; Sweden has eight.
In the United States there are no fewer than fifty-three publications devoted to the interests of the is biological deaf, most of them being school magazines published in the institutions themselves. Great Britain and Ireland have six, four of them being school magazines. France, Germany, Sweden, Hungary have several, II 87 788 12 144 568 3 151 503 46 485 470 153 46 137 238 407 1829 194.22 and Finland, Russia, Norway, Denmark and Austria are represented. Canada has three. There are many Church and other missions to the deaf in England and abroad, which are much needed owing to the difficulty the average deaf person has in understanding the archaic language of both Bible and Prayer-book.
Until they have this explained to them it is useless to place these books in their hands, and even where they are well-educated and can follow the services, they fail to get the sermon. Chaplains and missioners engage in all branches of the missouri, pastoral work among them, and Essay The Glass Ceiling, also try to why did the missouri find them employment, interpret for them where necessary, and interview people on their behalf. The difficulty of obtaining employment for the deaf has been increased in Great Britain by the Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensation Acts, for masters are afraid - needlessly, as facts show - to employ them, under the impression that they are more liable to accidents owing to in The Road Pursuit of Happyness their affliction. The new After-Care Committees of the London County Council are a late confession of a need which other bodies have long endeavoured to why did fail supply. Education should be a development of the Essay in International Relations whole nature of the child. The board of education in England provides for the missouri compromise, intellectual, industrial and physical training, but does not take cognizance of The Glass, those parts of education which are far more important - the social, moral and the missouri compromise, spiritual. Some teachers, both oral and Chips, manual, do an incalculable amount of good at compromise fail the cost of great self-sacrifice and in face of much discouragement. Essay? They deserve the highest praise for so doing, and such work needs to be carried on after their pupils leave school. History. 2 - Who hath made man's mouth ? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind ? Is it not I the fail Lord ? (Ex. iv.
11). Such is the first known reference to the deaf. But the significance of this statement was not realized by the ancients, who mercilessly destroyed all the defective, the deaf among the rest. Greek and Roman custom demanded their death, and they were thrown into on South Afric Participation, the river, or otherwise killed, without causing any comment but that so many encumbrances had been removed. They were regarded as being on a mental level with idiots and utterly incapable of helping themselves. In later times Roman law forbade those who were deaf and dumb from birth to make a will or bequest, placing them under the care of guardians who were responsible for them to the state; though if a deaf person had lost hearing after having been educated, and could either speak or write, he retained his rights. Herodotus refers to a deaf son of Croesus, whom he declares to have suddenly recovered his speech upon seeing his father about to be killed. Why Did Compromise Fail? Gellius makes a similar statement with reference to a certain athlete. Hippocrates was in advance of Aristotle when he realized that deaf-mutes did not speak simply because they did not know how to; for the last-named seems to have considered that some defect of the intellect was the cause of Ethical Implications of Placing Chips in Patients, their inability to utter articulate sounds.
Pliny the why did the missouri compromise fail elder and The Glass, Massala Corvinus mention deafmutes who could paint. The true mental condition of the deaf was realized, however, by few, if any, before the time of Christ. He, as He opened the why did the missouri fail ears of the deaf man and loosened his tongue, talked to Essay The Glass Ceiling him in his own language, the language of signs. St Augustine erred amazingly when he declared that the deaf could have no faith, since faith comes by hearing only. The Talmud, on the other hand, recognized that they could be taught, and were therefore not idiotic.
It is, however, with those who attempted to educate the deaf that we are here chiefly concerned. The first to call for notice is St John of the missouri fail, Beverley. The Venerable Bede tells how this bishop made a mute speak and was credited with having performed a miracle in so doing. Psychology? Probably it was nothing more than the first attempt to teach by the missouri fail the oral method, and the greatest credit is due to him for what is biological, being so far in advance of his times as to try to instruct. his pupil at all. Bede himself invented a system of counting on the hands; and why did the missouri compromise fail, also a manual speech, as he called it, - using his numerals to indicate the number of the letter of the alphabet; thus, the Essay sign for seven would also signify the letter g, and so forth. Why Did? But we do not know that he intended this alphabet for The Glass, the use of the deaf. It is not until the 16th century that we hear much of anybody else who was interested in the deaf, but at compromise fail this date we find Girolamo Cardan stating that they can be instructed by writing, after they have been shown the signification of words, since their mental power is unaffected by their inability to Essay on South Afric Relations hear. Pedro Ponce de Leon ( c. 1520-1584), a Spanish Benedictine monk, is why did the missouri fail more worthy of notice, as he, to use his own words, taught the deaf to speak, read, write, reckon, pray, serve at the altar, know Christian doctrine, and confess with a loud voice. Some he taught languages and science. That he was successful was proved by other witness than his own, for Panduro, Valles and de Morales all give details of his work, the last-named giving an account by one of Essay Ethical Implications Chips, Ponce's pupils of compromise, his education.
De Morales says further that Ponce de Leon addressed his scholars either by signs or writing, and that the reply came by sources of energy speech. It appears that this master committed his methods to writing. Why Did Compromise? Though this work is lost it is probable that his system was put into practice by Juan Pablo Bonet. This Spaniard successfully instructed a brother of his master the constable of Castile, who had lost hearing at the age of the flea poem analysis, two. Why Did The Missouri? His method corresponded in a great measure to that which is now called the combined system, for, in the work which he wrote, he shows how the deaf can be taught to speak by reducing the letters to The Glass their phonetic value, and also urges that finger-spelling and writing should be used. The connexion between all three, he goes on to say, should be shown the pupils, but the why did the missouri fail manual alphabet should be mastered first. Nouns he taught by pointing to the objects they represented; verbs he expressed by pantomime; while the value of prepositions, adverbs and interjections, as well as the tenses of Essay on South Afric and Its in International Relations, verbs, he believed could be learnt by why did the missouri compromise repeated use.
The pupil should be educated by interrogation, conversation, and carefully graduated reading. The Flea Poem Analysis? The success of Bonet's endeavours are borne witness to by Sir Kenelm Digby, who met the teacher at Madrid. Bonifacio's work on signs, in the missouri fail which he uses every part of the Essay The Glass Ceiling body for why did compromise fail, conversational purposes, may be mentioned before passing to The Glass John Bulwer, the first Englishman to treat of teaching the deaf. The Missouri Compromise? In his three works, Philocophus, Chirologia and Chironomia, he enlarges upon Sir Kenelm Digby's account, and argues about the possibility of teaching the alternative deaf by why did the missouri compromise fail speech. But he seems to Essay on South Afric Relations have had no practical experience of the art. Dr John Wallis is more important, though it has been disputed whether he was not indebted to his predecessors for some ideas. He taught by writing and fail, articulation. He took the trouble to classify to analysis a certain extent the various sounds, dividing both vowels and fail, open consonants into psychology, gutturals, palatals and why did compromise fail, labials. The closed consonants he subdivided into Father Road Essay, mutes, semi-mutes and semi-vowels. Language, Wallis maintained, should be taught when the pupil had first learned to write, and the written characters should be associated with some sort of manual alphabet.
Names of things should be given first, and then the parts of those things, e.g. body first, and then, under that, head, arm, foot, c. Then the singular and plural should be given, then possessives and possessive pronouns, followed by particles, other pronouns and adjectives. These should be followed by the copulative verb; after which should come the why did compromise fail intransitive verb and its nominative in the different tenses, and the transitive with its object in the same way. Lastly, prepositions and conjunctions should be taught. Father In The Road And The Pursuit Of Happyness Essay? All this, Wallis held, ought to be done by why did the missouri writing as well as signing, for he did not lose sight of the fact that we must learn the pupil's language in order to teach him ours. Dr William Holder, who read an The Glass, essay before the Royal Society in 1668-1669 on the Elements of Speech, added an why did the missouri fail, appendix concerning the deaf and Essay Afric Participation in International Relations, dumb. He describes the organs of speech and their positions in articulation, suggesting teaching the pupil the sounds in order of simplicity, though he held that he must learn to write first. The Missouri Compromise Fail? Afterwards the pupil must associate the letters with a manual alphabet. Holder notices that dumbness is due to the want of hearing, and therefore speech can be acquired through watching the lips, though he admits the task is a laborious one. He also urges the teacher to be patient and to make the work as interesting to the pupil as possible. Command of language, he maintains, will enable the deaf person to read a sentence from the lips if he gets most of the words; for he will be able to supply those he did not see, from his knowledge of English.
Johan Baptist van Helmont treated of the work of the vocal organs. Amman says that Van Helmont had discovered a manual alphabet and used it to instruct the deaf, but had not attained very good results. George Sibscota published a work in 1670 called the Father Deaf and Dumb Man's Discourse, in the missouri which he contradicts Aristotle's opinion that people are dumb because of defects in is biological psychology the vocal organs; for they are, he believed, dumb because never taught to speak. Why Did The Missouri Fail? They can gain knowledge by sight, he maintained; can write, converse by signs, speak and Essay on South Afric and Its in International Relations, lip-read. Ramirez de Carrion also taught the deaf to speak and the missouri compromise, write, as did P. Ceiling? Lana Terzi. About George Dalgarno more is known. He wrote, in 1680, his Didascalocophus, or Deaf-Mute's Preceptor, in which he makes the mistake of saying that the deaf have the advantage over the blind in opportunities for learning language. The deaf can, in his opinion, be taught to speak, and compromise, also to read the lips if the letters are very distinct.
They ought to and Son Road and The read, write and spell on the fingers constantly, but use no signs. Substantives are to be taught by associating them with the things they represent; then adjectives should be joined to them. Verbs should be taught by suiting the action to the words, and associating the pronouns with them. Other parts of speech should be given as opportunities of explaining them present themselves. Dalgarno invented an alphabet, the letters being on the joints of the fingers and palm of the left hand. John Conrad Amman published his Dissertatio de Loquela in 1700.
In the first chapter he treats, among other things, of the nature of the breath and voice and the organs of speech. In the second chapter he classifies sounds into vowels, semi-vowels and consonants, and a detailed description of why did the missouri compromise, each sound is given. The third chapter is devoted to showing how to produce and Essay The Glass Ceiling, control the voice, to utter each sound from writing or from the lips, and to combine them into syllables and words. It was only why did the missouri fail, after the pupil had attained to considerable success in Ethical Chips articulation and lip-reading that Amman taught the meaning of words and language; but the name of this teacher will long stand as that of one of the most successful the world has known. Passing over Camerarius, Schott, Kerger (who began teaching language sooner than Amman did, and depended more on writing and signs), Raphel (who instructed three deaf daughters), Lasius, Arnoldi, Lucas, Vanin, de Fay (himself deaf) and many others, we come to Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira, the pioneer of deaf-mute education in France, if we except de Fay. Why Did Fail? Beginning his experience by instructing his deaf sister, he soon attained to considerable success with two other pupils; his chief aim being, as he said, to make them comprehend the meaning of, and express their thoughts in, language.
A commission of the French Academy of Essay The Glass Ceiling, Sciences, before whom he appeared, testified to the genuineness of why did the missouri compromise fail, his achievements, noticing that he wrote and Essay, signed to his pupils, and why did compromise fail, stating that he hoped to proceed to the instruction of psychology, lip-reading. Why Did Compromise? Pereira soon after came under the notice of the duc de Chaulnes, whose deaf godson, Saboureaux de Fontenay, became his pupil; and in Essay five years this boy was well able to speak and read the lips. Pereira had several other pupils. The Missouri Fail? Probably kindness and affection were two of the secrets of his success, for the love his scholars showed for him was unbounded. His method is alternative only partly known, but he used a manual alphabet which indicated the pronunciation of the letters and fail, some combinations. He used reading and writing; but signs were only called to his aid when absolutely necessary. Language he taught by founding it on action where possible, abstract ideas being gradually developed in later stages of the education.
We now come to the abbe de l'Epee. The all-important features in this teacher's character and method were his intense devotion to his scholars and their class, and the fact that he lived among them and talked to them as one of themselves. Meeting with two girls who were deaf, he started upon the task of instructing them, and soon had a school of of energy, sixty pupils, supported entirely by himself. He spared himself no expense and no trouble in doing his utmost to benefit the deaf, learning Spanish for the sole purpose of reading Bonet's work, and making this book and Amman's Dissertatio de Loquela his guiding lights. But de l'Epee was the first to attach great importance to signs; and he used them, along with writing, until the pupil had some knowledge of language before he passed on to articulation and lip-reading. To the why did compromise latter method, however, he never paid as much attention as he did to instructing by signs and writing, and finally he abandoned it altogether through lack of time and Ethical Chips, means. He laboured long on a dictionary of why did fail, signs, but never completed it. He was attacked by Pereira, who condemned his method as being detrimental, and this was the beginning of the disputes as to the merits of the Participation Relations different methods which have lasted to the present day; but whatever opinions we may hold as to the best means of instructing the deaf we cannot but admire the devoted teacher who spent his life and his all in benefiting; this class of the why did fail community. Samuel Heinicke first began his work in 1754 at Dresden, but in 1778 he removed to Leipzig and started on the instruction of poem, nine pupils.
His methods he kept secret; but we know that he taught orally, using signs only when he considered them helpful, and spelling only to combine ideas. He wrote two books and several articles on the subject of educating the deaf, but it is from why did the missouri compromise fail Walther and Fornari that we learn most about The Glass Ceiling, his system. At first Heinicke laid stress on why did compromise fail written language, starting with the concrete and going on co the abstract; and he only passed to of energy oral instruction when the pupils could express themselves in fairly correct language. Subsequently, however, he expressed the opinion that speech should be the sole method of instruction, and, strange to say, that by speech alone could thoughts be fully expressed. Henry Baker became tutor to why did a deaf girl in 1720, and his success led to the establishment of a private school in London.
He also kept his system a secret, but recently his work on lessons for the deaf was discovered, from which we gather that he adopted writing, drawing, speech and on Ethical of Placing in Patients, lip-reading as his course of instruction. Why Did Compromise? The point to notice is alternative sources of energy that after the why did the missouri compromise fail primary stages Baker turned events of every-day life to use in his teaching. His pupils went about with him, and he taught by conversation upon what they saw in the streets, - an excellent method; but it is a pity that such a good teacher had not the Essay of Placing Chips in Patients philanthropy to make his methods known and to give the poorer deaf the benefit of them, as de l'Epee did. A school was established in Edinburgh in 1760 by why did fail Thomas Braidwood, who taught by the oral method. He taught the the flea poem sounds first, then syllables, and finally words, teaching their meaning. In 1783 Braidwood came to Hackney, whence he moved to Old Kent Road, and in compromise fail 1809 there were seventy pupils in what was lately the Essay on South Afric Participation in International Relations Old Kent Road Institution. Braidwood's method was practically a development of why did the missouri compromise fail, Wallis's. We must regard him as the founder of the first public school for analysis, the deaf in England.
It was only at the beginning of the 19th century that a brighter day dawned on the deaf as a class. With the why did the missouri compromise fail sole exception of de l'Epee no teacher had yet undertaken the instruction of a deaf child who could not pay for it. Sources Of Energy? Now things began to be different. Institutions were founded, and their doors were opened to compromise nearly all. Dr Watson, the first principal of the Old Kent Road Asylum, taught by articulation and Essay, lip-reading, reading and writing, explaining by signs to the missouri compromise fail some extent, but using pictures much more, according to Addison, and composing a book of these for the use of his pupils.
From Addison ( Deaf Mutism, pp. 248 ff.) we learn what developments followed. In Vienna, Prague and analysis, Berlin, schools had been founded in the missouri compromise fail rapid succession before the 10th century dawned, and in 1810 the Edinburgh institution opened its doors. Nine years later the Glasgow school was established and, under the able guidance of sources, Mr Duncan Anderson (after several other headmasters had been tried) from 1831, taught pupils whose grasp of why did compromise fail, English was equal to that of the very best educated deaf in England to-day, as has been proved by conversation with the survivors. Mr Anderson's great aim was to teach his pupils language, and and Son, we might look almost in vain for a teacher in England to succeed as well with a whole class in the beginning of the 10th century as he did in the middle of the why did the missouri compromise loth. He wrote a dictionary, used pictures and signs to explain English, and apparently paid little or no attention to most of the numerous subjects attempted to-day in schools for the deaf, which, while excellent in themselves, generally exclude what is far more important from the curriculum. Addison further mentions Mr Baker of Ethical in Patients, Doncaster, a contemporary of Anderson, as having compiled many lesson books for deaf children which came to be used in ordinary schools also, and Mr Scott of Exeter as having, together with Baker, exercised a profound influence on the missouri fail the course of deaf-mute education in this country. Written language, explained by signs where necessary, was the watchword of of energy, these teachers. Moritz Hill is credited with being principally responsible for why did the missouri compromise, having evolved the German, or pure, oral method out of the Afric Relations experimental stage to that at which it has arrived at the present day. Arnold of Riehen is also honourably mentioned.
The great oral revival now swept all before it. The German method was enthusiastically welcomed in all parts of Europe, and at the Milan conference in 1880 was almost unanimously adopted by teachers from all countries. Those in the missouri compromise fail high places countenanced it; educational authorities awoke to the fact that the deaf needed special teaching, and came to the conclusion that the alternative sources of energy pure oral method was the panacea that would restore all the why did compromise fail deaf to a complete equality with the hearing in any conversation upon any subject that might be broached; many governments suddenly took the what deaf under the why did fail shelter of their own ample wings, and the bottomless pocket of the ratepayer, instead of the purse of the charitable, became in many cases the fount of Essay in International Relations, supply for what has been a costly and by no means entirely satisfactory experiment in the history of their education. The pure oral method has had a long and unique trial in England in circumstances which other methods have never enjoyed. Meanwhile in the United States Dr Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was elected in 1815 to go to Europe to inquire into the methods of educating the deaf in vogue there. This was at a meeting held in the house of a physician named Cogswell, in Hartford, Connecticut, and was the result of the latter's discovery that eighty-four persons in the state besides his own little girl were deaf. Henry Winter Syle, himself deaf, tells how four months were spent in learning that the doors of the British schools were ` barred with gold, and opened but to golden keys,' and how, disappointed in England, Gallaudet met with a ready response to his inquiries in Paris. The Missouri Compromise Fail? With Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher, he returned to the United States in 1816, and the Connecticut Asylum was founded a year after with seven pupils.
The name was changed to The American Asylum later, when it was enlarged. This was followed by the flea analysis the Pennsylvania, New York and Kentucky institutions, with the second of which the Peet family were connected. Dr Gallaudet married one of his deaf pupils, Sophia Fowler, and, after a very happy married life, Mrs Gallaudet accompanied her youngest son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, to the Columbia institution, Washington, D.C., which afterwards developed into the National Deaf-Mute College. Mr Kendall gave the first building, and, when the college was empowered to grant degrees in why did compromise fail 1862, he retired from his office of president in favour of young Gallaudet with the words, To you more than to on Implantable Chips any other man is it indebted for its rapid progress. This college is supported by congress. The following account of the work done at the National DeafMute College at Washington is worth attention, as the results are unique, and are often strangely ignored. Here is a statement of the course for the B.A. degree: First year: Algebra, grammar, punctuation, history of England, composition, Latin grammar, Caesar.
Second year: Algebra (from quadratics), geometry, composition, Caesar (Gallic War), Cicero (Orations), Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar, Myer's General History, Goodwin's Greek Grammar (optional), Xenophon's Anabasis (optional). Third year: Olney's or Loomis's Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Loomis's Analytical Geometry (optional), Orton's Zoology, Gray's Botany, Remsen's Chemistry, laboratory practice, Virgil's Aeneid, Homer's Iliad (optional), Meiklejohn's History of English Literature and Language (two books), Maertz's English Literature, Hadley's History, original composition. Fourth year: Loomis's Calculus (optional), Dana's Mechanics, Gage's Natural Philosophy, Young's Astronomy, laboratory practice, qualitative analysis, Steel's Hygienic Physiology, Edgren's French Grammar, Super's French Reader, Demosthenes on the Crown (optional), Hart's Composition and Rhetoric, original composition, Hill's-Jevon's Elementary Logic. Why Did The Missouri? Fifth year: Arnold's Manual of English Literature, Maertz's English Literature, original composition, Guizot's History of Civilization, Sheldon's German Grammar, Joynes's German Reader, Le Conte's Geology, Guyot's Earth and Man, Hill's Elements of Essay on South Afric, Psychology, Haven's Moral Philosophy, Butler's Analogy, Bascom's Elements of Beauty, Perry's Political Economy, Gallaudet's International Law. Why Did The Missouri? Even in 1893 we were told that of the Essay graduates of the why did the missouri college fifty-seven have been engaged in teaching, four have entered the ministry; three have become editors and publishers of newspapers; three others have taken positions connected with journalism; fifteen have entered the the flea analysis civil service of the why did government, - one of these, who had risen rapidly to a high and Essay on South Afric in International Relations, responsible position, resigned to why did compromise fail enter upon the practice of law in patent cases, in Cincinnati and Chicago, and has been admitted to practise in the Supreme Court of the United States; one is the official botanist of a state, who has correspondents in several countries of Europe who have repeatedly purchased his collections, and he has written papers upon seed tests and related subjects which have been published and circulated by the agricultural department; one, while filling a position as instructor in a western institution, has rendered important service to the coast survey as a microscopist, and one is engaged as an engraver in the chief office of the survey; of three who became draughtsmen in Essay architects' offices, one is in fail successful practice as an architect on his own account, which is also true of another, who completed his preparation by a course of study in Europe; one has been repeatedly elected recorder of deeds in a southern city, and two others are recorders' clerks in the west; one was elected and still sits as a city councilman; another has been elected city treasurer and The Glass, is at present cashier of a national bank; one has become eminent as a practical chemist and assayer; two are members of the faculty of the college, and two others are rendering valuable service as instructors therein; some have gone into why did the missouri fail, mercantile and other offices; some have undertaken business on Essay Ethical Implications of Placing their own account; while not a few have chosen agricultural and mechanical pursuits, in which the advantages of the missouri compromise, thorough mental training will give them a superiority over those not so well educated. Of those alluded to as having engaged in teaching, one has been the principal of alternative, a flourishing institution in Pennsylvania; one is now in his second year as principal of the Ohio institution; one has been at the head of compromise, a day school in on South and Its in International Cincinnati, and the missouri, later of the Colorado institution; a third has had charge of the Essay Oregon institution; a fourth is at the head of a day school in St Louis; three others have respectively founded and are now at the head of why did the missouri, schools in New Mexico, North Dakota, and Evansville, Indiana, and others have done pioneer work in establishing schools in Florida and in what psychology Utah.
Later years would unfold a similar tale of why did the missouri compromise, subsequent students, the number of whom in college reached a hundred in the flea poem analysis 1898. There is a normal department attached to the college, to which are admitted six hearing young men and women for one year who are recommended as being anxious to study methods of teaching the deaf and likely to profit thereby. Their course of study for 1898-1899 included careful training in the oral method, instruction in Bell's Visible Speech, instruction in the anatomy of the the missouri fail vocal organs, lectures on sound, observation of methods, oral and manual, in Kendall School, lectures on various subjects connected with the deaf and their education, lectures on pedagogy, lessons in the language of signs, practical work with classes in Kendall School under the direction of the teachers, correction of Essay Ceiling, essays of the introductory class, c. But the greatest advantage of the year's course is that the halfdozen hearing students live in the college, have their meals with the hundred deaf, and mix with them all day long - if they wish it - in social intercourse and why did the missouri compromise fail, recreation. We are very far indeed from saying that one such year is sufficient to make a hearing man a qualified teacher of the deaf, but the arrangement is based on what the right principle, and it sets his feet on the right path to learn how to teach - so far as this art can be learned. The recent regulation of the board of education in England, prohibiting hearing pupil teachers in schools for the deaf, is deplorable, retrograde and inimical to the best interests of the deaf. It shows a complete ignorance of their needs. The younger a teacher begins to mix with that class the better he will teach them. In 1886 a royal commission investigated the condition and education of the deaf in Great Britain, and in 188 9 issued its report. Some of the recommendations most worthy of notice were that deaf children from seven to the missouri sixteen years of analysis, age should be compelled to attend a day school or institution, part, or the whole, of the expense being borne by the local school authority; that technical instruction should be given, and that all the children should be taught to speak and fail, lip-read on on South in International Relations the pure oral method unless physically or mentally disqualified, those who had partial hearing or remains of the missouri, speech being entirely educated by that method. To the last mentioned recommendation - concerning the method to analysis be adopted - two of the commissioners took exception, and why did the missouri fail, another stated his recognition of some advantage in the manual method.
As a result of the Afric Relations report of the royal commission a bill was passed in 1893 making it compulsory for all deaf children to why did compromise fail be educated. This was to be done by the local education authority, either by providing day classes or an institution for them, or by sending them to the flea poem an already existing institution, parents having the choice, within reasonable limits, of the school to which the child should go. School-board classes came into existence in almost every large town where there was no institution, and sometimes where one existed. Those who uphold the day-school system advance the why did compromise arguments that the pupils are not, under it, cut off from the influence of home life as they are in Essay on South Afric and Its Participation Relations institutions; that such influences are of great advantage; that this system permits the deaf to mix freely with their hearing brethren, c. The objections, however, to this arrangement outweigh its possible advantages. The latter, indeed, amount to little; for home influences in many cases, especially in the poorer parts of the large cities, are not the best, and communication with the hearing children who attend some of the day schools may not be an why did, unmixed blessing, nor is sources of energy freedom to run wild on the streets between school hours. But it may be urged further that it is difficult, except in very large towns, to the missouri obtain a sufficient number of deaf children attending a day school to on in Patients classify them according to why did their status, while it is Essay on Ethical of Placing more than one teacher can do to give sufficient attention to several children, each at a different stage of instruction from any other.
Moreover, the deaf need more than mere school work; they need training in morals and manners, and why did compromise, receive much less of Essay Chips in Patients, it from their parents than their hearing brothers and sisters. This can only be given in an institution wherein they board and lodge as well as attend classes. The existing institutions were from why did the missouri 1893 placed, by the act of that date, either partly or wholly under the control of the school board. They were put under the inspection of the government, and as long as they fulfilled the requirements of the inspectors as regards education, manual and physical training, outdoor recreation and suitable class-room and the flea, dormitory accommodation, they might remain in compromise the hands of a committee who collected, or otherwise provided, one-third of the Father Road and The Pursuit of Happyness Essay total expenditure, and received two-thirds from public sources. Or else, the institution might be surrendered entirely to the management of the public school authority, and then the whole of the expenditure was to be borne by that body. Extra government grants of five guineas per pupil are now given for class work and manual or technical training. Such is the state of things at the present day, except, of course, that the school board has given place to the county council as local authority.
Some teachers have asked for the children to be sent to school at the age of why did the missouri, five instead of of Placing in Patients, seven. This savours of another confession that the pure oral method had not done what was expected of it at first. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? First, the demand was for the method itself; then came requests for more teachers, so that, the classes being smaller, each pupil should receive more attention; this meant more money, and in The Road and The, so this was asked for; then day schools would remedy the failure by giving the pupils opportunities of talking with the public in general; then we were told the teachers were unskilful; finally, more time is needed. And yet the language of the the missouri compromise fail pupils is Essay Ethical Chips in Patients no better to-day than it was in 1881, even though they were at why did the missouri compromise school only is biological, four or five years then as opposed to nine or ten now. To Addison's Report on a Visit to some Continental Schools for the Deaf (1904-1905) we are indebted for the following information. The new school at Frankfort-on-Maine, accommodating forty or fifty children at a cost of ?40 to ?50 per head, is modelled on the plan of a family home.
The main objects are to the missouri compromise fail obtain good speech and lipreading and to use these colloquially; the work is very Foreign thorough and of energy, the teaching very skilful. At Munich those schools. Why Did Fail? of the hundred pupils who have some hearing are separated from the others and and Its Participation, taught by ear as well as eye. At Vienna (Royal Institution) a small proportion of the pupils are day scholars, as they are at Munich, and the teaching is, of course, carried on by the oral method, as it is all over Germany. Here, however, the teachers think it impossible to educate fully all deaf. mutes by the oral method only. The Missouri Compromise Fail? In the what is biological Jews' Home at Vienna the the missouri compromise fail semi-deaf are taught by the acoustic method, and Road Essay, are not allowed to see the teacher's lips at all.
At Dresden, a large school of 240 pupils, the director favours smaller institutions than his own, considers the oral method possible for all but the weak-minded deaf, and divides his. pupils into A, B and C divisions, according to intellect. In the first division good speech is obtained. Compromise? Saxony boasts a home for deaf homeless women, grants premiums for deaf apprentices, and trains its teachers of the deaf in the institution itself - a good record and plan. In the royal institution at of energy Berlin Addison saw good lip-reading and thorough work, though the deaf in the city - as in most of the schools - signed. The men in Berlin like the adult deaf generally, were all in favour of the missouri compromise, a combination of Implications Chips, methods, and condemned the pure oral theory as impracticable.
At Hamburg, again, hand signs were used at why did the missouri compromise least for Sunday service. Schleswig has two schools. Pupils are admitted first to the residential institution, where they are instructed for a year, and are then divided into A, B and C classes, according to intellect. The lowest class (C) remain at this institution for Implications of Placing Implantable, the rest of the why did eight years, and a certain amount of signing is allowed in their instruction. A and B classes are boarded out in the town and attend classes at analysis a day school specially built for them, being taught orally exclusively. In Denmark Addison saw what impressed him most.
All the children of school age go to Fredericia and remain for why did fail, a year in the boarding institution. They are then examined and on Ethical Implications of Placing Implantable, the semi-deaf29% of the whole - are sent to Nyborg. The rest - all the totally deaf - remain another year at why did compromise Fredericia and are then divided into the A, B and C divisions before mentioned, and on and Son Road the same criterion - intellect. Those in C - the lowest class, 28% of the totally deaf - are sent to the missouri compromise Copenhagen, where they are taught by the manual method, no oral work being attempted. Those in B class, numbering 19% of the in International Relations deaf, remain in why did the missouri compromise the residential institution in Fredericia and are taught orally, while the on Implications Chips in Patients best pupils - A class - are boarded out in why did fail the town and attend a special day school. These form 26% of the deaf, and those with whom they live encourage them to Essay speak when out of as well as when in school. The buildings and equipment generally are excellent. Hand signs are used at Nyborg, indicating the position of the vocal organs when speaking, and, as might be expected, the lip -reading is 90% more correct when these symbols - infinitely more visible than most of the why did the missouri compromise movements of the vocal organs and Essay on South, face when speaking - are used at why did the missouri the same time. The idea of these hand signs, by the way, corresponds to that of Essay Participation, Graham Bell's Visible Speech, in which a written symbol is used to indicate the position of the vocal organs when uttering each sound; it is a kind of phonetic writing which is to a slight extent illustrative at the same time. We find natural signs of the utmost value when teaching articulation, to describe the position of the vocal organs. We give these details from Mr Addison's notes because it is to why did fail Germany that so many look for guidance to-day, and it is the home of the so-called pure oral method; while the system of classification in Denmark into the four schools which are controlled by one authority, struck him very favourably and so is given rather fully.
In France most of the schools are supported by charity, and the only three government institutions are those at Paris for boys, with 263 pupils lately, at Bordeaux for girls, having 225 inmates, and at Chambery with 86 boys and 38 girls. In the great majority the method of instruction is professedly pure oral. But, said Henri Gaillard ( Report, World's Congress of the Deaf, Missouri, 1904), this. is only in poem analysis appearance. In reality all of the schools use the combined method; only they are not willing to admit it, because the why did the missouri compromise fail oral method is the official method, imposed by the inspectors of the minister of the interior. In Italy, again, we are told that the teachers sign in and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness most of the schools, which are professedly pure oral. In Sweden, schools for the deaf have ceased to depend, as they did up to 1891, upon private benevolence. The system is why did the missouri compromise fail generally the combined, and in schools where the oral method is adopted the poem analysis pupils are divided into A, B and C divisions, as in Denmark and why did, Dresden, in the two latter divisions of which signs are allowed. In Norway the Essay on South method is the oral. There have always been two principal methods of teaching the deaf, and all education at the present time is carried on by means of one or other or both of these.
Where there is sufficient hearing to why did be utilized, instruction is sometimes given thereby as well, though this auricular method does not seem to make much headway, and experience is not in favour of believing that the sense of hearing, where a little exists, can be cultivated to any marked degree. What? It is why did fail really impossible to draw hard and fast lines between these means of instruction. One merges into another, and this other into the next; and no two teachers will, or can, adopt exactly the same lines. It is sources not desirable that they should, for much must be left to individuality. Orders, rules, methods, should not be absolute laws.
Observe them generally, but dispense with them as circumstances, the pupil and opportunity may require. Strong individuality, sympathy, enthusiasm, long intercourse with the deaf, are needed in the teacher, and it is why did the missouri surely obvious that every teacher should have a full command of all the primary means of instruction to alternative begin with, and compromise, not of one only. Where deafness is absolute, or practically so, we have to seek 130 words a minute can be attained when spelling on the fingers. Words are quite readable at this speed. Although reading and writing are common to both methods, the manual and oral, as a matter of fact they seem to be used considerably more in the former than in the latter. In the oral method articulation and lip-reading are chiefly relied upon; reading and the flea poem analysis, writing are also adopted. Why Did Compromise Fail? The phonetic values of the letters are taught, not the names of the letters; for instance, the sound of the letter a in hat is taught instead of the name of the letter (long A), though of course the latter is taught where such is the proper pronunciation, as in hate. s The Manual Alphabet.
(One-handed.) P z ?'A4 B C FIG. 2. Of Placing Implantable Chips? - The Manual Alphabet. Why Did Compromise? (Two-handed.) for means that will appeal to the eye instead of the ear. The Flea Poem? Of these, we have the sign language, writing and printing, pictures, manual alphabets and lip-reading. The Missouri Compromise? We have to choose which of these is to be used, if not all, and which must be rejected, if any. Moreover, we have to decide how much or how little one or another is to be adopted if we employ more than one. Hence it is obvious that there may be many different systems and subdivisions of systems. What? But the two main methods are the manual, which generally depends upon all the above-mentioned means of appealing to the eye except lip-reading, and the oral, which adopts what the manual method rejects, uses writing and printing and perhaps pictures, but excludes finger-spelling and (theoretically) signs. To these two we must add a third means of instruction - the combined system - which rejects no means of teaching, but uses all in most cases. The dual method need hardly be called a separate method or system, for it implies simply the use of the manual method for some pupils and of the oral for others. Nor need we call the mother's (= intuitive or natural) a separate method in the sense in which we are using the word here, for it is rather a mode of procedure which can be applied manually or orally indifferently.
The same may be said of the grammatical method ; also of the why did the missouri fail word method, which is really the mother's. The eclectic method is poem analysis practically the combined system, or something between that and the dual method, and hardly needs separate classification. Let us notice the manual method, the oral method, and the combined system, considering with the last the dual method. The chief elements of the manual method are finger-spelling, reading and writing and signing. These are used, that is to why did the missouri compromise fail say, as means of teaching English and imparting ideas. Signs are used to awaken the child's thoughts, fingerspelling and writing are used to express these thoughts in the vernacular. The latter are used to express English, the former to Essay Ethical Implications explain English.
ANALYSIS OF THE VOWEL SOUNDS. We give two manual alphabets, the one-handed being used in America, on the continent of Europe with some variations and additions, in fail Ireland, and also to some extent in England; the The Glass Ceiling two-handed in Great Britain, Ireland and Australia. Why Did The Missouri? A speed of Here is a chart which was lately in use Articulation Sheets. Order in which the Vowel Sounds are to be taught. a wall aw, o wol a o u e e o i a u oe path hot blu(e) set see ton(e) pi(e) lat(e) mul(e) boy a o u e i ou ai ei iu oi ee path hot blu set si toun pai leit miul boi The consonants are as follows, though the Essay Afric and Its in International Relations order of teaching them varies: p; f; s; h; sh; v = th (thin; moth); th (then; smooth); 1; r; t; k; b; d; g (go; egg); z=s; m; n; ch=tsh; j =dzh=g; ph=f; kc=k; cs=s; q=kw; x=ks; ng; w=oo; wh=hw; y=e.
a u i hut hit u i hut hit Diacritic hat Mark 11 a Phonetic '- hat Spelling Diacritic Mark 2 Phonetic Spelling Diacritic Mark - ? Phonetic Spelling The following mode of writing the sounds is now preferred by some as it renders the diacritic marks unnecessary: Middle, Broad and Long Vowel Sounds. ar or oo ee er oa igh ai ew oi ou aw ea ir o-e i -e a-e u-e oy ow au ur ay a Short Vowel Sounds. a o 00 e i u Consonants. h p Ph i s th sh chck 1 r m n ng w b v d z th zh dzh g These charts are given as examples of those used, but they vary in different schools, as does the order of teaching the vowel and consonant sounds and the combinations. The exact order is not important. Words are made up by combining vowels and consonants as soon as the why did the missouri fail pupil can say each sound separately. Here are extracts from the directions on articulation written by a principal to the teacher of the lowest class, which show the method of procedure: (i) Produce the sound of a letter. Each pupil to reproduce, and write it on the tablet. (2) Point to the letter on the tablet, and make each pupil say it. (3) The same with combinations of vowels and consonants. (4) Instead of tablet, each pupil to use rough exercise-book. (5) Write on tablet and Ceiling, make each pupil articulate from teacher's writing.
(6) When a combination is made of which a word may be made make all write it in their books, thus: ` to - tea,' ' shoshow,' ' ov - of,' ' nalz - nails,' c. When one pupil produces a combination correctly make the others lip-read it from him. In this way make them exercise each other. (8) When they have a good many sounds and combinations written in their books make them sit down and say them off their books as hearing children do. Make them say the sounds off the cards, and form combinations on the missouri compromise the cards for them to say. Take each vowel separately and Essay on Ethical Implications of Placing Chips, make each pupil use it before and after each consonant. (i Take each consonant and fail, put it before and after each vowel. The above will suggest other exercises to the teacher. Give breathing exercises. Incite emulation as to deep breathing and slow expiration.
Never force the voice. Make the psychology pupil speak out, but do not let him strain either the voice or vocal organs. Do not force the tongue, lips, or any organ into position more than you can help. Do all as gently as possible. Register their progress. Why Did The Missouri Fail? ' A ' (as in what is biological ' path '; ' father '). As ` A ' is the the missouri compromise basis of all the vowels, being most like all, it is taken first. It is an open vowel. Do not make grimaces, or exaggerate. If false sound be produced do not let the pupil speak loudly; make him speak quietly.
If nasal sound be produced do not pinch the nose, but first take the alternative of energy back of the child's hand, warmly breathe on it, or get a piece of glass, and let the child breathe on why did the missouri compromise it, or press the back of the tongue down. Show the child that when you are saying ' a ' your tongue lies flat or nearly so, and you do not raise the back of the tongue. Prefix ' h ' to ' a ' and make the poem pupil say ` ha ' first, then ' a ' alone. 'P.' If the child does not imitate at the first the teacher should take the back of the hand and let the child feel the puff of air as ' p' is formed on the lips. ' P ' is produced by the volume of air brought 1 into why did, the cavity of the mouth being checked by the perfect closure of the lips, which are then opened, and the accumulated air is propelled.
The outburst of this propelled air creates the sound of ` p.' Take the what is biological pupil to see porridge boiling. Pretend to smoke. Why Did The Missouri? ` P ' is taken first because it has no vibration and is the most simple. The consonants should first be joined to each vowel separately, and to prevent the pupils making an after-sound the Essay Afric and Its in International letters should be said with a pause between, viz. 'A .. Fail? p,' and as they become more familiar with them, lessen the pause until it is what is biological psychology pronounced properly: ' ap.' These directions, which are only brief examples of the missouri, those given for one particular subject in one particular class, will give an idea of the mode of beginning to teach articulation and lipreading. The combined system, as before mentioned, makes use of both the manual and oral method, as well as the auricular, without any hard and fast rule as regards the amount of instructon to be given by Essay means of each, but using more of one and less of another, or vice versa, according to the aptitude of the child. It thus follows the sensible, obvious plan of fitting the method to the child and not the unnatural one of forcing the child to try to fit the method. The following is the way the same principal would teach language to the missouri beginners by the combined system: The letters p, q, b and alternative sources, d of the Roman text are to be taught first. The pupils are to do them 9 in. long on the blackboard or tablet first; then trace them on the frames; then on slips of compromise fail, paper with pen and ink, or in rough exercise-book with pen and ink. The whole of the Roman text is then to be taught in the same manner, also the small and capital script.
When the English alphabet has been mastered in the above four forms the pupil may proceed to the printing and writing of his own name. Then his teacher's and class-mates' names. Then the names of other persons and the places, things and actions with which he has to do in his daily life. Every direction the teacher has to give in school and out of is biological, school should be expressed in speech, writing or finger-spelling, or by any two or all three means. Repetition of why did fail, such directions by the pupil enables him to in The Road of Happyness Essay learn words before he has finished the alphabet. All words to be spelled on one hand first; then two. When a few words have been memorized, they should be written on slips of paper, then in the exercise-books and the missouri fail, dated.
After this there should be further repetition and sources, exercising. The same course should be taken with phrases and the missouri, short sentences. Names of persons should be written on cards and slips of paper and pinned to the chest. Names of Essay The Glass, things to be affixed to them, or written on them. Why Did The Missouri Fail? Names of apartments on cards laid in the rooms. Where the object is not available use a picture, or draw the outline and make pupil do the same. Never nod, or point, or jerk the finger, or use any other gesture, without previously giving the word, and when the latter is understood drop the gesture altogether. Never allow a single mistake to pass uncorrected, and make pupils always learn the corrections.
Language should be a translation of poem, life. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? It should proceed all day long, out of school as well as in sources it. If spoken so much the better, but finger-spelling is not a hindrance but a valuable help to why did the missouri compromise its acquisition. In most language lessons, especially those exemplifying a particular form of sentence, the pupils should: (i) Correct each other's mistakes. Alternative Of Energy? Correct 'mistakes' designedly made by the teacher. (2) Teacher rubs out a word here and why did fail, there on the blackboard or tablet; pupils to supply them. (3) Pupils to answer questions, giving the subject, predicate and object of the sentence as required, e.g.' A farmer ploughs the ground.' ` Who ploughs the poem analysis ground? ' ' What does a farmer do? ' ' What does he plough? ' Also additional and illustrative questions; e.g. ` Does the why did compromise ground plough the farmer? ' ` Does a farmer plough the sea? ' ' Does he eat the ground? ' c.
The pupils should learn meanings or synonyms of unfamiliar words before such words are signed. (4) Teacher gives a word, and what psychology, requires pupils to exemplify it in a sentence, e.g. ' sows,' ' He sows the seed.' (5) Let them give as many sentences as they can think of in the same form. Quite satisfactory result . Moder to success. Occurrences, incidents, objects, pictures, reading-books, newspaper cuttings and correspondence should all be used. The pure oral method, as before noticed, came with a bound into popularity in the early seventies. Since then it has had everything in why did the missouri compromise its favour, but the results have been by no means entirely satisfactory, and there is psychology a marked tendency among advocates of this method to with draw from the the missouri extreme position formerly held. Opinion has gradually veered round till they have come to seek for some sort of Essay on Ethical of Placing Implantable Chips in Patients, via media that shall embrace the good points of both methods. The Missouri Compromise? Some now suggest the is biological dual method - that those pupils who show no aptitude for oral training shall be taught exclusively by the manual method and the rest by the oral only. While this is why did the missouri compromise fail a concession which is positively amazing when compared with the title of the sources booklet containing utterances of the Abbe Tarra, president of the Milan conference in fail 1880 - The Pure Oral Method the Road and The of Happyness Best for All Deaf Children ! - yet we believe that in no case should the instruction be given by the oral method alone, and why did the missouri fail, that the best system is the Essay combined. Fail? That the combined system is detrimental to lip-reading has not much more than a fraction of truth in it, for if the command of language is better the pupils can supply the lacunae in their lip-reading from their better knowledge of English. It is Essay Ceiling found that they have constantly to guess words and letters from the the missouri context.
Teach all by and through finger-spelling, reading, writing and signing where necessary to explain the English, and what is biological psychology, teach those in whose case it is worth it by articulation and lip-reading as well. Signs (7) (9) (io) should be used less and less in class work, and English more and more exclusively as the pupil progresses - English in the missouri any and every form. A proportion of Father Road and The Essay, teachers should be themselves deaf, as in America. They are in perfect understanding and sympathy with their pupils, which is why did the missouri compromise fail not always the case with hearing teachers. Statistics which we collected in London showed the Essay Ceiling following results of the education of 403 deaf pupils after they had left school: - That the combined system should show to slightly less advantage than the exclusively manual method is what we might perhaps expect, for the time given to oral instruction means time taken from teaching language speedily, the manual method being, we believe, the why did compromise best of all for this.
But it may be worth while to lose a little in command of language for the sake of gaining another means of expressing that language. Hence we advocate the combined system, regarding speech as merely a means of expressing English, as writing and finger-spelling are, and poem, a good sentence written or finger-spelled as being preferable to the missouri compromise fail a poorer one which is spoken, no matter how distinct the speech may be. It is Essay no answer to point to a few isolated cases where the oral method is considered to have succeeded, for one success does not counterbalance a failure if by another method you would have had two successes; and, moreover, these oral successes would have been still greater successes - we are taking language in any form as our criterion - had the teacher fully known and judiciously used the manual method as well as the oral. The exclusive use of the oral method leads, generally speaking, to comparative failure, for the following, among other, reasons: - (I) It is a slow way of teaching English, the why did compromise learning to Implications in Patients speak the elements of why did the missouri compromise fail, sound taking months at least, and seldom being fully mastered for years. The word method, by the way, starts at once with words without taking their component phonetic elements separately; but it has yet to be proved that any quicker progress is made by alternative sources this means of teaching speech than by the other. (2) Lip-reading is, to the deaf, sign-reading with the disadvantage of being both microscopic and why did the missouri, partially hidden. The deaf hear nothing, they only partly see tiny movements of the vocal organs. Father Road Pursuit? Finger-spelling, writing, signing, are incomparably more visible, while 130 words a minute can be attained by finger-spelling, and read at that speed. (3) The signs - as they are to the deaf - made by the vocal organs are entirely arbitrary, and have not even a fraction of the redeeming feature of naturalness which oralists demand in ordinary gestures. (4) Circumstances, such as light, position of the speaker, c., must be favourable for why did the missouri compromise fail, the lip-reading to approach certainty. (5) Styles of speech vary, and it is alternative of energy a constant experience that even pupils who comparatively easily read their teacher's lips, to whose style of why did the missouri fail, utterance they are accustomed, fail to read other people's lips. (6) There is a great similarity between certain sounds as seen on the lips, e.g. between t and alternative sources, d, f and v, p and b, s and z, k and g. Which is meant has usually to be guessed from the compromise context, and this requires a certain amount of knowledge of language, which is the very thing that is needed to be imparted. (7) The deliberate avoidance by the teacher of the pupil's own language - signs - as an aid to teaching him English. If a hearing boy does not understand the analysis meaning of a French word he looks it up in the dictionary and why did fail, finds its English equivalent. If the deaf boy does not understand a word in English, the simplest, quickest, best way to explain it is, in most cases, to Essay Ceiling sign it. Why Did The Missouri Compromise? (8) The distaste of the pupil for the method. This is common. (9) The mechanical nature of the method.
There is nothing to poem analysis rouse his interest nor to why did appeal to his imagination in it. (I o) The temptation to Essay The Glass the teacher to use very simple phrases, owing to the difficulty the pupil has in reading others from his lips. Consequently the pupil comparatively seldom learns advanced language. Other means of educating the why did compromise fail deaf in addition to the oral should have a fair trial in modern conditions for the same length of time that the oral method has been in operation. To consider pupils taught manually in Ethical Implications of Placing Chips oral schools fair criteria of what can be done by the manual method or combined system, when those pupils have confessedly been relegated to the manual class because of the missouri compromise, dulness (as in the case of the C divisions in Denmark and Dresden), is Essay on Implications Implantable Chips obviously unfair. This division, moreover, assumes that the pure oral method is the best for the brightest pupils. The comparing of why did the missouri fail, oral pupils privately taught by a tutor to themselves with manual pupils from an institution crippled and hampered by need of funds, where they had to take their chance in a class of twelve, and the comparison of oral pupils of twelve years' standing with combined system pupils of four years', are also obviously unfair. Reference may be made on this subject to Heidsiek'sremarkablearticles on the question of education, which appeared in the American Annals of the analysis Deaf from April 1899 to January 1900. The opinions of the deaf themselves as to the relative merits of the methods of teaching also demand particular attention. The ignoring of their expressed sentiments by those in authority is the missouri remarkable. In the case of school children it might fairly be argued that they are too young to know what is good for in The Road and The of Happyness Essay, them, but with the why did the missouri compromise adult deaf who have had to learn the value of their education by bitter experience in the battle of life it is otherwise. On South Afric And Its Participation? In Germany, the home of the pure oral method, 800 deaf petitioned the why did emperor against that method.
In 1903 no fewer than 2671 of the adult deaf of Great Britain and Ireland who had passed through the and Son Road and The Pursuit of Happyness schools signed a petition in compromise fail favour of the combined system. The figures are remarkable, for children under sixteen were excluded, those who had not been educated in schools for the deaf were excluded, and the. education of the deaf has only lately been made compulsory, while many thousands who live scattered about the country in isolation probably never even heard of the the flea poem analysis petition, and so could not sign it. In America an overwhelming majority favour the combined system, and it is in America that by far the the missouri compromise best results of education are to be seen. At the World's Congress of the Deaf at St Louis in 1904 the combined system was upheld, as it was at Liege. From France, Germany, Norway and Essay of Placing Chips, Sweden, Finland, Italy, Russia, everywhere in fact where they are educated, the deaf crowd upon us with expressions of their emphatic conviction, repeated again and the missouri, again, that the combined system is Essay what meets their needs best and brings. most happiness into their lives. The majority of deaf in every known country which is in favour of this means of education is so great that we venture to compromise say that in no other section of the community could there be shown such an overwhelming preponderance of opinion on one side of any question which affects its well-being. In the case of the Implications of Placing in Patients rare exceptions, the pupil has almost always been brought up in compromise the strictest ignorance of the manual method, which he has been sedulously taught to regard as clumsy and objectionable. 2. Blind and deaf. 3. The Flea Analysis? Blind, deaf and dumb and lunatic. 4. Blind, deaf and lunatic . 5. Deaf and the missouri compromise fail, dumb and lunatic. 6. Deaf and lunatic . 7. Blind, deaf and dumb and feeble-minded . 8. Blind, deaf and feeble-minded.
The Blind Deaf. In the summary tables (p. 283) of the 1901 British census the following numbers are given of those suffering from other afflictions besides deafness: I. Blind and deaf and dumb 58 9. Deaf and dumb and feeble-minded. Poem? Io. Deaf and feeble-minded . In addition to these, 2 are said to be blind, dumb and lunatic; 20 dumb and lunatic; 3 blind, dumb and feebleminded, and 222 dumb and feeble-minded. These are certainly outside our province, which is the deaf. The dumbness in the missouri fail these four classes is aphasia, due to some brain defect. Of those in the list, classes 7, 8, 9 and io are (we are strongly of opinion) incorrectly described, being, as we think, composed of those who are simply feeble-minded as well as, in classes 7 and 8, blind. Their so-called deafness is merely inability of the brain to notice what the ear does actually hear and to govern the vocal organs to produce articulate sound.
Many of classes 9 and io, however, may not be feeble-minded at all, but only rather dull pupils whom their teachers have failed to educate. It is and Its Relations safe to say that in some instances in classes 3, 4, 5 and 6 the persons were only assumed to be deaf. Again, cases of deaf people who to all appearance could not fairly be called insane but who may have had violent temper or some slight eccentricity being relegated to an asylum have come to our notice. A good teacher might accomplish much with some of these described as lunatic in classes 5 and why did, 6. Finally, classes 3 and 4 may have become lunatic owing to the loneliness and brooding inseparable to a great extent from such terrible afflictions as blindness and Essay The Glass Ceiling, deafness combined. Probably the isolation became intolerable, and if only they had had some one who understood them to educate them their reason might have been saved. We are most concerned with the first two classes, and in considering them have to take individual cases separately, as there is why did compromise fail no regular institution for them in analysis Great Britain.
221 I 00 Mr W. H. Illingworth, head master of the Blind School at Old Trafford, Manchester, tells how David Maclean, a blind and deaf boy, was taught, in the 1903 report of the conference of teachers of the deaf. Why Did Fail? The boy lost both sight and hearing, but not before six years of age, which was an advantage, and could still speak or whisper to some extent when admitted to alternative school. His teacher began with kindergarten and attempts at proper voiceproduction. He gave the sound of ah and made David feel his larynx. Then he tickled the boy under his arms, and when he laughed made him feel his own larynx, so that the boy should notice the similarity of the vibration. Why Did Compromise? Then, acting on the theory that brain-waves are to some extent transmittable, Mr Illingworth procured a hearing boy as companion, and, ordering him to keep his mind fixed on the work and to place one hand on David's shoulder, made him repeat what was articulated.
The blind-deaf boy's right hand was placed on Mr Illingworth's larynx and Relations, the left on compromise fail the companion's lips. Thus the pupil felt the sound and the companion's imitation of Essay Afric and Its Participation Relations, it, and soon reproduced it himself. From this syllables and words were formed by degrees. Why Did The Missouri? The pupil knew the and Son forms of some letters of the alphabet in the Roman type before he lost sight and hearing, and why did the missouri compromise fail, the connexion between them and the Braille characters and on South in International Relations, manual alphabet was the next step achieved. This, and all the steps, were aided to a great extent by the hearing and seeing boy companion's sympathetic influence and concentration of mind, in Mr Illingworth's opinion.
After this stage his progress was comparatively quick and easy; he read from easy books in Braille, and why did fail, people spelled to him in psychology the ordinary way by the missouri compromise forming the letters with their right hand on his left. From Mr B. What? H. Fail? Payne of Essay Afric in International Relations, Swansea comes the following account of how four blind-deaf pupils were taught: - We have received four pupils who were deaf-mute and fail, blind, one of them being also without the sense of smell. One was born deaf, the others having lost hearing in childhood. There was no essential difference between the methods employed in their education and those of ' sighted ' deaf children. Father And Son In The Road And The Pursuit? Free-arm writing of ordinary script was taught on the blackboard, the teacher guiding the why did fail pupil's hand, or another pupil guiding it over the teacher's pencilling. The script alphabet was cut on a slate, and alternative of energy, the pupil's pencil made to run in the grooves. The one-hand alphabet, used with the left hand, was employed to distinguish the letters so written. The script alphabet was also formed in wire for him.
The object was to enable the pupil when he had gained language to write to friends and others who were unacquainted with Braille, but the latter notation was taught to enable the pupil to profit by the literature provided for the blind. Why Did The Missouri Fail? Both oneand two-hand alphabets were taught, the what is biological teacher forming the letters with one of his own hands upon the pupil's hand. The name of the object presented to the pupil was spelled and written repeatedly until he had memorized it. Qualities were taught by the missouri fail comparison, and actions by performance. The words' Come with me' were spelled before he was guided to any place, and other sentences were spelled as they would be spoken to a ' hearing ' child in analysis appropriate associations.
The blind pupil followed with his hands the signs made by why did the missouri junior pupils who were unacquainted with language, and in this way readily learned to sign himself, the art being of advantage in stimulating and in forming the mind, and explaining language to him. One of the pupils was confirmed, and in preparation for the rite over 800 questions were put to him by what is biological finger-spelling. His education was continued in Braille. Compromise? The deaf-born boy developed a fair voice, and sources, could imitate sounds by placing his hand on a speaker's mouth. Two of fail, them had a keen sense of humour, and would slyly move the finger to the muscles of their companion's face to feel the alternative smile with which a bit of pleasantry was responded to. In connexion with the pupil who was confirmed, the vicar who examined him declared that none of his questions had been answered better even by candidates possessed of all their faculties than they were by this blind-deaf boy. Mr W. M. Stone, principal of the Royal Blind School at West Craigmillar, Edinburgh, gives this very interesting information: We have five blind-deaf children at why did the missouri fail this institution, and Essay Afric and Its in International, all are wonderfully clever and intelligent. In all cases the children possessed hearing for a time and had some knowledge - very slight in some cases - of why did compromise, language. The method of teaching is, first to Essay Ceiling teach them the names of common objects on their fingers. A well-known object is put in the child's hand and then the word is spelled on the hand, - the child's hand of the missouri compromise fail, course.
The child learns to associate these signs - he does not know they are letters - with the object, and so he learns a name. Other names are then given and similar names are associated together, and by Essay The Glass noticing the difference in the missouri compromise the names the child gradually grasps the idea of an alphabet. For instance, if he learns the words cat, bat and mat, he will quickly distinguish that the alternative of energy words are alike except in their initial letters. When in this way language has been acquired he is taught the Braille system of reading for the blind and his progress is now very rapid. This method may appear very complicated and difficult, but in reality it is not so. There are no institutions in Great Britain specially for the blind-deaf, nor are there any in America.
I do not know of any on why did fail the continent. Alternative Of Energy? Our own blind children here are receiving the same education as our other children, and in some ways are more advanced than seeing and hearing children of their own ages. The Missouri Compromise? They not only what, read, write and do arithmetic, but they do typewriting and much manual work. Mr Addison mentions two deaf and blind pupils who were taught by the late Mr Paterson of Manchester, and a third in the same school later on. Another was taught in the asylum for the blind in Glasgow, though she only lost hearing and became deaf at why did fail ten. Mr William Wade has written a monograph on the blind-deaf of America, in the preface to which he points out, rightly, that the education of the blind-deaf is not such a stupendous task as people imagine it to be.
It may not be amiss, he says, to state the methods of teaching the first steps to a deaf-blind pupil, that the public may see how exceedingly simple the fundamental principles are, and it should be remembered that those principles are exactly the same in is biological psychology the cases of the compromise fail deaf and of the deaf-blind, the only difference being in the application - the deaf see, the deaf-blind feel. Some familiar, tangible object - a doll, a cup, or what not - is given to the pupil, and at the same time the name of the Essay on South in International object is spelled into its hand by the manual alphabet. (The one-hand alphabet is in vogue in America.) By patient persistence, the pupil comes to recognize the manual spelling as a name for why did compromise, a familiar object, when the next step is taken - associating familiar acts with the corresponding manual spelling. A continuation of this simple process gradually leads the pupils to the comprehension of language as a means for communication of thoughts. Mr Wade is right. Given a sympathetic, resourceful teacher with strong individuality, common-sense, patience, and Father Road Pursuit of Happyness, the necessary amount of why did the missouri fail, time, anything and everything in the way of teaching them is not only possible but certain to be achieved.
Language, - give the deaf and the blind-deaf a working command of that and everything else is easy. In the New York Institution for the Deaf ten blind-deaf pupils were educated, up to the year 1901. Nearly all of Essay on South and Its Participation in International, these lost one or both senses after they had been able to acquire some knowledge with their aid. In the Perkins Institution for the Blind, Boston, five were taught. It was here that Laura Bridgman was educated by why did the missouri fail Dr Samuel G. Howe; all honour is due to him for being the pioneer in attempting to teach this class of the community, for she was the first blind-deaf person to alternative sources be taught. Many other schools for the deaf or blind have admitted one or two pupils suffering from both afflictions. In all, seventy cases are mentioned by Mr Wade of those who are quite blind and deaf, and others of people who are partially so. The Missouri Compromise Fail? The most interesting, of course, of all these is Helen Keller, if we except Laura Bridgman, in whose case the initial attempt to teach the blind-deaf was made.
Helen Keller was taught. primarily by finger-spelling into her hand, and signing (which she, of course, felt with her hands) where necessary. And Its Participation Relations? Her first teacher was Miss Sullivan. The pupil acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions. Fingerspelling and books were the two great means of educating her at all times. After her grasp of the missouri fail, language had been brought to on Ethical Implications Chips in Patients a high standard, Miss Fuller gave her her first lessons in speech, and Miss Sullivan continued them, the method being that of making the compromise pupil feel the vocal organs of the teacher.
She learnt to speak well, and to is biological tell (with some assistance from finger-spelling) what some people say by why did the missouri feeling their mouth. Her literary style became excellent; her studies included French, German, Latin, Greek, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, history, ancient and modern, and poetry and literature of every description. Of course she had many tutors, but Miss Sullivan was eyes and alternative, ears at all times, by acting as interpreter, and this patient teacher had the the missouri fail satisfaction of seeing her pupil pass the Essay Ceiling entrance examination of Harvard University. To all time the success attained in educating Helen Keller will be a monument of what can be accomplished in the most favourable conditions. (A. H. P.) 1. The two words are common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. taub and dumm (only in the sense of stupid ), Dutch doof and dom; the original meaning seems to have been dull of perception, stupid, obtuse, and the words may be ultimately related. The Gr.
TucpXos blind, and Ti or, smoke, mist, probably show the same base. 2. For our resume of the history we are indebted solely to Arnold ( Education of Deaf Mutes, Teachers' Manual ) as far as the why did the missouri compromise date of the founding of the Old Kent Road Institution. - Please bookmark this page (add it to your favorites).