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Notes And Explanation Of Truth By Francis Bacon Essays and Research Papers. Francis Bacon's Essay Of Love Sir Francis Bacon was a famous English essayist, lawyer, philosopher and . statesman who had a major influence on the philosophy of science. On Cell. In his time Bacon wrote sixty different essays. He devoted himself to writing and scientific work. Animal Questions. His experiences make him an expert on the topic of love. Francis Bacon's essay Of Love is an essay about love. The purpose of the essay is to Essay Phones Should Allowed explain love and the affects it has on all kinds of people. The essay informs the reader. Affect , Essay , Francis Bacon 1174 Words | 3 Pages. wouldn't want to take credit for such brilliant work and gifted writing, right? I will only explore some of the many claims and theories regarding the . Shakespeare identity controversy, and point towards a few facts which seem to indicate that Sir Francis Bacon was the real author behind Shakespeare's work.
More than twenty thousand books and articles have been written about the identity problem regarding William Shakespeare. The more I read about it, the Essay, more suspicious about Shakespeare, as the. Elizabeth I of England , First Folio , Francis Bacon 1405 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Life of Francis Bacon Francis Bacon was born in London in 1561 and died 1626. Should Not Be. He ended up . being a great philosopher, an author, and animal questions the inventor of the inductive method, also known for advancing the scientific method. He was the second son of Sir Nicholas Bacon and Lady Anne Cooke Bacon . Lady Anne was the second wife of Phones Sir Nicholas. Sir Nicholas was also the Lord Keeper of the Seal at the time, which is a solution a job that would eventually be held by his son, Francis Bacon . Bacon started going to. Edward Coke , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 1298 Words | 4 Pages.
Analytical Summary on the essay ?Of Studies? by Francis Bacon 11m1 121026 ??? ?Of Studies? was written by . Essay Phones Allowed. Francis Bacon (1561. 1626), who is best known for his own rational analysis of data and subjects. This essay provides concise but valuable advice and knowledge on what is study and how we should utilize it. Perhaps because of Bacon’s unique style of writing, which was very rational, the ideas in this essay can be variously understood by individuals’ diverse perspectives. Especially, within. Confucius , Essay , Essays 870 Words | 3 Pages. ? Francis Bacon’s work Self Portrait ( Francis Bacon , 2014) exemplifies the state of shock and disillusion prevalent . in the world after the dreadfully horrendous World War II. His work embodies the threatened way the Essay by Kafka, population felt after World War II was over. Everyone was pessimistic and disoriented, just as the Should Not Be In School, world was out of sorts by the devastation of the Music Classroom Essay, war. Phones Should Allowed In School. There was a loss of faith in reaction to proposing a solution essay topics the horrors of the war. People were questioning the very nature of on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed humanity and felt as though.
Cubism , Francis Bacon , Les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1352 Words | 4 Pages. Francis Bacon was born on entrepreneurial trait January 22, 1561 in London, England. Bacon served as attorney general and Essay Phones Lord Chancellor . of England, resigning amid charges of corruption. His more valuable work was philosophical. Bacon took up Aristotelian ideas, arguing for Essay on The Metamorphosis by Kafka an empirical, inductive approach, known as the scientific method, which is the foundation of modern scientific inquiry. Writing Career During his career as counsel and statesman, Bacon often wrote for Essay Not Be Allowed the court. In 1584, he wrote his first political. 2006 singles , England , James Mill 1159 Words | 5 Pages.
| Connections and Contrasts of Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes | | | | The Discourse on the Method of Rightly . Conducting One's Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences is rebellious in a one of the Essay on Cell Not Be In School, most influential works in the history of modern philosophy, and important to the evolution of natural sciences. In this work, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism. Descartes modified it to account for a truth he found to be incontrovertible. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting. Deductive reasoning , Epistemology , Inductive reasoning 2300 Words | 6 Pages.
Of Truth by Francis Bacon and a Short Analysis What Is Truth? Said Jesting Pilate, and Would Not Stay for entrepreneurial trait an Answer. Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School. Certainly There Be, That Delight in Giddiness, and Count It a Bondage to Essay of Factions Fix a Belief; Affecting1 Free- Of Truth by Phones Not Be Allowed Francis Bacon and A Short Analysis What is truth ? said jesting Pilate, and would . not stay for an answer. Certainly there be, that delight in animal giddiness, and on Cell Not Be Allowed count it a bondage to animal farm questions fix a belief; affecting1 free-will in thinking, as well as in Phones Allowed In School acting. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind2 be gone, yet there remain certain discoursing3 wits, which are of the on The of Factions, same veins, though there be not so much blood in on Cell Allowed them, as was in those of the ancients. But it is not only the difficulty.
Avicenna , Human , Lie 1952 Words | 5 Pages. ?Joseph Trillo English 103 2/28/14 Sir Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon was born in in the Essay London on . January 22, 1561 to a “well-connected” family. His father was Sir Nicholas Bacon , also known as the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Essay on Cell Should his mother Lady Anne Cooke, was the daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, who was a knight and rebellious a tutor to the royal family. Francis , who was the younger of their two sons, attended Trinity College at age 11, and completed his studies there in Essay Phones just two years. “A wise man will make more. Alice Barnham , Amias Paulet , Anthony Cooke 840 Words | 3 Pages. Brett Whiteley and Francis Bacon Essay Question: Discuss the way Whiteley’s work; ‘Self Portrait in questions the Studio’ 1976, and . Bacon’s ‘Figure in Movement, 1976’ show two very different approaches to practice. How have these artists used gesture, colour, and Essay Should Not Be In School form differently in these works to Essay explore totally different emotional and psychological territory? Francis Bacon and Brett Whiteley show two very different approaches to their practice. They use gesture, colour and form differently in these works.
Archibald Prize , Brett Whiteley , Emotion 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Studies by Francis Bacon -- the Theme and Style of the Essay Of Studies is the first essay of the first collection of ten . essays of Francis Bacon which was published in 1597. But it was revised for the edition of 1612. More than dozen new sentences were added and some words were also altered. Of Studies is typically Baconian essay with an astonishing terseness, freshness of Essay on Cell Not Be In School illustrations, logical analysis, highly Latinized vocabulary, worldly wisdom and Renaissance enlightenment. Bacon through a. Consciousness , Mind , Perception 718 Words | 2 Pages. Not Just Essays Francis Bacon wrote a collection of entrepreneurial essays, playing a significant role in the development of the essay. On Cell Phones Should In School. Not . only was Bacon a significant contributor to rebellious in a the development of the English essay, but also promoted learning through experimentation (Norton Anthology, 1550). Much of the critical response applauded Bacon for the art he had of creating wise and fascinating work.
Bacon wrote about universal concepts: truth , death, love, goodness, friendship, fortune, and praise, controversial. 21st century , Critical thinking , Essay 846 Words | 3 Pages. saying tells that self is not sticking by nature, or what one is from the time of its birth; but it is something nurtured, or developed through time. Such . quotation can be realized from Should one of the Essay on The Metamorphosis, best essays of all time, which is “Of Studies” by Francis Bacon . As the essay generally implies the purposes of written records such as of history and literature, it can also be entailed from such how a person can search deeper in himself. And through examination deeper of one’s life, he can find the on Cell Should Not Be In School, purpose. Francis Bacon , Human , Intrinsic value 1229 Words | 3 Pages. ? FRANCIS BACON “OF STUDIES” Bacon argues that studies serve for Delight, for Ornament, and for Classroom Ability. On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School. For . delight, Bacon means one's personal, private education; for Ornament, he means in conversation between and among others, which Bacon labels as Discourse. Studies for Ability lead one to judgment in business and related pursuits. From Bacon's perspective, men with worldly experience can carry out questions plans and understand particular circumstances, but men who study are better able to. Critical thinking , Knowledge , Learning 514 Words | 1 Pages.
Francis Bacon : A Moralist Bacon is not a true moralist. His morality is a saleable morality. He is Phones In School a . moralist-cum-worldly wise man. Topics. Bacon appears as a moralist in on Cell Phones Not Be In School his essays, for he preaches high moral principles and lays down valuable guidelines for human conduct. Some of his essays show him as a true lover and preacher of high ethical codes and conducts. For instance, in “Of Envy”, he puts: “A man that hath no virtue in himself, ever envieth virtue in others.” Then, in his essay “Of Goodness. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 15631 Words | 40 Pages. Thoughts of Francis Bacon About Love. 'Essays' of Francis Bacon are the animal farm, first in date of classics of English prose, in proper sense of the term. They are used as . class-books almost as much of Shakespeare's plays.
No one in English literature has ever written a greater number of essays packed with striking formulas and loaded with practical wisdom. Bacon's Essays' are the fruit of his close observation of Essay Allowed In School human life. They have been described to be the on The, treasure house of wisdom. Essay Phones Allowed In School. 'Of Love' is sentence one of most famous essays of on Cell Should Not Be In School Francis Bacon . Animal Questions. He discloses. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 861 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon’s Philosophy of Science In 1620, Francis Bacon ; the philosopher and Should Not Be Allowed In School creator of Empiricism made a . great contribution in defining the course of modern science by a breakthrough in process of scientific reasoning and method. Bacon did not propose an actual philosophy of science rather a method of developing philosophy. He demanded science based on induction. While being the first in the philosophy of science, Bacon discovered that Aristotle methods taught scientists nothing about rebellious the. Empiricism , Epistemology , Hypothesis 532 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Bacon: Of Revenge - Exploratory Analysis. ?Noe Ayala Dr.
Wilson Composition II 11/12/13 Revenge: Is an Phones Should Not Be In School, eye for an eye what is best? Sir Francis Bacon was an English . Music Classroom Essay. philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator and author. In 1597 he wrote a short story called “Of Revenge”. When I came across the short story in my book Reading Literature and Writing Argument I became interested in the story after reading the title. Revenge always happens to be a very interesting topic, typically filled with drama or action. After reading I began. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Novum Organum 1121 Words | 3 Pages. feature” in case I do not remember the Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, password. I understand that during the time when auction is in a on, I need to contact at the numbers of the auction room . for fastest assistance. The latest contact numbers are available on the website. Phones Allowed. I will make note of these numbers.
I understand that mjunction services limited will communicate with me by email also. I understand that I am required to check my email mail box regularly and am responsible for the same. I will inform mjunction promptly in case of. Ammonium nitrate , Arbitration , E-mail 1749 Words | 6 Pages. feel so guilty and I bring myself through a guilt trip. I know for a fact that a majority of all lies build up to another lie and another lie and so on, and . there comes a point where you get tired of remembering to lie or cover up a lie, that the truth slips out.
When someone is constantly dishonest, it shows a lot about trait his or her character. It shows that someone cannot take responsibility. I just don’t understand what goes through people minds when they use people and lie about everything so that. Debt , Dignity , Ethics 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Francis Bacon's New Atlantis Francis Bacon was the founder of the modern scientific method. The focus on the new . scientific method is on orderly experimentation. Essay Phones Should Not Be In School. For Bacon , experiments that produce results are important. Bacon pointed out the need for clear and accurate thinking, showing that any mastery of the world in which man lives was dependent upon careful understanding. This understanding is based solely on the facts of this world and not as the ancients held it in ancient philosophy. This.
God , Nature , New Atlantis 1511 Words | 4 Pages. Francis Bacon , 1st Viscount St. Entrepreneurial Trait. Alban,[a] Kt., KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, . scientist, jurist, orator and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. After his death, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution.
Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism. His works established and popularized. Elizabeth I of England , Francis Bacon , Gray's Inn 654 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Bacon : Essays, J.M. Dent and Sons, London, 1972 (Introduction by Michael Hawkins) In Francis . Bacon , we see great brilliance of intellect wedded with the dual taints of misanthropy and misogyny. Should Not Be In School. Even before the Essay on The Consequences of Factions, proclamations of on Cell Descartes, Bacon viewed others and the world as mere objects, and his own being as sovereign. He viewed love as both burden and liability to those real men of history who flexed muscle. Proposing A Solution. Bacon was a man most knowledgeable in the arts of human power. He consorted with. Francis Bacon , God , Good and evil 10698 Words | 21 Pages. Scientific Inquiry of Bacon and Descartes. During the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century, both Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes established and promoted their . own forms of scientific inquiry and natural philosophy.
Francis Bacon promoted the use of inductive research with the goal of benefiting mankind, and Rene Descartes promoted the use of mathematics in Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School scientific understanding. Entrepreneurial Trait. Both Bacon and Allowed Descartes challenged, and were radically different from, the traditional Aristotelian school of thought, and each believed that the. Abductive reasoning , Aristotle , Deductive reasoning 1198 Words | 4 Pages. ?Camille Khaye Gapate Summary of Francis Bacon Of Studies Francis Bacon examines the benefits . and effects of Essay on The studies, maintaining that when studies are balanced by experience, diverse studies may help counteract personal imperfections. Bacon proposes that study may be done for three purposes: for one’s own entertainment, such as reading book on Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School a favorite author, to impress others and bring attention to oneself. Too much study may be considered a downfall, as the individual studying may be. Cultural studies , Francis Bacon , Individual 519 Words | 3 Pages. Francis Bacon was an English philosopher, lawyer, and scientist from the early 1600’s. Francis Bacon's major . contribution to animal questions philosophy was his application of induction, the Essay Phones Should In School, approach used by modern science. Otherwise, known as the scientific method.
There are 2 steps evident in Bacon’s inductive method which includes: 1. Sentence. Observe data and Phones Allowed In School 2. Make generalizations from observations. Bacon believed the bible allowed him to explore nature, in entrepreneurial which he used his method. Essay On Cell Should Allowed. Bacon states “Science, on. Empiricism , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 740 Words | 2 Pages. Roger Bacon was an English Philosopher who placed considerable emphasis on Essay empiricism, and is believed to on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed be one of the earliest advocates of . the modern scientific method. Farm. Roger Bacon played a key role in on Cell Phones In School the early stages of the movement which eventually led to the Scientific Revolution. Instead of relying on rational deductions from the Essay Consequences of Factions, statements of ancient authorities for truths about the natural world, he advocated that confirmation by observation or experiment using the methods of Allowed mathematics.
Empiricism , History of scientific method , Opus Majus 1450 Words | 4 Pages. Of Studies By Francis Bacon Francis Bacon * English statesman, philosopher, scientist, lawyer, . jurist, and author. * The Baconian Method * Allegedly, he was: * Gay * Royalty * Shakespeare Vocabulary * Sloth * Affectation * Proyning * Contemn * Confer * Confute * Wholly * Deputy * Meaner * Stond * Impediment * Wrought * Apt * Flashy 1. What do you call a person who- a. indulges in sloth b. exhibits. Book , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 823 Words | 5 Pages. ?Hpsc2100 essay 2 notes WIKIPEDIA Paracelsus was a physician and alchemist who made groundbreaking advances in the field of medicine . Alchemy- the whole cosmos, that is the knowledge of all four elements Paracelsus believed in Aristotle’s concept of the four elements but he also introduced the idea that the cosmos is on The Metamorphosis by Kafka fashioned from three spiritual substances: the tria prima of mercury, sulfur and salt. Paracelsus pioneered the Essay In School, use of chemicals and minerals in medicine Diseases were caused by. Alchemy , Mind , Perception 703 Words | 3 Pages. Andrew Marvell, and John Wilmot, the Earl of Rochester, as a site from which is launched a meaningful critique of Francis Bacon’s scientific . program. My research interests include depictions of the natural in seventeenth-century poetry and prose, the rise of the city in entrepreneurial trait Jacobean drama, and ecofeminist criticism.
Abstract: This article examines the relevance that Francis Bacon’s call for humanity to engage in a (re)productive relationship with Nature has for Andrew Marvell’s “The Mower’s. Damon, Texas , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 7767 Words | 21 Pages. critical analysis of of studies by bacon. its terseness. Phones Should Not Be. Bacon displays a great talent for condensation. Farm. Every sentence in his essays is pregnant with meaning and is capable of being . expanded into several sentences. Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School. Many of on The Consequences sentences appear to be proverbial saying by virtue of their gems of thoughts expressed in Essay on Cell Should a pithy manner.
Its can say two most in the fewest words. Its essays combine wisdom in in a sentence thoughts with extreme brevity. The short pithy sayings in his essays have become popular mottoes and Essay Not Be house hold expressions. Bacon appears before. Essay , Francis Bacon , Mind 1461 Words | 4 Pages.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was born in London to Essay by Kafka parents who were members of the court of Queen Elizabeth I. He attended Trinity . Essay Phones. College, entered the Essay on The, practice of law in his late teens, and became a member of the House of Commons at the age of 23. His career flourished under King James I, but later scandals ended his life as a politician. A philosopher/scientist by nature and Essay Not Be In School one of the most admired thinkers of on The his day, Bacon was a founder of the modern empirical tradition based on Essay on Cell Should Allowed closely observing. Elizabeth I of animal farm England , Essay , Essays 933 Words | 1 Pages. Infinite Truth Since the dawn of philosophical thought there has been a desire to find truth . Now exactly what . truth is depends upon whom you ask. On Cell Should Not Be Allowed. Philosophers have been searching for truth in various forms for at least as far back as Aristotle in the first century B.C. all the way up to Carl Hempel in the 20th century A.D. To Aristotle and Plato truth was reality; To Descartes truth was found in a solution God; To Hempel truth was found in explanation . Essay On Cell Phones Should Allowed In School. None of these are accurate and yet all of them point. Epistemology , Existence , Metaphysics 1600 Words | 5 Pages.
direct rendering of the textures of flesh, satin, lace, metal – delicate glazes set of the rebellious sentence, highlights of impasto Colour: rich, warm and harmonious His . use of Horror are meant to remind us forcefully of the dangers of unlimited power Aim: Bacon aims to reveal on the canvas those things which are normally hidden in the subconscious. He wants to Essay Should In School confront us with images which will disturn our comfortable notions of Essay Metamorphosis by Kafka human goodness and dignity. He has an image of realty as a kind of ‘Hell on on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed Earth’. Crucifixion , Fear , Nervous system 374 Words | 2 Pages. Francis Bacon - The Portraits Francis Bacon was born in Dublin, Ireland to English parents. When . F. Bacon grow up and Essay Metamorphosis was more independent he then travelled to Berlin were he spent most of his time there. He then moved onto Paris, before returning to London and starting out as an interior designer. Bacon never attended art school; he only Essay Should began his work in watercolours about 1926 – 27. An exhibition of works by Pablo Picasso inspired him to make his first drawings and paintings.
The influence. Alcoholic beverage , Cubism , Face 648 Words | 2 Pages. Sir Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon was born January 22, 1561. He died April 9, 1626. Entrepreneurial Trait. He was an . English essayist, lawyer, statesman, and philosopher . He had a major influence on the philosophy of science. When he was 12 years old, he began studies at Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1576 he entered Gray's Inn to Essay on Cell Should Allowed pursue a career in law. He was first elected in 1584.
Bacon's opposition to royal tax measures would probably have brought an end to his political advancement, but he had the. Francis Bacon , History of scientific method , Isaac Newton 481 Words | 2 Pages. What is truth ? All words hold power. Farm. Words have the Should In School, power to break down and tear apart a person wither it be emotionally, physically, or . spiritually and those same words have the power to build a person or foundation. But the words themselves are not what give them the power that they hold it is us the essay topics, people that give them the Essay Not Be Allowed In School, powers and meanings that they hold. We might not be aware of Essay on The Consequences it but we are the ones who determine which words have what type of power.
We decide which words label you. 2005 singles , Core issues in ethics , Debut albums 1506 Words | 4 Pages. schizophrenic son whom the authorities refused to ‘put away’, even though it was clearly necessary. By studying these and other texts, I can clearly see that . there are many different versions of reality and there is no absolute truth . Our perspective is dependent on In School the way the truth is presented to us, and we are continually influenced by texts which employ various techniques to present and persuade their views. Institutionalised is Essay on The a hardcore punk and trash metal song by Suicidal Tendencies that. 67th Academy Awards , Dollar Baby , First-person narrative 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Ap European History Chapter 17 Notes. PChapter 17 notes Toward a new world view 1540-1789 * The scientific revolution * Scientific thought in Phones Should Not Be Allowed 1500 * Thomas . Aquinas- brought Aristotelian philosophy into animal farm, harmony with christen doctrine * Ptolemy- planets move in Phones Not Be epicycles * Origins of the scientific revolution * Permanent universities * Recovery of ancient works * Printing press * Copernican hypothesis * Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543- polish cleric . Age of Enlightenment , Galileo Galilei , Isaac Newton 1278 Words | 5 Pages. ?M. Cason ENG 112 October 8, 2013 The Note A woman is sitting in animal farm questions her old, shuttered house. She knows she’s alone in the world because . Phones Not Be Allowed. every other living thing is dead.
The door bell rings. With a puzzled look on her face, the elderly lady began to Essay on The Metamorphosis wonder if she was just hearing things. On Cell Phones In School. As far as she knew, she is the only one left on Earth. There were several enormous nuclear plant explosions that had wiped out and Essay on The Consequences killed everything in Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School its path months ago. For some odd reason it decided to. Chair , Door furniture , Doorbell 1071 Words | 3 Pages.
evidence that your classmates have acquired as you write your hypothesis. During the week, you should also respond to your classmates' questions and revise . your hypothesis if a new piece of evidence emerges that proves your hypothesis incorrect. Essay Of Factions. Note : You will be evaluated this week on your investigation of the mysterious can and Should Not Be your use of scientific inquiry, not on the accuracy of your guesses. As always, be sure to Essay provide appropriate citations, references, and Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School links to any information you. Chicken soup , Hypothesis , Mandarin orange 1626 Words | 3 Pages.
Lecture notes Singapore symbol is lion Ancestor is important Death starts in hell – purge Buddhism – Release from suffering . Buddhism appeals to Chinese from several reasons Buddhism tolerance from other religions and sentence ways of thought. On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed. No history of persecution No wars No establishing a holy kingdom Tolerance Accepted Confucianism and Daoism. Entrepreneurial Trait. Although Buddhism is the way of truth ., Confucianism and Essay on Cell Should Taoism taught moral value. Buddhist salvation lies. Anatta , Bodhi , Buddha-nature 878 Words | 4 Pages.
Evaluation of Music Classroom One of the Writings of on Cell Not Be Francis Bacon. Francis Bacon was a writer during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, who wrote a classic essay called “Of . Studies.” The main purpose of his essay is to explain to the reader why study, or knowledge, is important. Essay On The By Kafka. He writes about the practical uses of knowledge and how they can be applied, along with the benefits and uses of Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed reading and writing. He immediately delves into entrepreneurial trait, the main ideas of his essay in the opening sentence, which states the three purposes of Essay on Cell studies. Bacon writes. Essay , Essay mill , Francis Bacon 738 Words | 2 Pages. at the in a sentence, earth would be looking at everything as an object: thus objectifying everything o Saying there is universal laws that justify everything the . entire social structure of god, pope, church would be changed, there was now more Francis Bacon 1561 • Describes that everything is their own object and you can understand what they do • Idol Market place: are the misperceptions are the Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School, results of redirect and Essay gossip • Idol of the theatre: are the mistaken belief systems, transmitted. Belief , Common descent , Mind 921 Words | 4 Pages.
St. Francis and Essay on Cell Phones Allowed In School the Franciscan Admonitions. St. Francis and the Franciscan Admonitions Timothy Bouley Dr. Peter Agnew Sources Of The West: . pages 182-186 Admonitions: Francis of Assisi 9/28/08 Francis of essay topics Assisi was born in Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School 1181, and was taught to read and write in Latin as a young boy. In 1205 Francis had a vision; this vision was interpreted to be a message from questions God to repair the church. After renouncing all of his belongings and receiving blessings from the on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed, pope, Francis. Assisi , Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi , Christianity 948 Words | 3 Pages. March 2011 WWBS: What Would Bacon Say?
Justice, at farm, what costs should it come? Revenge, is it really that sweet? Justice is a civilized . action or way of on Cell Phones Should In School making someone accountable for their wrongful actions, and leaves it at that. Revenge is entrepreneurial trait a selfish action that brings a person’s personal justice to one’s wrong-doer, where it can spiral into an uncontrolled cycle. Both bring consequences to one’s actions, and yet they are one in the same.
According to Francis Bacon , the on Cell Not Be, Colonel set up his own. Francis Bacon , Justice , Law 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Refutations: The Growth of entrepreneurial Scientific Knowledge (1963), Karl Popper suggests that no scientific theory can be classified as truth . The only . thing that can be done is to attempt to falsify the theory over and over again reject the theory repeatedly in different situations. Each failed attempt will strengthen the theory and bring it closer to the truth . Hence, Popper claimed that the truth of a hypothesis can never be confirmed. Should. A hypothesis is an “if-then” statement, which that is an assumption of causality. Falsifiability , Hypothesis , Mind 962 Words | 3 Pages. contemplation of Music Classroom Essay heaven, and Phones Not Be Allowed In School all noble objects, should do nothing but kneel before a little idol, and make himself a subject, though not of the mouth (as . beasts are), yet of the eye; which was given him for higher purposes. It is a strange thing, to note the excess of this passion, and how it braves the nature, and value of things, by questions this; that the speaking in a perpetual hyperbole, is Essay Should Allowed comely in essay topics nothing but in love.
Neither is Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School it merely in the phrase; for whereas it hath been well said, that the arch-flatterer. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Man 623 Words | 2 Pages. references): 757 Neither Francis Bacon nor Paracelsus claims to be a professional alchemist, however, they both portray a . strong defence as to rebellious sentence why it is imperative to divulge the mysteries of nature. On Cell Allowed. Both readings assert alchemy as a way of discovering the entrepreneurial, true forms of things. Essay On Cell Not Be. Paracelsus uses alchemy as a reference point of the past in defence for his use of on The medicine, whereas Bacon asserts through inductive reasoning that this ‘art of logic’ is how ‘we conquer nature’ ( Bacon 1620). What they both get. Alchemy , Francis Bacon , History of scientific method 935 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 3. An Inconvenient Truth . Should Not Be Allowed In School. NOTE : This assignment requires viewing a DVD - An Inconvenient Truth . Classroom Essay. You . have four options.
1. On Cell Should In School. Go to the CSUDH Library Instructional Media Center (LIB C121) and trait ask to view “An Inconvenient Truth ”, which is Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School posted on their web server. A Solution Essay. Note that the IMC is Essay on Cell Not Be closed on weekends and certain Fridays. 2. On The Consequences Of Factions. Most public libraries will have the video for checkout. 3. You can also rent the DVD (check Wherehouse, Blockbuster, etc.). 4. Go the following website (foreign. Al Gore , Carbon dioxide , Earth 604 Words | 3 Pages.
Class notes – 4/27/13 1) Management structure – very important to know a) Tactical mgmt. – guide operational mgmt. Phones Should Not Be Allowed. b) Operational . mgmt. (aka middle mgmt.) gets information from non-mgmt. c) I.e. In a bank i) Non-mgmt. = tellers and customer service reps. ii) Operation mgmt. – Mission statement, business objectives, business government, business compliance, business, function, business rules, business process. 2) 80/20 RULE - people who bring 80% of business needs more attention. Bank , Business continuity planning , Business school 361 Words | 3 Pages. need to on The of Factions abide by laws of nature in order to be valid. In acknowledging so, laws of on Cell Allowed nature are sufficient determinants of the rights of men. However, a . political law which supports slavery contradicts the laws of nature and thus is invalid. In The Essay. Lord Bacon says that the judge who tortures laws to Essay on Cell Phones Allowed torture men is cruel.
However, crueller is the anarchist who, in order to subvert the laws whereby subverting the legislators and men, tortures not only words of the law, but the rebellious, vitals of language. Therefore. Government , John Locke , Law 1201 Words | 5 Pages. Francis Bacon's Utilitarian Philosophy in Essays. ?rancis Bacon is a moral and utilitarian philosopher Question: Francis Bacon is a moral and a utilitarian . Not Be Allowed In School. philosopher – justify your answer in the light of the essays you have studied. Answer: Francis Bacon , the father of English essays, is an Essay of Factions, Elizabethan essayist, moralist and on Cell Phones Not Be In School thinker whose essays are loaded with ripest wisdom of experience. Of Factions. Nobody can deny the wisdom of Phones Should Allowed his understanding of the affairs of the world. He shows an extraordinary insight regarding the problems that men face in. Essay , Essays , Francis Bacon 1027 Words | 3 Pages.
A response to Of Studies - an Essay on The, Essay by Sir Francis Bacon. The topic of the essay 'Of Studies' by Phones Should Not Be Allowed Sir Francis Bacon is clearly visible in the title itself. The main theme of the proposing a solution essay topics, essay is . to Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed explain the use of studies as they serve for delight - in privateness and retiring, - in discourse, and for ability - in the judgment and disposition of business. The author, by means of this essay, stresses the animal questions, importance of studies in Essay Should In School life. He supports the notion that study is an immensely important aspect of life, as he goes on to explain what type of Essay Consequences study, books. Essay , Francis Bacon , Rhetoric 509 Words | 2 Pages.
uses would: If I had a lot of money, I would buy a house. (The truth is that you don’t have a lot of money.) If I knew Japanese, I . would work in Tokyo. (The truth is that you don’t know Japanese.) I wish I had a better job. Essay Phones Allowed In School. If I had a good job, I would be much happier. (The truth is that you don’t have a good job.) I wish I knew how to type. If I knew how to type, I would be able to get a better job. (The truth is that you don’t know how to type.) The verb to trait be is always were. Future , Grammatical tense , Past 687 Words | 3 Pages. prevent someone from performing their responsibility. “Another problem of egoism is that it cannot settle disputes among people.
If everyone were to pursue . their own self interests, what will happen when there is a conflict of Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School interest? Egoism has no explanation or solution for trait this. For example, someone sees it is in their interest to kill their rich uncle in order to inherit his money. However it is in the uncle’s interest to stay alive and enjoy his money.” (ETHICS Alex Ru, 2001) Egoism cannot operate. A Theory of Justice , Ethics , Ethics of care 1387 Words | 4 Pages. ?Madi McClure 05/14/14 3rd Period Deception and Truth The Good In Deception Everyone characterizes deception differently. One may view it as . breaking the trust of Essay Phones a loved one and think of it as a mere deceit. Others may accept deception as a way to gain or give happiness.
Some may even think of it as part of on The Metamorphosis by Kafka life. Essay Should Allowed In School. More commonly, deception stands being viewed as hand and hand with “evil”, this includes, not only viewed by people, but also portrayed in movies and novels from sentence all eras of time. Frequently. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Confidence trick , Deception 879 Words | 3 Pages. should go through to determine the best positioning strategy. NEW SERVICE DEVELOPMENT 1. Explain the approaches to service system design 2. Explain the . concept of blueprinting.
Bring out its importance in the context of service design. 3. Write a note on service design process 4. Should Allowed. Explain the various elements that have to be taken into consideration while designing a service. SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM A. Employees Role in farm questions Service Delivery . Distribution , Marketing , Marketing management 838 Words | 4 Pages. succeed in this course. We might not take attendance, but we expect you to be present and on Essay Should Not Be Allowed In School time. Experience has shown that excessive absences will . adversely affect your final grade. If you must miss class, it is Consequences of Factions your responsibility to get the notes from on Cell Phones Should a classmate.
Those who fail to animal farm questions attend lectures or lab sessions more than THREE (3) times without any valid reasons may be barred from taking the Essay on Cell Allowed, final examination. Make-Up Tests/Quizzes There is no such thing. All tests/quizzes are required. ALGOL , Algorithm , C 568 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Music In The Classroom Essay. Teachers need to use their professional skills, attributes and judgment every day – note at least 5 examples of unconventional methods of Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School . teaching that Ron Clark uses. • using the same method as how the students treat him: making students understand how bad it feels to be treated in that way • sacrificing himself (drinking milk): makes fun of himself (singing): give the students an impression that teachers can be informal • treat himself like one of the students (playing with the kids): break.
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Tips for Academic Writing and Should Not Be In School Other Formal Writing. It is a long list. People have a lot of problems. Some of the items sound picky or trivial, even to me. Yet bad grammar, bad style, and in the Essay poor organization will make it very difficult for you to convey your ideas clearly and professionally, and will limit your academic and professional success. I strongly recommend that you work to on Cell Phones In School eliminate any of these problems that may apply to your own writing. -- Dr. James A. Essay On The Consequences Of Factions. Bednar. Rules for Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to Music Classroom be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured.
Formal writing is Essay on Cell Phones Allowed In School not just dictated conversation In general, it is Essay on The Consequences inappropriate simply to on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed write as you would speak. In conversation, the a solution essay topics listener can ask for on Cell Should Not Be Allowed clarification or elaboration easily, and thus the speaker can use imprecise language, ramble from Metamorphosis topic to topic freely, and so on. Formal writing must instead stand on Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, its own, conveying the author's thesis clearly through words alone. As a result, formal writing requires substantial effort to construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments relevant to a well-defined thesis. The best formal writing will be difficult to write but very easy to read. The author's time and effort spent on writing will be repaid with the Consequences time and effort saved by the (many) readers. Make your thesis obvious throughout An essay, article, or report should have one main topic (the thesis) that is clearly evident in the introduction and conclusion.
Of course, the thesis may itself be a conjunction or a contrast between two items, but it must still be expressible as a single, coherent point. Essay Not Be. In a short essay, the main point should usually conclude the Music Classroom introductory paragraph. In a longer essay, the main point generally concludes the introductory section. The reader should never be in any doubt about what your thesis is; whenever you think it might not be absolutely obvious, remind the on Cell Should Allowed In School reader again. When in doubt, use the recipe: introduce, expand/justify, conclude Paragraphs, subsections, sections, chapters, and books all use the same structure: first make the topic clear, then expand upon it, and finally sum up, tying everything back to the topic. At each level, you need to Essay tell the Essay Phones Not Be reader what you will be trying to say (in this paragraph, section, etc.), then you need to cover all the relevant material, clearly relating it to your stated point, and finally you need to tie the subtopics together so that they do indeed add up to establish the point that you promised.
Stay on topic Everything in your document should be related clearly to your main thesis. You can write other papers later for Metamorphosis anything else you might want to say. The reason your reader is reading this particular paper of Phones Should Not Be In School yours is rebellious in a that he or she wants to know about Essay, your main topic, not simply about everything you might want to say (unless for entrepreneurial some narcissistic reason everything you might want to say is your clearly stated main topic). Conversely, there is no need to bring up items simply because they relate to your main topic, if you do not have anything to say about them. If you do bring something up, say something important about it! Staying on topic does not mean being one sided To avoid being misleading, you will often need to acknowledge some weaknesses in your argument or discuss some merits of an opposing argument. It is quite appropriate to Not Be Allowed discuss such opposing views when they are relevant, i.e., when they relate directly to the main topic of your paper. Essay On The Metamorphosis. For instance, if you are reviewing a paper and arguing that it was not written well overall, it is Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed usually a good idea to point out the rebellious in a few things that were done well, e.g. so that the Essay Allowed In School reader does not get the impression that you just like to complain :-) . Often such opposing observations fit well just after the on The introduction, providing a background for the rest of your arguments that follow. Whenever you do include such material, i.e. Phones Not Be. things that go in the direction opposite to your main thesis, be careful to Music Essay put it into only a few well-defined places, reorganizing your argument to achieve that when necessary. On Cell Allowed In School. Jumping back and forth will confuse the reader unnecessarily.
In every case, try to animal farm questions make your point as clearly as possible, while at Allowed, the same time not overstating it and Music in the Classroom Essay not pretending that no other valid viewpoints exist. Transitions are difficult but very important Each sentence in your document should follow smoothly from the preceding sentence, and each paragraph should follow smoothly from the preceding paragraph. The world is arguably an unstructured jumble of ideas, but anything that you expect the reader to read from start to finish needs to Not Be Allowed In School be a linear progression along one single path. Transition words and phrases are what make it possible for a reader to follow you easily as you explore the Essay on The of Factions various ideas in your paper. Without good transitions, the reader will end up backtracking repeatedly, which will often cause your point to be lost or your paper to be tossed aside altogether. One clue that your writing needs better transitions is if you find that you can cut and Essay on Cell Should Not Be Allowed paste paragraphs from one section to another without doing substantial rewriting of how the farm paragraph begins and Essay Should Not Be Allowed ends. If making such rearrangements is easy, then you have not been linking your paragraphs into a coherent narrative that reads well from entrepreneurial trait start to Not Be finish. In practice, making smooth transitions is very difficult. Music In The Essay. Learning to do it takes a lot of practice at first, and actually making the transitions smooth takes a lot of effort every time you write or revise something. One rule of Essay Not Be Allowed thumb is that whenever you switch topics, you should try to provide a verbal clue that you are doing so, using transitions like However, . , As a result, . Rebellious. , For comparison, , etc. If you notice that you have to add these words between most of your sentences, not just the paragraphs, then you are bouncing around too much.
In that case you need to Not Be In School reorganize your document to group related thoughts together, switching topics only Essay on The Metamorphosis by Kafka when necessary. Once the organization is good, all you can do is Should Not Be In School read and reread what you write, rewording it until each new item follows easily from those before it. Write what you mean, mean what you write Speakers use many informal, colloquial phrases in casual conversation, usually intending to convey meanings other than what the words literally indicate. For instance, we often speak informally of going the entrepreneurial trait extra mile, at the end of the day, hard facts, things being crystal clear or pretty convincing, someone sticking to Phones Not Be Allowed a topic, readers being turned off, something really being the case, etc. Avoid such imprecise writing in formal prose -- whenever possible, the words you write should literally mean exactly what they say. If there were no miles involved, do not write of rebellious extra ones; if there was no crystal, do not write about its clarity. Among other benefits, avoiding such informal language will ensure that your meaning is on Cell Should Not Be In School obvious even to entrepreneurial those who have not learned the currently popular idioms, such as those for whom English is a second language and on Cell Phones Not Be In School those who might read your writing years from now or in another part of the world. Formal writing should be clear to as many people as possible, and its meaning should not depend on the whims of Music in the Essay your local dialect of on Cell Should Allowed English.
It is a permanent and public record of your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to Metamorphosis by Kafka avoid that temptation. When two words will do, there is no need to Essay Allowed use twenty. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is sentence far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to test whether you can say the Essay Phones Should same thing a dozen different ways just to fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about entrepreneurial, another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. On Cell Allowed In School. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of farm time, pointless, etc. If some of the Should Not Be essays I have seen were read out on The Consequences, loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result.
At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is Should rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the author or implying that he or she is an imbecile. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to farm pretend that you are the author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and Essay Not Be you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the entrepreneurial sentences in what you are reading right now!). Should In School. E.g. do not say Recall that . . Of course, an Essay on The of Factions occasional imperative in parentheses is Should Allowed In School not objectionable (e.g. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to Essay be structured at all levels, whether or not the structure is made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction, (2) try your hardest to Essay Phones Not Be convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the animal farm questions paper, and (3) restate the Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed thesis in a solution, the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea.
The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for Essay Should Not Be an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is entrepreneurial trait one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in Essay Allowed, a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to Classroom the main topic of your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an Essay on Cell Should Not Be entire thought, not just a fragment or the entrepreneurial beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is Essay Phones Should In School just a fragment, i.e., a start to a sentence or a part of one. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb.
Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in on The Metamorphosis, case you have two sentences that need to on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School be linked in some generic way, or make the linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to on The Consequences leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and Phones Not Be Allowed succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of in the Essay section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly.
Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. Allowed In School. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in that section. Such labels should make sense to someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to entrepreneurial a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is meaningless to someone scanning the document. Essay Phones Should Allowed In School. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at trait, least skim the introduction and conclusion, and those who read it in depth will remember those two sections the best.
So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and Essay Allowed In School unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and on The by Kafka abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to on Cell Not Be Allowed say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. In A Sentence. Instead state that the paper is unconvincing, and (in brief) why you believe that to be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and Phones Not Be Allowed 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in entrepreneurial, the order of the subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged.
Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in Allowed, that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on a solution topics, to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on what to put into figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to on Cell Not Be In School be readable independently of the main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at interesting figures, before deciding whether to Essay on The of Factions read the whole article. On Cell Phones Not Be. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the figures being understandable only when reading the main text.
Even in Essay, such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is Essay Phones clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of entrepreneurial what you are trying to achieve, i.e. whether you want the caption to be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to on Cell Phones the reader, because there are e.g. In The Classroom Essay. many possible interpretations of on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word.
For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in Essay Metamorphosis, which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to which you refer is explicitly mentioned in Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School, your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of farm several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by on Cell Should, adding a noun that specifies precisely the type of object or concept to which you are referring. For instance, this argument or this paper is less confusing than simply this. Rebellious. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is on Cell a good example of the sentence use of the word 'this'. Watch out for homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is on Cell Phones Allowed confused with other actual words. Trait. As a result, homonyms are probably the Essay Should Not Be Allowed In School most common spelling errors in Music in the Classroom, word-processed text.
Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of Essay on Cell Not Be In School these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the in a sentence other words you may misspell, learning to on Cell Phones Allowed use these few words correctly is proposing a solution essay surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for Phones Allowed In School convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the Essay on The word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable.
If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and Phones Allowed replace it with however, or vice versa, the animal farm questions result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is on Cell Allowed In School a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is not appropriate to discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the first half of in the Essay a point, etc.
Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of Essay on Cell research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in farm questions, doubt, use lower case. Capitalization is Essay on Cell Phones appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. In A. a computer science department, the Essay Phones Should In School president vs.
President Bush. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only in a when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to on Cell Not Be Allowed group pairs of words when the rebellious meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the on Cell Allowed dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to rebellious in a sentence use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an adjective. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. For example, the Essay on Cell Not Be phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the by Kafka English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear.
Note that there would never be a hyphen if the same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the Essay on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the entrepreneurial noun phrase English language into Should Allowed In School an adjective, and animal farm questions a prepositional phrase starting with of the must be completed with a noun, not an on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Essay. An adverb explicitly modifies the adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an on Cell Phones In School adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of Consequences grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. Phones Not Be Allowed. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the entrepreneurial trait hyphen groups language and learning, while the en-dash -- connects language learning with associated.
Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to Essay Phones Not Be In School read. Rebellious In A Sentence. But in on Cell Should Allowed In School, such cases it is Essay Consequences of Factions often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the word grouping is quite obvious because the pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous.
In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed In School same phrase but e.g. after the noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is proposing a solution topics not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in the sentence. American vs. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in Essay on Cell Phones Allowed In School, a British university, and on The Consequences I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Should Not Be In School. Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the proposing a solution topics spellings to on Cell Phones Should In School make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in a solution essay topics, doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in psychology and on Cell Should Allowed In School computer science generally follow the APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Trait. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for Essay on Cell Allowed In School the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition.
Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the spacing regular between words (e.g. Music In The Classroom. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is Essay Not Be distracting and makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together.
At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and trait some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by Should Not Be Allowed In School, their first names, as if they were your friends. They are not, and questions even if they were, it would be inappropriate to draw attention to that circumstance. Should Not Be In School. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to Music in the Essay them or their work.
So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School triple checking them against rebellious in a the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to entrepreneurial the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the authors' last names, not he or the on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School author. If there is only one author and you can determine the on The Consequences gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the author's last name. Referring to other texts Use double quotes around the Essay on Cell Should title of an article when you refer to it in the text. Essay On The Metamorphosis By Kafka. Italics are reserved for Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. Proposing Topics. If commenting on Essay Not Be In School, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you.
When in doubt, use the actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to entrepreneurial trait avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to fit into the main flow of the text, yet is on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to proposing a solution essay topics literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. Essay Phones Not Be Allowed. if the work is so groundbreaking that the proposing a solution essay topics words themselves have driven research in this field. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on Essay on Cell Should Allowed, the underlying issue rather than the way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about grammar If you are going to animal farm questions criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in Should, writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is in the Essay no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the Essay on Cell Should In School authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy.
If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. Similarly, it is clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about papers and authors, and trait thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School your own or someone else's, there is rebellious in a a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. Essay On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do.
Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about existing work before exploring the limitations, and Essay Metamorphosis you should always assume that the Not Be person you are discussing will read what you wrote. Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e.g. to Essay on The draw attention to yourself by Phones Should Allowed, attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. Trait. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for Should Not Be Allowed success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to Essay of Factions see if you got the right answer; research is not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to you to Phones Should Not Be In School define the on The of Factions question and Essay Phones Should the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to animal farm questions be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the Phones Should Not Be In School work but believed it not to be relevant. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for omitting topics that you do not believe to be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to Music Classroom Essay understand or remember.
Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in Essay on Cell In School, order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an Consequences author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the on Cell Should Allowed In School conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of rebellious sentence who published it. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for Essay on The Metamorphosis by Kafka locating the Should Not Be article, such as the Music Classroom Essay cost of reprints.
As long as the correct information is included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in on Cell Not Be Allowed, a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and proposing topics without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the first bracket, as in . On Cell Phones Should Allowed In School. known , ( not . known). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the entrepreneurial trait grammar of the Should Not Be In School sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. Thus the rule is simply to put the on The parentheses around the part that would be acceptable to on Cell Allowed omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in rats (Carlin 1972). Essay On The. ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed In School, rats Carlin (1972).).
It is usually best to farm questions have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and Essay on Cell Should Allowed In School we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and in the Essay scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is Essay Should Not Be being reported was an arbitrary and in the Classroom specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. Should Not Be In School. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in proposing a solution essay topics, other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. Not Be Allowed In School. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-)
Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of quoted text is traditionally placed inside the quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the animal farm questions comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to write life is on Cell Should Not Be hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. Animal Farm Questions. However, I myself much prefer to put a space before and after the Not Be In School dash. Without the spaces the dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the dash is to separate and entrepreneurial connect phrases or clauses, not words, and I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.
Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in Essay on Cell Should Allowed, the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in they arrived at Essay on The Consequences of Factions, the place they were heading to. Essay On Cell Should In School. However, in practice it is rebellious often very difficult and awkward to Phones Should Not Be Allowed reword sentences to in a sentence avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at Not Be In School, best. Serial commas In Britain and some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an farm questions 'and' in a list. For instance, they will write of ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs.
I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in on Cell Phones In School, the list together. Lists are generally meant to sentence be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and Essay on Cell Allowed eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is ambiguous. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the Consequences sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Many grammar books state that a comma is always required after i.e. and e.g. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. Essay On Cell Should Not Be. The inspiration for this rule is rebellious in a that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to the English translation of the Should Not Be In School Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. translating to for example, which in itself is an proposing topics important distinction to know). Phones Allowed. However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them.
Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the rebellious abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Latin phrases and then English phrases. Phones Should Allowed In School. Thus in many cases I prefer to omit the comma after the Essay by Kafka abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. Essay On Cell Should Allowed. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.
If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.
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3 Tragic Misconceptions About Proposal Cover Letters. Cover letters are one of the most important pieces of a proposal. Essay Should Not Be! Unfortunately, 99% of the in the Classroom Essay cover letters I#8217;ve seen during my Brutally Honest Proposal Critiques are cr*p. The problem stems from Essay on Cell Phones Should, common misconceptions about the cover letter#8217;s place in the current proposal environment. Lets look at three misconceptions that can lead to epic cover letter failure. Misconception #1: People Want To Read Your Cover Letter. Recently, I was at a prebid meeting at PASSHE, which is responsible for Essay of Factions, dorm construction for Pennsylvania#8217;s state university system.
The Director of Construction made it plain. #8220;Don#8217;t include a cover letter in your proposal. It#8217;s not going to convince us. So, don#8217;t waste your time.#8221; Why would he say that? He said that because he#8217;s seen hundreds, if not thousands, of Essay Phones cover letters and they all said nothing. There was nothing of Classroom value in those cover letters.
Naturally, when he sees a cover letter, we have trained his brain to Phones Should In School, skip over it. If you think someone is rebellious, likely to read your cover letter, you are insane. Instead, you have to Essay Should Not Be, give people a reason to read your cover letter. You have to get their attention and then create a #8220;slippery slope#8221; that will keep them reading. Music Classroom Essay! I give an in-depth tutorial on creating a slippery slope in Proposal Development Secrets. Many of you have already read the book. I won#8217;t rehash all of that. But remember, you have to start off by creating a #8220;knowledge gap.#8221; You create a knowledge gap by highlighting a gap between what the reader knows and what the reader wants to know. Let#8217;s say you are proposing to a client that knows your firm pretty well.
You might use, #8220;3 Things You Might Not Know About ABC Architects.#8221; Those three things better be something they don#8217;t know and on Cell Phones Should Not Be, also highlight what they would be missing out on if they hire someone else for this project. Farm Questions! You#8217;ll notice I use this knowledge gap technique with a lot of Not Be Allowed In School my titles. That#8217;s why my open rate is so much higher than the industry average. I give people a reason to read, then deliver. Obviously, it#8217;s a technique I#8217;ve also used quite successfully in proposals to clients all over on The of Factions, the country.
Misconception #2: You Can Use A Template. People always get angry at Essay Not Be In School me when they ask for an example of a great cover letter for a solution essay, them to use. That#8217;s because I tell them such a thing does not exist. On Cell Phones Not Be! A great cover letter to the Department of Veterans Affairs is in the Essay, not going to be a great cover letter to the University of Pennsylvania Health System. Each cover letter has to speak to the specific client and project.
Unfortunately, that means, gasp, each cover letter will have to Essay on Cell In School, be written from scratch. There is no way around it. Well, actually there is. Write a terrible cover letter they will simply skip over. But that won#8217;t help you win. Misconception #3: Throw Everything At Them and See What Sticks. This misconception leads to long cover letters.
Here#8217;s the on The Metamorphosis by Kafka problem. If you had received a three-page letter in on Cell, 1973, the likelihood that you would have read all three pages would have been very high. But we live in a different world. When was the last time you read, word for word, a three-page letter? Even better yet, when was the trait last time you even received a three-page letter? I#8217;m sorry to say that if my own grandmother sent me a three-page letter, she#8217;d be pushing her luck.
I couldn#8217;t promise I#8217;d read ever word. Should Allowed In School! Busy people just don#8217;t read long cover letters. Anything longer than a page is pushing it. When my boss sees a two-page cover letter from me, his initial reaction is, #8220;There is something up. Why is this so long?#8221; Two-page cover letters are sometimes unavoidable. But three-page cover letters are always avoidable. Every word needs to earn its place on the cover letter.
If it doesn#8217;t speak specifically to this client, to this project#8230;it hasn#8217;t earned its place. As much as it pains you, leave it out. Don#8217;t let these misconceptions plague your cover letters. Follow my advice and you#8217;ll get an opportunity to make a powerful pitch to your clients. Animal Farm Questions! If you want to learn more about the slippery slope, I just released an on Cell Should Not Be In School unrestricted PDF of Proposal Development Secrets. In A! If you liked this article, please subscribe below or on Essay Phones Should, the right side of the homepage. If you want to give us your thoughts on this issue, please leave a comment below. Farm Questions! Great post! Misconception #2 is Not Be Allowed In School, spot on! It drives me nuts how many times I see the same generic letter over and over#8230; Also, this template letter usually has everything in it (Misconception #3).
Thank you for the comment. On The Metamorphosis By Kafka! I love reading cover letters that say #8220;We#8217;re excited to be submitting on project XYZ#8230;#8221; Yes I can tell you are excited to be submitting#8230; (in my best Ben Stein voice) That#8217;s why your cover letter states it. Our it states you are passionate about the project. People who are passionate don#8217;t have to write they are passionate it shows in everything they do or write. Another great post worth passing along! Good reminders. This is Essay In School, similar advice to an SMPS speaker I saw at on The Metamorphosis by Kafka a regional conference. Here is where I struggle though. Any advice on helping BD staff get good project-specific, client-specific info to pack into proposals?
Or to help find out what we offer that#8217;s actually different? I#8217;m the on Cell Phones In School marketer who doesn#8217;t interact with clients. All my info comes from BD and if I don#8217;t get good info from rebellious sentence, them the entire proposal, not just the cover letter, reflects that. I feel there has to be a better way because otherwise it seems impossible to do what you say. Thank you for the comment. On Cell Phones Not Be In School! I#8217;ll address this problem in a future post. Keep reading. I do talk a little bit about this in my book. Essay Topics! Pick that up if you haven#8217;t yet. Essay On Cell Should Not Be! Here#8217;s the link.
Cover letters are a waste of everyone#8217;s time. Entrepreneurial Trait! I wouldn#8217;t go that far. I certainly don#8217;t think they are a waste of Phones Should Not Be Allowed time. Not if you do it right. I was once told by a US Army Corps of Engineers that when a proposal has a bound-in cover letter, the secretary rips the entrepreneurial trait letter out of each copy before distributing them to the screening committee. That#8217;s a good story.
I believe it. Years ago, I was on a debrief call where the Army Corps admitted to not reading most of Essay on Cell Phones Should In School our proposal. Music Classroom! I#8217;m the only proposal writer at an engineering firm with nearly 20 project managers. All but a very small minority consistently rely on at least one of these three misconceptions for Phones Allowed In School, every single cover letter. thanks Matt. You might start by forwarding them the link to this article. Sometimes it helps to hear it from an sentence outside source. Phones Not Be! I#8217;ve made everyone of those mistakes in cover letters, multiple times. As usual, you are spot on. Thanks Matt.
Thank you for commenting. Farm Questions! I didn#8217;t even know you read the on Cell Should site. Entrepreneurial! #128578; I#8217;ll shoot you an email. Everything you are saying about the old way about writing cover letters is true. I hate having to follow what the uncreative people wrote before. Essay On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School! Even though we win most of on The Metamorphosis by Kafka our bids, I would still like to write fresh and Essay on Cell Phones, creative cover letters and proposals.
Thank you for commenting. Cover letters are just a piece of the Essay of Factions puzzle. I#8217;m sure many successful firms have terrible cover letters. Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School! Yet, they still win lots of contracts. On The Consequences! But even if you have a winning record, getting even better will help protect your position.
It sounds like you agree. Essay Phones Should Not Be! Great post, Matt. I have been pushing people toward more concise and engaging letters for years and will keep fighting the rebellious in a sentence good fight. When I have just a few minutes to Essay on Cell Phones Not Be, #8216;peer review#8217; a colleague#8217;s proposal, I always go to entrepreneurial trait, the letter first. Whether read, skimmed, or glanced at, the letter remains part of the client#8217;s first impression. Thank you for Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be, your comment Jeff. Keep fighting the good fight.
This is a great piece, Matt. To go along with it, I remember seeing (long ago) a list of the phrases we all used in cover letters which one should never use. For example, the first item on entrepreneurial trait, the list was the on Cell Not Be In School traditional opening, #8220;We are pleased to present.#8221; The explanation was that if you weren#8217;t pleased to present, you wouldn#8217;t have presented at all, so these words were a waste of space. If someone could find that list again and share it, maybe we#8217;d all learn even more about cover letters than you taught above. Was it words not to use in your proposal?
If so, I have that document. When will we be able to farm, turn off the broken record and stop having to repeat ourselves when we tell our folks in the field #8220;quality, not quantity. #8221; the Proposal Writer lamented, tapping dejectedly at her keyboard. Cover letters can be quite valuable if the writer uses them appropriately, e.g., as a way to Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School, connect personally/remind the prospect of a recent meeting and to segue into the proposal with a friendly but professional recap of the trait reader#8217;s needs and objectives (if the salesperson was lucky enough to have had an on Cell Phones Not Be actual meeting or even phone call with the prospect ahead of on The Consequences time). Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed! Nice choice of graphic. Rebellious Sentence! I like the oh-so-subtle hidden #8220;hurdle#8221; concept as a backdrop for the massive wipeout.
Thank you for the comment. Interesting reading I was in a proposal training where it was stated in today#8217;s world it is best practice to not include a cover letter as it has no value add. I#8217;m old school and agree it is just good business practice and one should take the opportunity to make it of value. Thank you for the comment. Matt this is great. Thanks for giving voice to Not Be In School, my frustration with template letters. Thank you for commenting.
Great post! I like your idea for #8220;3 things you may not know about our company#8221;. [#8230;] Here#8217;s a great piece by Music in the Matt Handal about proposal cover letters. On Cell Should Not Be In School! [#8230;] Get The FREE Proposal Writing Crash Course! Proposal Workshop (Austin, TX) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar For SDA Members) Proposal Development Secrets (Free Webinar) How to Get Meetings with the Most Unreachable Potential Clients (Free Webinar) How Much Traffic Should Your Website Really Get? Why Mistakes In Proposals Don#8217;t Matter…and What Does. Essay Consequences Of Factions! The Ultimate SF330 Guide (with Template) A/E Marketers Are Not Your Gal Friday. What I#8217;ve Learned From Using Zurmo As My CRM.
The Purpose of Graphics and Images in a Proposal…It#8217;s Not What You Think. AEC Marketing Jobs Marketing and Essay on Cell Should, Business Development Jobs With Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Firms Business Development Manager Job Description A new site about business development CofeBuz Tim Klabunde#8217;s tips on becoming a better networker. Construction Marketing Ideas Mark Buchshon#8217;s daily blog for the construction marketer. Animal Questions! Delay Damages A website all about construction delay damages. Ediscovery An entire site about ediscovery How To Write A Proposal A website dedicated to explaining proposal writing to those who have little to on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School, no experience doing so. Marketers Take Flight Career advice for A/E/C marketers. My Business Letter The internet#8217;s more comprehensive website on the business letter.
Hi. I'm Matt Handal. Topics! And this is my site Help Everybody Everyday. I provide helpful advice to marketers in the architecture, engineering, and construction world.
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Nov 16, 2017 Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School,
Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Phones Should Not Be Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for proposing a solution essay, disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.
The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the Essay Not Be, agency provides ongoing grants to Essay on The Metamorphosis, the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of other organizations.
FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the damage caused by floods. The NFIP also encourages an expansion of federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird America’s system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the on Cell Phones Should Allowed, dominant role. Looking at on The of Factions, American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of on Cell Should Allowed, aid by individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.
Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Rebellious In A! Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in Allowed In School 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. Trait! Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in Essay on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School helping communities respond to both natural and man-made disasters. Rebellious! However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for Essay Should Allowed, natural disasters, which are the main focus of this essay.
Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and it operates the in a, National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and Not Be In School local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.
Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the trait, 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is still supposed to be very limited under current law. Phones Not Be Allowed In School! Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to Music in the Classroom, get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. Phones Should! State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is animal farm truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on aid from other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. The Coast Guard’s search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.
And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is on Cell Phones In School not unique. Rather, FEMA’s main role is simply to transfer money from federal taxpayers to animal farm questions, state and local governments and individuals for Essay on Cell Phones Should, disaster-related costs. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and animal farm there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. The next section discusses the Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School, threat posed by animal farm the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.
Some of Not Be, its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. FEMA’s confused response to Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. Consequences! These grants have often wasted money on Essay on Cell Should In School low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the NFIP and animal move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed! Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for sentence, technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the Essay Phones Should, U.S. Proposing A Solution Topics! military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.
Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to Phones Not Be, provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the animal farm, country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.
The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on Essay Not Be Allowed In School the area to buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to Metamorphosis by Kafka, multiple different speculators. Essay On Cell Phones Allowed In School! The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the town was part of the trait, District of Columbia at Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed, the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.
In 1835 the Great Fire of farm questions, Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. On Cell! The U.S.
Army helped to restore order and provide security until the topics, city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the nation and Essay Phones Should In School abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Music in the Classroom Essay, Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for Should Allowed, the federal role in Essay on The by Kafka disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from Essay Should Not Be, being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for disaster relief operations at the request of a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.
In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and Essay Consequences I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. On Cell Should Allowed In School! A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of Essay on The Metamorphosis, this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about Essay Phones Should Allowed In School, 3,000 people. Proposing A Solution Essay! 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. Should Not Be Allowed! 20.
The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. Trait! More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to Not Be, the disaster was extremely impressive. Rebellious Sentence! Voluntary aid poured in on Cell Phones Should from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Proposing Essay! Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.
22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in relief efforts. The health care and Phones Should Not Be Allowed home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to sentence, the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from more than 100 different companies. On Cell Should Allowed! 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in by Kafka claims, which was equal to what the Should, entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.
25 Insurance payouts totaled about sentence, 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to provide loans to all types of Allowed In School, people after the entrepreneurial, disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.
His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed, Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and animal provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the on Cell Should Not Be In School, city. Consequences Of Factions! 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School, his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of essay topics, his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, relief efforts.
31. What about the government response to in a sentence, the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from a corrupt local government. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. Should Not Be In School! 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Entrepreneurial Trait! Army, which moved quickly to take control of the Essay Not Be, city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by in the Classroom Essay the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in Essay Phones In School the aftermath of proposing a solution topics, disasters. 35.
In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to on Cell Should Not Be In School, ever strike the proposing a solution essay topics, United States. 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Should Allowed Dayton probably the rebellious, hardest hit city.
It was built on a flood plain, so when the city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School, flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and Essay Metamorphosis organizer of Essay Not Be Allowed, relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for thousands of people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for a solution essay, the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.
He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. But he was also an Essay Should Not Be Allowed In School, aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the 1913 disaster. Entrepreneurial Trait! 41 One of Should Not Be Allowed, her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of aid by Metamorphosis by Kafka affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at Phones Not Be In School, the time regarding personal pride and farm questions the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.
These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of Essay Not Be Allowed In School, fraud in relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the Essay on The Consequences of Factions, federal role in Essay In School disaster relief in subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in proposing U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and on Cell Should Not Be In School tributaries broke out of levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to flood control.
44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to a solution, lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Cross’s huge achievement in on Cell Phones Should Allowed In School providing hundreds of thousands of people food and shelter in rebellious in a temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School, American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . The safety of the United States is its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for Consequences of Factions, natural disasters remained modest and Essay Should Not Be Allowed sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for on The of Factions, federal disaster relief. On Cell Phones! The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to essay topics, respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in Essay Not Be Allowed In School the severest of emergencies.
In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution.” 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to local governments, and trait generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and on Cell Allowed paying for special relief bills passed after floods.
The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. Music Classroom! The 1974 Act also created the current system of presidential “emergency” and Phones Should Not Be Allowed “major disaster” declarations for adverse events. On The! The main purpose of the Phones Not Be Allowed In School, declarations is to in the, authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and local governments and Essay Phones Should individuals. Music In The! The number of Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to Essay, create the new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School, Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and Music in the the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in various departments.
FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out aid and to coordinate the Phones In School, federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Rebellious! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMA’s response. On Cell Not Be Allowed In School! 53 The governor of a state may request the president to rebellious in a, declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of Essay Phones Should, such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the trait, capabilities of the state and the affected local governments and that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed, aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.
Aid authorized under the Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. Rebellious In A! 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and Essay Not Be Allowed In School the rest was spent on administration and other costs. 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the other 25 percent. But the animal questions, president can increase the federal share of these costs, and on Cell Not Be he has done so about three-quarters of the entrepreneurial, time that governors have asked him to.
58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School, federalism in proposing a solution disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.
Few of the “major disasters” declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to Essay Phones Should In School, meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to on The Consequences of Factions, issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to Phones, get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the in a sentence, Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Essay Phones Should Allowed, Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out that way. DHS’s budget tripled from Music in the, $18 billion in 2002 to Essay Phones, $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in animal Washington, D.C., is over-budget by $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.
The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and Essay on Cell Not Be In School state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and other federal agencies for on The Metamorphosis, the Katrina response and Essay Not Be In School rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. 67. FEMA appears to entrepreneurial trait, have done a better job in Essay on Cell Should responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of rebellious in a sentence, billions of dollars in damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. Essay On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School! 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the Music in the, $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.
70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to Essay on Cell Should In School, major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Here’s how the Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.
The responsibility for responding to Music Classroom, disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and on Cell Not Be Allowed In School available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the rebellious in a sentence, local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the Essay Phones Not Be, disaster response. Of Factions! FEMA, or any other federal agency, is on Cell Should In School there to aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and farm programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. 71.
A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the Essay Should Not Be In School, U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the Essay Consequences, people, and Essay on Cell Allowed In School the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and Music in the Classroom Essay private organizations and resources that are on the scene and available to immediately assist in emergencies. On Cell Should In School! State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and Essay on The those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of our nation’s critical infrastructure is controlled not by Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to a solution essay topics, be the first responders in any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is Essay on Cell Should Allowed a troubling development. Essay! Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.
Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in Should Allowed In School disasters? Partly it was the response to entrepreneurial trait, 9/11, and partly it is the result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in on Cell Phones Not Be In School response to local emergencies. Essay On The Of Factions! Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in Essay on Cell In School charge.
Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of entrepreneurial trait, disaster situations, and Essay on Cell Should Allowed In School local and questions private organizations carry out the bulk of response and relief. Essay On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School! Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have “no directive authority and Consequences of Factions can only Essay Phones Should In School, request or suggest actions by the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and Classroom rescue team” but “FEMA is not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for most disasters, the purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for Essay Phones Should, state, local, and Essay on The private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.
76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of Not Be Allowed, instances, federal disaster relief amounts to Classroom, a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the state’s ledger to the federal government’s and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and Essay Should subsequently auditing the expenditure. Music Classroom! Thus for the typical disaster, the Essay on Cell Should Not Be In School, on-the-ground response action is really confined to rebellious in a, two of the Essay Phones Not Be Allowed, three system elements: the private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at Music Classroom, all. Even in major disasters the Essay Should Not Be, coordination function is led by the affected state or states. Farm! When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed In School, White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.
The annual average number was 51 in entrepreneurial the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and Essay on Cell Phones In School 139 so far in the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Rebellious In A Sentence! Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on on Cell Allowed In School the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. By Kafka! 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. On Cell Phones In School! That was true for Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. W. Proposing A Solution! Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in Phones 1996. George W. Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to Essay on The Consequences of Factions, determine whether federal aid is appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is on Cell Should Not Be Allowed needed. In 2012 the rebellious sentence, threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in damage.
81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of Should In School, disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the money to pay for a disaster of that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?
As noted, it goes against in a the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and Essay on Cell Should local governments and their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of all the extra paperwork involved. Topics! James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Essay on Cell Should Allowed, Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for entrepreneurial, each project and pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for Essay Should Not Be, their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in entrepreneurial a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of Essay Phones Should Not Be, state and Music Essay local projects submitted to Essay on Cell Should Allowed In School, it for approval after a large storm.
86. Another problem with federal intervention is by Kafka that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on Phones Not Be Allowed the residents of other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the full costs and Classroom Essay benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the on Cell Phones Should Allowed, incentive for state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for entrepreneurial, state and local governments to neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.
A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to ask for maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for Phones Should In School, hazard mitigation and Consequences of Factions preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the Not Be, availability of Essay Consequences, federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, “As the governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at on Cell Should Allowed In School, the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the “states should not be rewarded for being underprepared,” which they are under the current system.
98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. In The Essay! After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about Essay on Cell Should Allowed, how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of entrepreneurial, dollars of federal relief money. Allowed! A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Classroom Essay, Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.
And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into service for relief in Essay Phones Not Be truly major disasters. Music In The Classroom! But nearly all of FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of on Cell, major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly,” according to Essay on The Metamorphosis, security expert James Miskel. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of Not Be Allowed In School, FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for entrepreneurial, the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.
Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be, third most costly hurricane in U.S. Of Factions! history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for Phones Should, FEMA to get a detailed assessment of rebellious sentence, damage and to determine the needs of the victims. Essay Not Be Allowed In School! 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to rebellious sentence, call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. Should Not Be! 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to the coming hurricane because of rebellious in a sentence, its misunderstanding of actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.
Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew … Time and Essay on Cell Phones Should again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the in the Essay, National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and Essay Phones Should medical care. Rebellious Sentence! National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of Phones Not Be Allowed In School, electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of a solution topics, utility workers from across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of Essay Not Be In School, outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the Consequences of Factions, Gulf Coast, $100 billion in property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. Essay Phones Allowed! But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in animal questions disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and other federal, state, and local agencies.
Here are a few of the federal failures in Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and Music Classroom DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and they were not adequately trained to carry out Essay on Cell Should Not Be In School their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Classroom, Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and Phones Should National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for in the, Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed, learn important lessons” from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and control and made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of Essay on The, system interoperability. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Cold War.
120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. On Cell Phones Should Not Be! 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the Music Classroom Essay, New Orleans Superdome, it took days to Essay Not Be Allowed, deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in rebellious in a cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of ice unused. Phones Should Not Be In School! 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in Essay Metamorphosis warehouses for two years.
125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Phones Should Not Be! Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Metamorphosis, Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the Essay Phones Not Be, governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in on The Consequences making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of Essay on Cell Should, too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. A Solution! And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . Essay Phones Should Allowed In School! Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of essay topics, fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the total waste at on Cell Should Not Be Allowed, up to $2 billion.
130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the entrepreneurial, many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed, most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at Essay Consequences of Factions, New Orleans Airport to offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the rebellious, flights.
135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and Not Be In School the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for essay, evacuations. Essay On Cell Phones Should Allowed! 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in in a New Orleans to deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and Essay on Cell Should Allowed In School shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was “uncertainty over entrepreneurial trait who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to go.
It is the by Kafka, intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in entrepreneurial trait his 1999 book that “during the past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in on Cell Should Allowed an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guard’s performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in the days following the storm. 150.
Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and on The by Kafka relies much more on Essay on Cell In School local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and animal farm are familiar with local leaders and institutions, so they were able to make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of independent action,” which was crucial in the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out Essay on Cell In School paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is essay topics that the Coast Guard is Phones Should Not Be more insulated from politics than is FEMA.
The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to farm, reestablish law and Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in proposing essay topics place for Guard units to share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from on Cell Should Not Be Allowed, 49 states of the union. They “participated in proposing a solution essay every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and Should Not Be Allowed In School debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the on The Metamorphosis, first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on Phones Should Not Be Allowed the day Katrina made landfall.
In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and rebellious in a offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for on Cell Phones Not Be In School, mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and animal farm proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into Essay Allowed In School, damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for the storm’s immediate aftermath.
Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of Consequences of Factions, people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on Not Be Allowed In School the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. Proposing A Solution Topics! 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.
Economist Steven Horowitz studied the Should Not Be Allowed, performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and on The Consequences Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the Essay on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School, “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in of Factions the affected region.
Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of Phones Should In School, relief and Music Essay civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed In School, thousands of people on Metamorphosis by Kafka the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in the days after the storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to be the Essay Should In School, case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for a solution essay, Public Service, for Essay Phones, example, ranked it one the worst places to work in farm the federal government. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.
The new FEMA system is expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and it is far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, deficiencies to “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of assistance and support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the entrepreneurial, government said that it was helpful, and on Cell Should Allowed almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and animal questions local first responders. Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed other emergencies.” 173.
Most of the animal, preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is Essay Not Be Allowed In School a list of the preparedness grants with the entrepreneurial, 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for Essay Phones Should Not Be In School, urban preparedness against terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and rural areas. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Music Essay! Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.
Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed In School, Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is Classroom less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is Essay on Cell Phones Allowed because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in Essay Metamorphosis their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Essay Phones Should In School, Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of farm questions, money spent, not “how the money is spent, or whether it is Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed needed in the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of Essay on The by Kafka, politics.
UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of Congress—immediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the Should Not Be Allowed In School, program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. Rebellious In A Sentence! 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. On Cell Not Be Allowed! population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of farm, SHSP funding.
180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on on Cell Phones Not Be terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by in a sentence state and local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is Essay Phones In School “free” to farm, local governments, so they tend to squander it.
Coburn’s report provides examples of Essay Phones Should Allowed, cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Animal Farm! Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and on Cell Allowed a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.
The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and entrepreneurial other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. On Cell! Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to questions, buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. Essay On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School! 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to farm, their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.
187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed other items. Having well-funded fire departments is essay topics important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to Not Be Allowed In School, at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is Music a service that citizens everywhere demand from Essay Phones Allowed In School, their local governments, and in a sentence they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.
So there is no reason for the federal government to intervene in Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the proposing a solution essay topics, problem:
The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the Essay Phones Allowed, city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for proposing a solution topics, the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Essay On Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School! Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by a solution essay topics $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the Allowed In School, site for in a, fire station 51, complained at Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to Essay on Cell Phones Allowed, increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to Consequences, be a year late, and Not Be In School it’s going to cost us more money,” Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to on The by Kafka, the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. Essay On Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School! City staffers didn’t have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in entrepreneurial an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.
190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the Essay on Cell Should Allowed In School, firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Essay Consequences Of Factions! Local officials must fill out federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the Phones Not Be, money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.
FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is entrepreneurial trait a 2013 press release from In School, Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the Classroom Essay, process works: Earlier this year, Rep.
Maloney secured an investment for Should, $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for in the Classroom, Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for Essay Phones In School, firefighter salaries for a fixed period of on The Consequences, time.
After the grant money runs out, the town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and Essay by Kafka other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.
Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is “the most frequent and costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of Essay Phones Should Allowed, all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the system’s costs.
Also, the in the, NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from Essay on Cell Not Be, floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.
Most importantly, rather than reducing the nation’s flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Since 1970, the Consequences of Factions, estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from on Cell Should In School, 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by Metamorphosis by Kafka helping to draw more people and development into flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to participate in the NFIP. Should Not Be Allowed! 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to entrepreneurial trait, federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of Essay on Cell, $1.2 trillion.
196 Policies are serviced by private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the animal farm questions, NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of troubled programs for Essay Not Be, years. One problem is a solution that flood claims are handled by an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to on Cell Should Not Be In School, implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in farm annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.
201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. Essay Phones Should Allowed! 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the system’s risk, and it is legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. Animal Farm Questions! The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School, actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. 204 But even the farm, full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.
A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed, system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to proposing, date. Phones Should Not Be In School! FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by entrepreneurial trait factors such as ongoing development and erosion. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed that it undermines federalism. If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on how many of on The, 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.
208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the federal “government became a de facto regulator of Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School, certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to receive the higher tax revenues that stem from Essay on The Consequences of Factions, new development. The broader policy issue is that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in Phones Allowed hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and Essay developers to build in on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harm’s way.
211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by Music the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the NFIP is Phones Should In School one policy area where environmentalists and on The Consequences of Factions pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is on Cell Phones Should In School when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is in a clear when you consider the NFIP’s large payouts to Allowed, property owners who have made multiple claims.
The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to sentence, cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. Phones Not Be Allowed! 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.
USA Today reviewed FEMA records in on The by Kafka 2010 and found thousands of homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed, much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the entrepreneurial, NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in Essay Phones 1980. Questions! His architect told him that the government would pay for Essay on Cell Should, a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and animal questions Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the on Cell Phones Should Allowed In School, NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and Music in the concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to Essay on Cell Phones Allowed, accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is proposing essay that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed not the only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.
Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to animal questions, create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. The increase in perceived safety created by the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. Essay On Cell Should Not Be In School! 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and trait shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is on Cell Phones Should Allowed that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the in a, design capacity of In School, dams, levees, and sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and the interventions often work at cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of proposing essay, Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.
Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. Should Not Be In School! 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in Essay 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and Phones Should Not Be In School other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the questions, coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to on Cell Phones, hurricanes. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to on The Metamorphosis, build or rebuild along the Should Not Be, oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on farm this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and Essay Not Be sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the sentence, solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.
People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. Essay Phones Not Be! If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.
228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and much more is known about flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. Entrepreneurial! There is currently a very small but growing market for private flood insurance. 229. Federal and state governments can encourage the on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, development of private flood insurance by getting out of the way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.
Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of Classroom, flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for Phones Should Allowed In School, private carriers,” but only trait, if reforms are made to federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in on Cell Phones In School 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. 233 Then in response to Essay by Kafka, complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to on Cell Phones Should Not Be, reverse other reforms.
234. Congress should revisit this issue. Essay Consequences! The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and on Cell Should Allowed indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the NFIP.
237 She summarizes some of the reasons for on The of Factions, repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in Essay Phones the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and Essay on The Consequences of Factions 40 years of Essay Allowed, history showing clearly that the farm, federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts… . I believe in the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on Essay Phones Not Be a wide variety of issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to remove the federal government from the rebellious in a sentence, flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by Essay Not Be Allowed In School this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to by Kafka, the states. 238. One of the rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to policymaking on natural disasters.
This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in risky locations on on Cell Allowed In School floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. Trait! 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and Essay on Cell Phones Should Allowed the program amounts to welfare for Essay Consequences, the well-to-do. Congress created the Essay Phones Not Be Allowed In School, NFIP in 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is topics more sophisticated and in a better to Essay Not Be Allowed In School, position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the on The, NFIP in Phones Should Allowed In School combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.
240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in animal New Orleans and Essay Phones elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in essay disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the displacement of the very things that make the Essay Phones Should, system work most of the time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.
Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. Animal! 243 There is no reason why state and local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed, states to prepare in advance for disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of disasters. State and rebellious sentence local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at Essay on Cell Should, trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. Essay On The By Kafka! FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to Phones, politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to effectively handle many disasters. First responders and their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in the system.
As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and a solution essay topics DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. Essay Should Not Be In School! A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and let state, local, and entrepreneurial private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in the United States. Phones Not Be! Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.
All the animal farm questions, state governments have joined the Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be, Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for entrepreneurial, example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to on Cell Not Be, Mississippi under EMAC procedures. Animal! 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to share police and fire assets during emergencies. Essay On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School! 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the rebellious in a, country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to Essay, speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out rebellious in a sentence of the system in the name of Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School, improving the Essay Metamorphosis by Kafka, federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for fear of civil liability.
251 Another is to Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed, expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. SDFs often consist of Essay, retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. Essay Not Be! FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of Essay by Kafka, increasing the Phones Should Not Be, demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and entrepreneurial private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.
In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Essay Should Not Be Allowed In School Salvation Army have channeled donations to animal questions, victims. Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed! Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of Metamorphosis by Kafka, 1913. More recently, the Should Not Be, efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to a solution, use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.
So it makes more sense for the states to Essay Should, raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to on The, states and individuals should be ended and Should Not Be flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of FEMA’s current budget. Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to Music in the Classroom, other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the on Cell Phones Should Allowed, Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and Metamorphosis chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School a common one: the government tries to do too much, and a solution essay it ends up doing little well. On Cell Phones Should Allowed In School! In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and local governments or the private sector. But FEMA’s large and growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and trait inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.
1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School, the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the farm, Office of Management and Essay on Cell Phones In School Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.
5 Henry Hogue and proposing a solution Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and on Cell Allowed Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. Music In The Classroom! 1. Phones! Platt is citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. By Kafka! 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.
14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of Phones Not Be Allowed In School, 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and R. In The Essay! Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of Essay, 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. Music Classroom! 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed, 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in the United States,” EH.net, March 16, 2008.
27 The Virtual Museum of the on The of Factions, City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and apparently led to the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,” www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.
Bell is a former editor of Essay Phones Should Allowed In School, Scientific American and her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. In The Essay! Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Essay on Cell Phones Not Be Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Essay on The, Engineers in on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. Classroom! 233.
46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the Essay on Cell Phones Should In School, Robert T. Essay Consequences Of Factions! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.
See Bruce R. Essay On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed! Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. Entrepreneurial! And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. Essay On Cell Should Not Be In School! Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and entrepreneurial Emergency Assistance Act of Essay on Cell Should, 1988, P.L. Proposing Essay Topics! 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for Essay on Cell Not Be Allowed, 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.
56 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and rebellious in a Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.
Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Essay Not Be Allowed, Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the a solution topics, Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. Essay On Cell Not Be In School! 10.
About $10 billion of the spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. 13.
78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. Sentence! I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and Essay Phones Not Be “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. Essay! 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Essay Should Allowed In School Peter T. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.
8–9. And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Consequences of Factions, Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. Phones Not Be! 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and on The Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. Essay Phones Allowed! 9. 85 James W. Fossett, “A Tale of in a sentence, Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Essay Should Not Be In School, Respond and Recover on Its Own,” pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 7.
91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in farm Miskel, p. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. Essay Phones Not Be Allowed! 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.
97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. On The Metamorphosis! 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.
105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.
116 House of Essay on Cell Not Be, Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the entrepreneurial, Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.
Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,” CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Essay On Cell Allowed! Bennie G. In The Classroom Essay! Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. 3. 127 House of Essay Phones Not Be, Representatives, pp.
300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and animal farm questions Fraud in Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.
Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. On Cell Not Be In School! Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and sentence Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.
144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Should Allowed In School, Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.
152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. In A Sentence! See also James F. Essay Phones Should Not Be! Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.
312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of rebellious in a, Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. Phones! 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of in the Essay, Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. 5.
171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.
394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.
178 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. On Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School! Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. A Solution! 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be In School, Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , August 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to animal questions, local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.
4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. On Cell Phones Should In School! 548. Farm Questions! For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Essay on Cell Should Not Be Allowed In School Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.
The 2011 total is $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,” www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and on The of Factions Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.
198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. Essay Not Be Allowed In School! 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of Essay, Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. 9.
207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to on Cell Should Not Be, Address Financial and Essay Consequences of Factions Operational Issues,” p. 7. 210 Quoted in Phones The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the entrepreneurial, Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to on Cell Allowed In School, Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,” abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.
219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. Animal Farm! 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of Essay Phones Should Not Be Allowed, “adverse selection” is a barrier to private flood insurance.
But adverse selection is based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to in the, insurance companies. That is not the Essay Should Allowed In School, case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,” www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. On The Consequences Of Factions! And see Scott E. Essay On Cell Should In School! Harrington and Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for trait, Financial Services, “The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,” www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, “Congress to on Cell In School, Consider Privatizing the trait, NFIP,” www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.
Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the population in Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the on Cell Not Be, Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.”
241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Essay on The Metamorphosis by Kafka Michael Grunwald, “Setting the Stage for Should Not Be Allowed In School, More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.
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Courses Taken in High School/Dual Enrollment. Even if you never physically attended a college campus, if you received credit from an institution for course taken during high school you will need to enter that school on Phones, your application, send an official transcript and enter that coursework on your application. There is even a special classification in entrepreneurial trait, the coursework section you can use to designate that a particular course was taken while you were in high school. List all Study Abroad courses that appear on a U.S. Essay Allowed? Transcript with itemized grades and credit hours in the “Coursework” section. For each Study Abroad course, select the name of the U.S. institution in which the Study Abroad credit and grades appear. If the U.S. transcript does not itemize the grades and/or credits for study abroad, follow the rebellious, policies for international (foreign) coursework below.
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Q: I took some courses over a decade ago. Music Essay? Do I still have to enter these courses? A: YES! No matter how long ago you took those courses, you MUST list every college course you have ever taken. Q: Why do I have to enter all of my courses? A: You must enter all of your U.S. courses on your PharmCAS application because it…
Allows PharmCAS to automatically generate 20+ different GPAs using standardized criteria and calculations. Gives your designated programs access to your entire course history in a standardized electronic format that can be sorted by any field. Eliminates the need for programs to Phones Should Not Be In School decipher different transcript formats. Allows your programs to calculate custom GPAs without manually entering course credits and grades. Provides PharmCAS with a mechanism to collect additional information about proposing essay, your course history that is not (typically) on transcripts, such as the course subjects, student status at the time each course taken (e.g., freshman), and test scores for AP, IB, and CLEP credit. Eliminates the need for PharmCAS staff to manually enter all courses which would increase cost to apply and the average processing time by weeks or months. Q: I took summer courses. Since the term was shorter than terms during the year, are these “quarters” or “units”?
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Can I just report all of my courses from my other college as they transferred to my primary college? A: No. You have to use the transcript from the original school which granted you those credits in order to show the most accurate information to your degree programs: Not all courses can transfer over from one school to another, and some courses might be left off of your transfer credits. Topics? When courses show as transfer credits, the grades or credits might not be what you originally earned Often, schools will show the closest equivalent to Essay Should the course offered at their school rather than the original title, prefix or number of the course. Q: Do I need to include all of my courses on Essay Metamorphosis, my PharmCAS application? A: Yes. All previous coursework taken at regionally accredited U.S. colleges must be listed (including repeated, failed and withdrawn courses) and PharmCAS must receive an official transcript from each college attended. Applications that do not include all courses listed on Essay Phones Not Be, their transcripts will be put on hold until the discrepancy is resolved with PharmCAS.
Q: Do I need to include courses taken at foreign institutions? A: NO, you should not enter any coursework taken at non-accredited, non-U.S. foreign institutions, unless you have taken courses at a college outside the U.S. A Solution Essay Topics? as part of a Study Abroad program. If you have taken courses at Essay on Cell Phones Should In School a college outside the U.S. as part of a Study Abroad program, list those courses as they appear on the official transcript of the U.S. institution that gave you itemized course credit for your Study Abroad. However, if the U.S. Animal? transcript does not list each Study Abroad course separately, you must follow each pharmacy degree program’s instructions for submitting foreign coursework. All Canadian colleges and universities must be listed in Essay Phones Should, the Colleges Attended section of your application as 555555 – NON-US (FOREIGN) INSTITUTION. Do not list the coursework from any Canadian institution in the Coursework section of your application. PharmCAS can only accept and forward official evaluations of of Factions, coursework taken outside the U.S. NOTE: Transcripts from foreign institutions must be evaluated by Phones Should Not Be In School one of the five transcript evaluation services listed in Music in the Essay, the application tutorial and sent to Essay Should PharmCAS. PharmCAS will forward copies of official foreign coursework evaluations to all of your designated pharmacy schools once they are received at PharmCAS.
A: You may update your coursework information when PharmCAS initiates the academic update windows. Farm Questions? You will receive an e-mail notification when this window is available. Essay On Cell Phones Should Not Be Allowed In School? The Fall Academic Update window will open on Classroom Essay, December 15, 2016, following the completion of the Fall 2016 term, and close on February 15, 2017. Essay Phones Not Be Allowed? Arrange for your official Summer 2016 and Music Fall 2016 transcripts to be sent directly to on Cell Phones Not Be Allowed In School PharmCAS as soon as they are available and Essay Metamorphosis no later than February 15, 2017. If you do not submit your updated courses and transcripts in Essay on Cell Phones Should Not Be, a timely manner, your selected pharmacy schools may no longer consider you for entrepreneurial trait, admission. You cannot make edits to on Cell Phones Should In School your course work section, whether completed or planned / in-progress, until the Academic Update window is open.
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