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To his coy mistress poem

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Marked Women By Deborah Tannen Essays and Research Papers. Did you know, men and women talk differently because they are raised in something like two different cultures: a male culture from which young . men learn to speak like men and a female culture in which young women learn to speak like women ?(Cooper and MacDonald 9). To His Coy Mistress? Well, not actually from goffman and stigma, two separate cultures, but the idea of men and women being opposites as pointed out in the opening. Deborah Tannen has made her theory that a male culture and female culture each exist, very popular with the human. Culture , Female , Gender 802 Words | 3 Pages.

Ap English Tannen Essay Section 1: Theory You Just Don’t Understand Women and Men in Conversation by Deborah . To His Coy Mistress Poem? Tannen is basically an explanation on how women and men converse. Tannens main goal is to give advice to the different genders in order for them to rates of evaporation, avoid as much conflict as possible. Tannen’s main ideas are to explain how differently women and to his coy mistress poem, men react to each other’s way of being. It’s like they’re in who introduced fees their own little world while living in poem the same big world. Kruger? Men tend to try to dominate.

Black-and-white films , Explanation , Family 1042 Words | 3 Pages. An Examination on Sociocultural “Marking” of to his poem, Women – Rhetorical Analysis of “There Is No Unmarked Woman” by Deborah Tanen. Sociocultural “Marking” of Women – Rhetorical Analysis of “There Is No Unmarked Woman” by Deborah Tanen What is it that makes a . woman a woman, or what makes a man a man? Deborah Tannen , author and Ph.D. of linguistics, investigates this question within the essay, “There Is No Unmarked Woman.” An excerpt from a larger publication, “Talking from 9 to 5,” written in suez 1994, “There Is No Unmarked Woman” is an effective examination of the social injustice as to why the state of womanhood is “ marked ” while the state. Femininity , Gender , Gender role 1837 Words | 5 Pages. distinguish men and to his coy mistress poem, women . Rather anything from clothing or hairstyles to make-up or accessories can indicate specific messages about an . individual. According to Deborah Tannen , women are more frequently considered marked beings in artwork our society while men have fewer clothing or style options and are therefore free to remain unmarked. Although Tannen argues that it is possible for men to to his, remain purely unmarked her assertions do not hold up well in a changing world. Tuition? Because the coy mistress, term marked is a social construction. Button , Clothing , Fashion 567 Words | 2 Pages. Comparative Critique Ways Of Seeing By John Berger And There Is No Unmarked Woman By Deborah Tannen.

I didn’t want you to do well I would do less… Comparative Critique: Ways of Seeing by John Berger and There is no Unmarked Woman by Deborah . Who Introduced Fees? Tannen Once upon a time, (I’d stay way from this… perhaps) a group of dodo birds inhabited an island in the Indian Ocean. The men (males—men refers to humans) were large and to his coy mistress, colorful with fearless attitudes(,) while the women (smaller females) were smaller and represented (wore comparatively—stay away from were and who introduced, was, try to use unique descriptive verbs allowing. Female , Gender , Male 2029 Words | 8 Pages. Maria Jaryi ENG 701 Alessandro Braidotti 12/07/10 Advertisement’s Authority On The Marked Woman In our culture, our standards for how . women must look and to his poem, act are important to us. So important that they’ve become damaging to our well-being. Women have no way of escaping being judged on goffman and stigma what they wear or how they do their hair. There is poem no “regular” female, free of tuition fees, standards, unlike a male. Poem? Nowadays, media and even language have influenced our ideals for self gender conventions, mostly unconsciously. Advertising , Female , Femininity 1319 Words | 4 Pages.

-98 2-15-11 In reading Deborah Tannen’s essay “You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation,” I was found to . believe that the to his coy mistress, main idea of this essay was the language of everyday conversation. Tuition? The subject of to his poem, Deborah Tannen’s essay would be in my opinion the difference in which males and females use communication skills. When it comes to men, they seem to define suez, talk more if they were sitting next to a female. Also a boys way of communicating with other boys, was not by talking, but by. Boy , Female , Gender 661 Words | 2 Pages. In Deborah Tannen’s essay “I’ll Explain It to You: Lecturing and Listening”, she asserts the belief that even though men and . women speak the same structural language, their motivations for speech and conversational patterns are very different. In the earlier years of development, Tannen observes that girls use speech to find confirmation and establish intimacy, whereas boys use speech to assert their independence and attain social status. After transitioning to adulthood, women find themselves bored. Conversation , Dialogue , Female 775 Words | 2 Pages.

MARKED WOMAN BY: DEBORAH TANNIN Deborah Tannin, the coy mistress poem, author of this essay is a professor of glass self, linguistics at . georgetown university and has written many books for scholarly and popular audiences. She explains the poem, meaning of the define suez crisis, word marked , and how it distinguishes the male from the female She wrote this essay in 1993 and is different from her usual work. This essay focusses on the differences between how the men and the women present themselves in front of the to his coy mistress, world and what distinguishes them. Black-and-white films , Female , Gender 1031 Words | 3 Pages. A critical summary of Deborah Tannen’s “The Power of Talk: Who Gets Heard and Why.

A CRITICAL SUMMARY OF DEBORAH TANNEN'S THE POWER OF TALK: WHO GETS HEARD AND WHY Tannen , D. 2001 The Power of Talk: Who Gets . About Living Without Our Parents? Heard and Why. From _Linguistics at Work: A Reader of Applications_, edited by Dallin D. Oaks 242-259. There is no particular way to communicate according the Deborah Tannen as communication is not just saying what you mean but how one communicates the meaning. Situation varies from one person to another. Language communicates ideas but a more powerful form of communication. Communication , Confidence , Cross-cultural communication 784 Words | 3 Pages. Effective Communication Between Men and Women. between Men and Women Many men and women find it quite difficult to understand exactly what their mates want. With this new . boom of poem, self-help books this is no longer a problem. Whether it is bad communication or dealing with petty arguments, there is a book out there for you and your partner.

Although not all of the author's agree and there are many critics of these works, they do offer helpful insight into the world of communication in suez relationships between men and to his coy mistress poem, women . For women understanding. Anxiety , Communication , Cross-cultural communication 1271 Words | 4 Pages. Why Men Are from Mars and Living without, Women Are from to his coy mistress poem, Venus. men are from Mars and women are from Venus. Are there any differences on how women and men talk? This is a question many . people ponder on everyday. It is easy to assume that because English belongs to the person who uses it, men and who introduced tuition, women would likely to talk the same way but that may not be the case. Linguistics experts had proven that shown that men and women communicate in different ways. Speech style, word use, and body language are apparent between men and women . Women focus more on making. Deborah Tannen , Gender , Gender-based medicine 1295 Words | 4 Pages.

In the essays “There Is No Unmarked Woman” by Deborah Tannen and “Ways Of Seeing” by John Berger, the authors try to convey a . similar point, but in two different contexts. Tannen describes a conference meeting and how she views others around her ( Tannen 444). Berger on the other hand uses European oil paintings to poem, show how only looking glass self women are judged by the male eyes in society, Unlike a man, a woman has two elements to to his coy mistress, her identity, “the surveyor and the surveyed” (Berger 5). Rates? He also goes on to his coy mistress poem to note. Adam and Essay and Learning, Eve , Female , Gender 439 Words | 2 Pages. Female Students Use Language Differently by Deborah Tannen In Deborah Tannen’s essay How male and female students . use language differently explained’ she describes the difference in the way men and women communicate in coy mistress class. Goffman? Ms. To His? Tannen has years of experience in the classroom, and has inked several books on language. Deborah Tannen can be considered and specialist on barbara this subject. In this essay she tries to convey the message to her readers that women and men communicate in differently inside.

Classroom , Female , Gender 631 Words | 2 Pages. Women in the Eyes of Society To ignore the differences we have in coy mistress society is the same as trying to steer clear of an earthquake, it’s . impossible to avoid. Looking for the differences between men and women and their way of communication is and Learning without Our Parents a trending topic everywhere. Women today speak to coy mistress poem, others with the rates, intent of to his poem, keeping others feelings and wants in mind, and this way of communication has been passed down for centuries. In, “His Politeness is Her Powerlessness”, Deborah Tannen goes into an in-depth. Black-and-white films , Essay , Gender 965 Words | 3 Pages. The Comparison of Malcolm X and Deborah Tannen. ?Malcolm X v.s.

Deborah Tannen Malcolm X and Deborah Tannen developed their ideas forty years . apart. “Malcolm Little” was Malcolm X’s nick name (Malcolm X 85). Born in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm X rose from a world of street crime to become one of the most powerful and articulate African American leaders in looking glass the United States during the to his coy mistress, 1960’s (Malcolm X 85). Goffman? Born in 1945 in Brooklyn was Deborah Tannen ( Tannen 192). She taught in to his coy mistress poem different countries, different states and many different. African American , African-American Civil Rights Movement , Malcolm X 731 Words | 2 Pages. Non-verbal Differences Skill Women are better than men at barbara kruger artwork, interpreting nonverbal signal, according to the website Body Language Expert. . They are also better at reading unintentional nonverbal messages, such as signals of deception. Although men often send nonverbal signals, they typically do so with less subtlety than women . Gestures and to his coy mistress poem, Mannerisms Jo Freeman, author of Women : A Feminist Perspective, asserts that men rely on more obvious gestures and kruger artwork, are more likely to use their hands to. Body language , Eye contact , Facial expression 707 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of Understanding Mom by coy mistress poem Deborah Tannen. Summary of “Understanding Mom” In the article “Understanding Mom”, author Deborah Tannen conveys the barbara artwork, relationship between . her mother and herself, and the difference in personal values between the generations. Mrs.

Tannen wanted an ordinary life for her daughter, whereas she wanted anything but ordinary. This may have caused disagreements through Tannen’s life growing up so differently than her mother. As she expresses her disregard for makeup, her mother insists she wear it when in. Daughter , Family , Marriage 416 Words | 2 Pages. Asymmetrical Conversations Between Men and Women. these ‘downs’ can happen especially when men and women are communicating because, according to poem, Deborah Tannen , they . have different communication styles. Tannen illustrates this in her video, He Said, She Said: Gender, Language, Communication, where she talks about and gives many examples of how men and women differ in their conversational approaches. I definitely agree with Tannen in regards that conversation between the sexes is asymmetrical. Tannen states in her lecture that boys and rates of evaporation, girls, starting.

Communication , Conversation , Female 1658 Words | 4 Pages. Marked Women , Unmarked Men I find Tannen's article, Marked Women , Unmarked Men, to be dead-on. I . agree with almost everything she says throughout the article, and she brings up many ideas and facts that I did not previously even consider we, as a culture, do on a day to day basis. One thing I did somewhat disagree with, was the idea that men are completely unmarked. I feel that both males and females look at each other everyday and coy mistress, make their own discretions about one another. I admit that I. Clothing , Female , Gender 515 Words | 2 Pages. ?Men and Women Misunderstandings Lately, many couple has a difficult time communicating with each other. This is because both men and Essay Living, . women feel comfortable talking in to his poem different places.

Even though they both do their own daily work, every woman wants their husband to talk to Our Parents, them. This is due to the fact that men and women have different expectations in a relationship. The most common advice that men and women need is to understand each other’s differences and accept their distinctions. In order. Argument , Communication , Gender 1497 Words | 4 Pages. Martin Deborah – From Judges, Chapters 4 and 5 I don’t often think about leaders in the Bible, but when I do, I often think of the to his, only . woman judge mentioned in scripture – Deborah . She is one to admire. This woman of God provides a picture of leadership quite out of the ordinary in the society of crisis, her time. Very few women in of that day rose to to his coy mistress, positions of judge.

There were powerful queens, but to goffman, be a judge…for a woman it could only mean God had ordained her to this position. To His Poem? Deborah stands. Barak , Bible , Biblical judges 2324 Words | 6 Pages. The Different Conversational Styles Of Men And Women. would be the best way for the students to stay engaged in subjects that they might “dislike.” Tannen and Nathan both touch on the different . Looking Glass? conversational styles of men and coy mistress, women , of the conversational styles in and out of the classroom, and how it has become a problem in the class room. Working more with the students’ styles and preferences is the key to closing the who introduced, conversational gaps presented by Tannen and Nathan, and help students participate more in coy mistress class, but it allows the students to feel more. Education , Teacher 788 Words | 3 Pages. ?How to Turn Debate into Dialogue—Dr.

Deborah Tannen BALANCE. Goffman? DEBATE. Listening to both sides. Who could question these noble . American traditions? Yet today, these principles have been distorted. To His Coy Mistress? Without thinking, we have plunged headfirst into what I call the argument culture. Define Crisis? The argument culture urges us to approach the world, and the people in to his coy mistress it, in an adversarial frame of mind.

It rests on the assumption that opposition is the rates of evaporation, best way to coy mistress, get anything done: The best way to discuss an idea. Debate , Opposition , The Other Side 1698 Words | 3 Pages. Communication Differences Between Men and Women in the Work Place. Communication Differences between Men and Women in the work place Neh Awundaga Anne Rainey CHFD 445 (Family Communication) July 20th 2011 . Rates? Communication Differences between Men and Women in to his poem the work place Men and women have cohabited on the planet with all the idiosyncrasies which are well known and crisis, experienced by all of us at coy mistress poem, some stage of our life. Goffman And Stigma? Men and women who live together also at the same places have to coy mistress, work together and in the process are known. Biology of gender , Discrimination , Gender 2319 Words | 6 Pages. physical endurance was legendary (Leonard). In contrast, the inexperienced, eighteen-year-old Deborah Sampson rarely received compliments nor . stood out among the beauties of Plympton and of evaporation, Middleborough, Massachusetts. These two seemingly-different personages have much more in common that one might imagine. In the to his coy mistress poem, late Eighteenth Century, women had few rights given to them in rates of evaporation their male dominated societies.

Women could not legally vote, own property, or serve in to his the military… (Silvey 10). Despite these. 4th Massachusetts Regiment , American Revolutionary War , Deborah Sampson 1046 Words | 3 Pages. Advertisements in women and mens magazines. 2014 Through the Lines According to she-conomy.com’s facts about women , women make up only rates 3% of advertising creative directors. . Coy Mistress? This means that the other 97% are men. These men are responsible for the creation of the goffman and stigma, hundreds of sexually explicit advertisements in the magazine issues we read. In the most recent issue of Cosmo magazine you will find companies advertising sexy lingerie, cosmetic products, and poem, erotic clothing.

Women viewing these ads are finding themselves growing up in a world where. Advertising , Female , Gender 1548 Words | 6 Pages. Summary of define crisis, Deborah Tannen's the coy mistress poem, Argument Culture. Have we become a world that has forgotten how to listen and barbara, debate? Why are people so quick to argue? Everyone wants to prove their point these days. In . “The Argument Culture,” Deborah Tannen discusses how today’s society no longer honors the noble American tradition of debate. She explains how we no longer want to take the time to listen to to his, both sides and definitely not all sides of an issue.

We have become a society that would rather fight and argue, often to the point of violence. . Argument , Argumentation theory , Critical thinking 892 Words | 3 Pages. ?Body of Work Study: Deborah Kelly Deborah Kelly, born 1962, is an Australian mixed media artist who works in a multiplicity of . areas, namely public art featurettes, sculptures, collages and and stigma, political collaborations. Despite not producing any works that have been internationally regarded, Kelly’s cross-media projects have encouraged public discussion concerning many important issues facing contemporary Australia. From photographing cityscapes to street-level sculptures, her works involve exchanges. Collage , College , Mixed media 1039 Words | 3 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis on Deborah Tannen's Argument Culture.

A Move towards Better Communication Deborah Tannen graduated from The University of California, . Berkely, M.A. in 1979 with her PHD in Linguistics. She is to his coy mistress a professor of linguistics at Georgetown University. Tannen has written many books where she applies her theory of Linguistics to everyday situations. Some of her books are: That’s Not What I Meant!: How Conversational Style Makes or Breaks Relationship (1986), Talking from 9 to 5: How Women’s and kruger, Men’s Conversational. Debate , Deborah Tannen , Essay 1262 Words | 4 Pages. “There Is No Unmarked Woman” Deborah Tannen In Deborah Tannen’s essay “There Is No Unmarked Woman” she . describes how every woman is “ marked ” in some way. Poem? She tells about how everyone judges or “marks” a woman by what kind of clothes she is wearing, whether they are tight or hang limply from her body. What kind of make-up she is wearing to how she styles her hair.

She says that just by writing her essay and pointing out the fact that women are marked makes her marked . Getting married and tuition, changing. 2007 singles , Childbirth , Gender 1257 Words | 3 Pages. 20, 2012 Women Deserve Equal Pay for to his coy mistress Equal Work Women deserve equal pay for equal work. It is no longer valid to justify . unequal pay for equal work in without the workforces by giving men the superior status of being the heads of the coy mistress, house hold. Clearly, gender roles have shifted and more women are now the about and Learning, heads of the households and the sole breadwinners in many homes. Families that depend on these women are greatly affected by unequal payment. Poverty is common in families that rely on women and these. Connotation , English language , French language 787 Words | 2 Pages. The Social Roles of Men and Women as Parents.

Women and men are nuzzled into predetermined cultural forms when it comes to gender in to his American society. Women assume the goffman and stigma, roles . of mothers, housekeepers, and servants to their husbands and children, while men act as providers, protectors, and heads of the to his coy mistress, household. The division of labor in the household hold depends on the environment. Society creates gender ideology that affects the roles women and men take on in the household. However, it depends on the time period and society you live in that. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 2208 Words | 6 Pages.

amendment, apply almost directly to the women in combat policy debate, and describe how a lawsuit should completely vote in the favor of . women’s ability to serve in combat. However, some have protested in fear of a decline in military effectiveness. Having women relations that are served or are currently served in our nation’s military, this topic is important to me, Women should, without a doubt, be allowed in combat, regardless of who introduced tuition, gender differences, especially if women meet the physical standards. There. Army , Combat , Gender 926 Words | 3 Pages. Society Women do not have the to his, same position as men, though much progress has been made in the society to bring women to tuition, a stage . where they have equal rights, equal pay, equal independence but still it is not achieved. Though it may seem that women have a great deal of poem, freedom and goffman and stigma, independence, the overall condition of women in the world of coy mistress poem, today is barbara artwork not as it should be. Still the coy mistress poem, bird flies with only one wing as the goffman and stigma, other is coy mistress poem hampered and goffman and stigma, not fully functional. Equality requires that those women who.

District , Domestic violence , Femininity 2135 Words | 6 Pages. WOMEN BOOKS: 1. “Gender equality and women empowerment in Pakistan” Rashida Patel • Analysis of the situation of . women in Pakistan • Continuous and poem, increasing misinterpretation of Islam 2. “ Women in tuition fees Pakistan” Heinz Gunther Klien • Obstacles and opportunities for development of women in Pakistan • Focuses on coy mistress vocational development and cottage industry 3. “My Feudal Lord” Tehmina Durrani • Story of domestic violence in Essay and Learning without Pakistan QUOTATIONS: 1) “Never underestimate a man’s ability to. Feminism , Gender , Gender equality 1142 Words | 6 Pages. the abolition of poem, slavery, the Essay about Living Our Parents, right for women to own their own property and retain their earnings, and to his poem, she advocated for women's labor . organizations. In 1900, Anthony persuaded the University of Rochester to admit women . Self? Anthony, who never married, was aggressive and compassionate by nature. She had a keen mind and a great ability to to his poem, inspire. She remained active until her death on March 13, 1906 (www.susanbanthonyhouse.org). 2. Cooley Looking Glass? The historical status for women in general during the time period in which.

18th century , 19th century , Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1078 Words | 3 Pages. ? Lysistrata In Aristophanes' Lysistrata, women from all over the empire go on a sex strike and refuse . to coy mistress poem, lay with their men until peace is obtained from the war. They take control of the Acropolis and kick the men out, claiming that war is now the business of women . Eventually, the men all have physically visual stimulation and are walking around in pain due to the lack of coitus. They all give in and agree to the terms of peace. At the end, they have a festival. 2000 albums , Aristophanes , Comedy 1188 Words | 3 Pages. Women and Men Are Nestled Into Predetermined Cultural Molds When It Comes to Gender in American Society. Women and men are nestled into predetermined cultural molds when it comes to gender in American society. And Stigma? Women play the roles of to his coy mistress, . mothers, housekeepers, and servants to and stigma, their husbands and children, and coy mistress poem, men act as providers, protectors, and heads of the household. Goffman? These gender roles stem from the many culture myths that exist pertaining to America, including those of the model family, education, liberty, and of gender.

The majority of these myths are misconceptions, but linger because we, as Americans. Female , Gender , Gender role 1508 Words | 4 Pages. Joshi - Bedekar College, Thane / website : www.vpmthane.org 21 Yatra naryastu poojyante ramante tatra devataha : Where women are . worshipped there the Gods reside. Dr. Uma Shankar Head, Dept of poem, Philosophy S.I.E.S. College of Arts, Sc. Rates Of Evaporation? Com.

Abstract : Yartra naryastu pujyante ramante tatra devataha Where women are worshiped there the Gods reside This verse is taken from poem, our ancient scriptures. The ultimate reality is cooley glass self one and coy mistress, the world of beings is goffman and stigma its manifestations. The Upanishads declare. 21st century , Gender role , Hinduism 1667 Words | 7 Pages. A Comparison, Women's Beauty vs Talk in the Intimate Relationship. Sontag Tannen. written by Susan Sontag, and “Talk in the Intimate Relationship: His and hers”, written by Deborah Tannen are close to to his poem, each other . in content they are both about the of evaporation, differences between men and women . However, one essay describes how women act in to his poem conversation with men, and the other is how they respond to Essay about and Learning without Our Parents, the word “beautiful”. A common similarity between the two essays, are different behaviors of men and women . For example, in to his coy mistress “Talk in Intimate Relationship: His and hers”, the crisis, author describes the. Beauty , Difference , Essay 468 Words | 2 Pages. Is it a communication or a conversation? Liya Li Images of Men and Women ENGL 252-W02-24770 Professor Rita Rice 2/17/2012 Why . people would not consider a man as a woman or vice versa?

Men and women are distinct by coy mistress poem many ways: different mind-set, different physiological functions as well as characteristics, and so on. Those differences become obstacles between sexes, bonding them together but also separating them apart. Looking Glass? One of the obstacles is derived from their different mind-set. Ernest Hemingway , Perception 855 Words | 3 Pages. is, according to to his coy mistress poem, Leeming, not a trickster god, no exceptions.

But if Leeming were to make an exception then Penelope would be one. Penelope is a woman who . must work against all the restrictions and suffocating bounds that her society uses to leash women in order to trick the people surrounding her and she does. “She deceives the suitors and even her own husband” (Mueller, 337). Penelope even has long lasting deceptions that fool people for years. The sexual organs Penelope was born with seem to be. Mythology , Trickster 1400 Words | 4 Pages. Exploring Deborah Tannen's Sex, Lies, and Conversation. Miscommunications Deborah Tannen’s “Sex, Lies, and Conversation” is a brief look at who introduced fees, how men and women communicate with one . another and the cross-culture differences between their individual styles and needs for conversation. Women often say that men do not listen or do not want to coy mistress, talk.

Tannen gives reasons why women tend to believe that men are not listening, and shows that just because men have a different approach to communicating does not mean they are not listening to what women are saying. Goffman And Stigma? She. Childhood , Communication , Cross-cultural communication 650 Words | 2 Pages. ideas while his wife sat silently in the corner. This arousing anecdote in Deborah Tannen’s essay, “Sex, Lies and Conversation: Why Is It So . Hard For Men and Women to Talk to poem, Each Other” portrays the truth of the relationships of married couples by revealing that American men tend to talk more than women in public; however, they barely communicate at home with their spouses. Through the use of ethos, logos, and pathos Tannen provides a strong argument directed specifically at cooley looking self, married couples in to his coy mistress discussing.

Alimony , Communication , Divorce 1663 Words | 5 Pages. Influential Women of the Old Testament. ?Influential Women of the looking glass, Old Testament Patrick Nusdeo UNCW The Old Testament contains hundreds of to his poem, stories that are. In order for rates those . stories to be used they had to have a great impact. Not too many stories on women were written in the Old Testament, but the to his coy mistress, ones that did were monumental. Cooley Glass? A lot of the times women are mentioned in the bible, it is in a negative way, as in Lot's daughters, who essentially raped their father after getting him drunk.

Women also got punished for the bad deeds of. Bible , Biblical canon , Deuterocanonical books 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Slavery in to his poem America Deborah Gray White’s “Ar’n’t I a Woman?” attempts to illustrate and expose the under-examined world in barbara which bonded, . antebellum women lived. She distinguishes the way slave women were treated from both their male counterparts and white antebellum women by elucidating their unique race and coy mistress poem, gender predisposed circumstances, “(…) black women suffer a double oppression: that shared by all African-Americans and that shared by most women ” (p. 23). Rates? In all, black women suffered an exclusive. Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Black people 1803 Words | 5 Pages. Communication Between Men and Women. There is a large problem when it comes to communication between men and women , whether it is between children, teenagers, or adults; because of . a cross gender society. Once both sides understand this cross-culture communication problem, so that no gender is blamed, improvement will naturally occur.

Deborah Tannen , is an award winning writer and a best selling author for her eccentric essays based on to his coy mistress differences of male and female conversations. In the essay, Sex, Lies and Conversation she. Black-and-white films , Female , Gender 877 Words | 2 Pages. Communication Issues between Men and Women. Bjornberg 1 Chad Bjornberg Critique Paper English 102 22 June 2011 The Differences of Understanding Deborah Tannen has written . Suez Crisis? many books regarding communication issues between men and wemon. She has an extraordinary background which includes a PhD in to his linguistics from Berkeley, and currently holds a position at Georgetown University as a professor of and stigma, linguistics. Aside from to his poem, her profession, Tannen has published numerous specialized articles and books on language and linguistics which has placed her. Boy , Female , Gender 815 Words | 3 Pages. Women’s Movement against Gender Inequality.

Gender Inequality In recent years, more women achieve success by developing their leadership qualities. It is widely shared that . leadership is goffman a typical masculine characteristic. However, women started to possess the power of leadership and to his coy mistress poem, apply it to their careers after Women’s Movement which made a big change to gender roles. And Stigma? To what extent did Women’s Movement, which for instance rose labor force participation rate of adult women , change social attitudes toward femininity? A photograph. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 1572 Words | 8 Pages. Exploitation of Enslaved Black Women.

Exploitation of Enslaved Black Women We often hear the phrase, “this country was built on the backs of slave labor”. Correction, this . country was built off the exploitation of the black body, particularly the enslaved black woman’s body. Coy Mistress Poem? For example, Saartjie Baartman1 was a twenty year old woman from Cape Town, South Africa who was kidnapped and sexually exploited all over Europe. She was naked and caged, put on display in an animalistic nature, whipped and forced to entertain white spectators. Africa , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 2199 Words | 6 Pages. social class, the people who do most of the stereotyping. (E5) Deborah Tannen’s article “The Triumph of the Yell” published in New York Times . in barbara artwork 1944 complains that the poem, public is becoming more hostile and blaming journalist, politicians, and academics for presenting the issues. Tannen presented a rational yet personal argument that defines a “culture of rates of evaporation, critique” as being “based on the belief that opposition leads to truth” (483) Tannen distinguishes “having an argument’ and ‘making an argument’ in. Anxiety , Bias , Essay 2057 Words | 5 Pages. Women in the Military For hundreds of coy mistress poem, years women have been discouraged, and of evaporation, even denied, from serving their country. . Since the time of the Revolutionary War, almost two million women veterans have voluntarily served their country in the Armed Forces, from doing laundry to to his poem, fighting in combat. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, women disguised themselves as men and rates, fought side-by-side with male soldiers. During World War I, 33,000 women served and during World War II almost 500,000.

2003 invasion of Iraq , Cold War , Gulf War 2297 Words | 6 Pages. as Powell “The citizen women of Sparta were believed to lead unusual lives by Greek standards.” As stated by Lycurgus in the Great Rhetra . women of Sparta were aware of their role in society in regards to to his, staying healthy and rates, fit to coy mistress poem, produce healthy offspring as well as partaking in barbara kruger artwork the running of the economy. Women in Sparta were treated with the utmost respect, as they were an essential element in the ancient warrior society. Spartan women enjoyed much more freedom then women from the other polis (Greek. Ancient Greece , Battle of Thermopylae , Childbirth 1754 Words | 5 Pages. Is beauty really only in the eyes of the beholder Deborah Izad Op-Ed For a while now media has had a huge impact on how . women are seen. Media is constantly degrading women and sets a negative message about the ways in which women should be treated; women are becoming objectified in the sense they are viewed as objects and not of value as a human. To His? The media, which seems to endlessly show women as sexual objects, has the cooley looking, capability of limiting a woman’s potential and damaging their image. By the Way , Female , Girl 949 Words | 3 Pages. long way in to his coy mistress poem America by barbara kruger women proving they are physically capable of participating in to his coy mistress any type of rates of evaporation, athletics.

For women , sports are . To His Coy Mistress Poem? more than fun activities. Glass Self? It is a way that they can use their talents in order to to his coy mistress, build confidence, leadership, and show how hard work can help achieve their goals. Women’s sports have become one of the biggest influences in American culture due to the great success women have achieved, the growing amount of define suez, scholarship opportunities, and to his, women athlete’s relentless fight. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , Ancient Olympic Games 1619 Words | 4 Pages. Women Empowerment - A reality or Myth The Government of India had ushered in of evaporation the new millennium by declaring the year 2001 as 'Women's . Empowerment Year' to focus on a vision 'where women are equal partners like men'. The most common explanation of 'women's empowerment' is the ability to exercise full control over to his coy mistress one's actions. The last decades have witnessed some basic changes in the status and tuition, role of women in our society. There has been shift in policy approaches from the to his, concept of 'welfare'. Feminism , Gender , Gender role 1536 Words | 4 Pages.

Depression era in the early 1930s until the early 1940s. As Deborah Jermyn states, ‘‘romcom’’ is the and stigma, most durable genre of Hollywood, with . Frank Capra’s It Happened One Night (1934, USA) being the first of the genre to to his coy mistress, win 5 Oscars for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Writing, Best Actress and Best Actor (2011). This hybrid genre has attracted numerous feminist critics due to its focus on women which have always played a key role in the narrative; women are also predominately the main characters and define suez, the. Comedy , Diane Keaton , Film genres 2665 Words | 7 Pages. Running head: Women and to his poem, their Substantive Role in who introduced fees Psychology Women in to his Psychology University of Phoenix Online History and cooley, . Systems in Psychology Linka Griswold 12/3/12 Abstract It is safe to infer that the study of psychology is ever changing and advancing in to his many facets. This advancement is of evaporation due to the many physiologist, theorist, psychologist, and scientist that have dedicated their beings to studying of the human mind and human behavior. Amongst these professionals, stand some very influential. Charles Sanders Peirce , Color , Color blindness 923 Words | 3 Pages. Women in Leadership Positions Leadership is the talent to use command with public in a component of voluntary involvement. A good leader . should be able to interact with the to his coy mistress, people on their level rather than using authority. And Stigma? Communication should demonstrate both social and emotional understating combined with the task of the leader.

The chapter Women in Leadership Roles talks about how women have come to being in these powerful positions today but even today there is a glass ceiling that is unbreakable. Charismatic authority , Charity , Indira Gandhi 1001 Words | 3 Pages.

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Advantages and to his poem, Disadvantages of glass self Being a Celebrity. Coy Mistress? Being a celebrity or simply being famous has its own advantages and disadvantages. The common perception is that celebrities and Living and Learning Our Parents, famous personalities have everything in life. After all, the grass is always greener on coy mistress poem the other side, isn't it? The truth is that there are as many downsides and disadvantages of being a celebrity as there are the number of benefits. Rates? Who said being famous was always fun? Decide for yourself—read on coy mistress in this article for for five advantages and five disadvantages of being a celebrity. Five Major Advantages of Being a Celebrity.

1. Celebrities get special treatment wherever they go. It is Essay and Learning without Our Parents a no-brainer to to his coy mistress poem assume that someone like Selena Gomez or Justin Bieber will get preferential treatment over other customers at a restaurant, don't you think? From special seats at theaters to special tables at restaurants, celebrities are given the artwork advantage of being the preferred customers everywhere they go. Wouldn't you love it if you were given preferred entry at nightclubs, or given the first row seats at award functions? Of course you would—that is exactly why this perk of poem being famous is just too tempting. 2. Being famous generally means being richer. One of the very obvious advantages of being famous is that fame generally brings lots of fortune. Celebrities and other famous people are generally richer than the average Joe.

Luxurious homes and cars, fancy gifts, expensive clothes and tuition fees, other such materialistic pleasures of life convert from a dream to a reality when people become famous celebrities. To His Coy Mistress Poem? Forget homes—celebrities are also known to own entire islands. If you have a single ounce of doubt whether celebrities are actually rich, check out an episode of MTV Cribs, and all your doubts will magically disappear. In particular, watch the episode which showcases the home, cars, and lifestyle of about Living and Learning without Our Parents 50 Cent. One of the to his poem Many Advantages of Being Paris Hilton. And Learning? 3. Celebrities are recognized everywhere they go. Celebrities are recognized everywhere they go. This is an advantage because people often experience a massive ego boost when random bystanders recognize them. It can be a great opportunity to boast to poem a friend and say: Gee, I'm so famous. Everyone recognizes me. Most seasoned celebrities get over barbara kruger, this initial ego boost quickly, of course.

However, being recognized, spotted, and pictured is quite a rush and a nice massage to the egos of coy mistress some famous people, still. 4. Celebrities and rates, famous people have fans. Fans are the people who adore their celebrity idols. They can have celebrity crushes or even real life admiration for their idols. Fan mail and other forms of appreciation that celebrities receive can be inspirational, motivational, and very humbling. After all, who wouldn't like to to his have their own fans, followers, and worshipers? 5. Many opportunities arise when people become famous. When people become famous, more opportunities arise in life, whether they are career related or not.

For example, someone like Michael Jordan made a living not only from playing ball. He was also the face of Nike and promoted many other brands. Also, someone like Kim Kardashian can afford to dwell into newer businesses like fashion apparel and perfumes simply because she is about Our Parents famous and can afford to sustain and promote them. Being famous definitely opens many doors in life which would have remained shut had fame not been achieved. To His Coy Mistress? Many celebrities tend to embark upon the entrepreneurship path as soon as they achieve stardom. After all, if Kim Kardashian can reportedly charge in upwards of suez $8,000 for doing nothing but sending one tweet from her twitter account, then anything is possible! Five Major Disadvantages of Being a Celebrity. 1. Famous people can't do things that the average person can. Poem? What do you think would happen if Paris Hilton walked down to who introduced fees the supermarket on a regular day? She would be mobbed and hounded for autographs and pictures.

Celebrities and other famous people cannot lead lives of normal people. Coy Mistress Poem? They may be forced to live in their own little secluded world, and will generally be unable to do things that the average Joe can. And Stigma? This disadvantage of being famous can stop celebrities from indulging in the little pleasures of life, which can be very frustrating indeed. Some of these simple pleasures of to his life include: Playing ball at the neighborhood playground Going shopping at the grocery store Going for define suez an uninterrupted walk or a bicycle ride on to his coy mistress poem the beach Lying on the beach without being mobbed on a sunny day Sitting on the park bench and crisis, reading a book without being asked Can I take a picture of you?

Have a quiet dinner with family at poem the local restaurant. 2. Being famous or a celebrity can attract stalkers. We've all heard about those nasty cases of celebrity stalking that have gone out of control. Famous people are often followed or harassed by phone, email, or mail by fans or followers who cross the line and become obsessed. Obsession can turn into threats and even physical harm. Who Introduced? 3. A celebrity status can attract too many fake friends.

From a celebrity's perspective, it'd become very hard to separate a genuine person who wants to be friends from many of the million wannabe friends who may want to befriend them for personal gain. To His Coy Mistress? As one would imagine, it'd be a nerve wracking experience to scrutinize each and every individual that comes into their lives. Goffman? It would literally translate to being on-guard every single hour, minute and second of the day. 4. People constantly judge celebrities. Tabloids, magazines, newspapers, blogs, and other forms of media constantly judge celebrities on their personalities, habits, bodies, and a lot more. Reading demeaning, rude, nasty, insulting, and coy mistress, derogatory lies about one's own self is a part and parcel of a celebrity's daily routine.

From a layperson's point of Living Our Parents view, it's like having a million people talk behind your back on poem a daily basis. Imagine how hard-hitting this would it be if a tabloid talked about how fat you are or how sleazy you are. 5. Celebrities have no privacy. Glass? If Kim Kardashian wears a bikini and steps out on to his coy mistress poem the beaches of Miami to catch some sun, the entire world is going to know about about Living Our Parents it. If Arnold Schwarzenegger heads out for a ride on his motorcycle on a sunny day, pictures of him are going to be splashed in coy mistress poem the tabloids. If Paris Hilton and her beau have an argument or a fight in a nightclub, the whole world will know about it. Rates Of Evaporation? Get the to his point? Lack of kruger artwork privacy is one of the biggest disadvantages of being a celebrity. 10 Reasons Why Being Famous Isn't All That Great. by Fotinoula Gypsyy 94.

What Celebrities Are Scientologists? 5 Stars Who Belong to the Controversial Religion. by McKenna Meyers 0. REAL Male Korean Celebrity Friendships We Should Admire. by Fairlane Raymundo 1. Poem? 10 Korean Celebrities with Painful Family Histories. by Fairlane Raymundo 5. Kruger? The Life and Many Loves of Clark Gable. The Remarkable Story of Spencer Tracy's Wife. What Is Dave Chappelle Doing These Days? by Margaret Perrottet 30. It really helps a lot for my work.

This will be very useful For my speech contest thanks so much !! Thank so much for coy mistress informations! It will help alot in my project! best lolly pop 3 months ago. Wow I'm pretty close to being famous. That's why I read this. Maybe I should start wearing a wig or sunglasses like sia lol. Goffman And Stigma? it is a great artical. Joner the Bonner 7 months ago. THIS IS A CRAP ARTICLE. Thank you this is awesome info. AulanitheRealisticperson 8 months ago.

I believe that being is really cool, but what about the lack of privacy, and getting critisised everywhere you go, it's like since your a celeberity they expect you to be perfect. it is easy to be a celebrity person, but it will be stressful. What a piece of reading. Poem? BrodyMcCain 10 months ago. Once I was on a music show and performed a song. I was nobody, but later was sitting at my friend's bar.

The bar was empty at the time. So I gave him a copy of the show to watch on looking glass self the TV in the bar. We were simply there watching it chit chatting suddenly two hot women entered the bar, paid absolutely no attention to me, didn't give me the time of day, I was invisible while they sat watching the music show on the bar TV. Then they started moving their eyes from the TV to me then back to the TV then back to coy mistress me. They said is that you on TV that guy looks alot like you.

I said Yes it is Suddenly I was somebody. I was something. Within an instance I had two chicks all over me. I don't think it would have mattered what I looked like at that point I had just gained my first two female groupies. Goffman And Stigma? Just like that! Simply by them thinking I was remotely famous or might be on to his coy mistress my way to becoming famous. In otherwords you don't even need to be famous, just having people think you're about to be famous will do the of evaporation trick. I had lots of free things come my way during that time. General managers at banks even willing to give me loans with no credit checks. It's amazing how quickly your life can change just by people thinking you're on your way to being famous. I was invited to to his big parties, lent nice automobiles to drive, don't worry about it they'd say.

Everyone wanted to rates be my friend, just from me being on the show. It's like I just won the lottery. People wanted my autograph, cameras flashing each time I'd play even a coffee house. To His Poem? I'd open a local magazine and there I was in it. Women walked up to who introduced tuition the stage during breaks handing me their motel room key.

And I wasn't even famous. More of a local hero maybe. But not famous by to his coy mistress, far. Take from my story what you will. My point even people thinking you are on and stigma your way to being famous is like being famous.

Just on a smaller scale. Coy Mistress Poem? Strange. Ian Stuart Robertson 13 months ago from London England. With a lull in hub pages articles at this stage i thought it worthwhile to re visit sites i've been connected with to surprise myself with what i've contributed and possibly post more content. thanks for helping me with a speech i also thought i would be amazing to be a celebrity. It is a very interresting piece to read. Things to keep in Essay Living and Learning without Our Parents mind if I'd want to become famous one day. Coy Mistress Poem? princesswithapen 5 years ago. You've hit the nail on cooley glass self the head.

Internet has indeed spelled doom for celebrities when it comes to privacy because they really don't have control over who posts what. To His Coy Mistress Poem? But then again, isn't it like a double edged sword because it is an awesome free promotional platform too? Guess like everything else in Essay about and Learning life, there are no free lunches. Thanks for to his noticing the of evaporation 300 mark. It is an coy mistress poem, awesome feeling to know that your hubs are getting a wider audience, don't you think? It is also a motivational boost to publish more hubs. Essay Living And Learning Without? princesswithapen 5 years ago. Yep, we've definitely seen many rock soid celebrities go through emotional and mental turmoil at a stage in their lives. Fame is poem like a rose - beautiful and fragrant, yet thorny. princesswithapen 5 years ago.

It would be really cool to be a celebrity. But like you say, it'd be difficult to maintain composure when each and every eye on the street stares at you in awe, or otherwise. I'm glad you liked this. Lack of privacy has often driven the best of barbara artwork celebrities to the brink of anger, frustration and even physical assault against paparazzi. Guess they didn't read the fine print when they stepped out to be a celebrity which probably said Every moment of your public life will be photographed, whether you like it or not Thanks for your stopping by and your appreciation. FloraBreenRobison 5 years ago. Congratulations on reaching 300 followers!

FloraBreenRobison 5 years ago. It was easier to be a celebrity during the to his coy mistress poem days before the and stigma internet, and especially during the coy mistress poem studio system era when you were given a fake bio and press releases to the personality the studio wanted. Photoshoots and carefully chosen questions and tuition, public events were planned and celebrities attended. Then you went home. he press knew you were actually divorced or living with someone who is not your spouse or that you were homosexual. The Press were part of the studio system format and worked with celebrities. Coy Mistress? That ended when Frank sinatra divorced his wife to cooley looking marry Ava Gardner. Coy Mistress? It's been downhill for privacy ever since. You pointed out the ups and downs of celebrity.Most people think it's a cake walk but it does take its toll. Goffman? Many celebrities have emotional and to his coy mistress, mental problems before and after the cooley looking glass fame dies. Coy Mistress Poem? Movie Master 5 years ago from United Kingdom.

An interesting hub, I really enjoyed reading. And Stigma? I just can't imagine what it must be like to to his have no privacy, I would hate that! laurathegentleman 5 years ago from Chapel Hill, NC. A very interesting read - I have always thought it would be cool to be a celebrity, but I do have to remind myself that it's not always easy to be in the public eye. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Class Size: What Research Says and What it Means for State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and to his coy mistress poem, are subject to rates of evaporation legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. Coy Mistress Poem. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the pupil/teacher ratio in kruger artwork, the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is roughly equivalent to the outlays of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine “what the research says” about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances. Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only coy mistress a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. In this study, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later. Studies of of evaporation, class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in California and in other countries, and no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the coy mistress poem, pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on who introduced, the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and to his poem, other meaningful outcomes. These effects seem to be largest when introduced in and Learning, the earliest grades, and for students from to his coy mistress less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the of evaporation, most productive use of these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of to his coy mistress poem, tax dollars for education. There is cooley self no research from the poem, U.S. Living And Learning. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of several educational interventions found CSR to be the least cost effective of those studied. How the poem, quality of school lunch affects students’ academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on Essay about and Learning, American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to increase class size across the board in order to to his coy mistress poem sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at cooley looking glass self students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to coy mistress local school leaders on how to distribute it. In settings where state mandates on maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to bear in cooley, mind that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. Coy Mistress. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. would reduce the teaching workforce by glass about 7 percent. To His Poem. If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for Linking Research to Policy. There are a small number of Living and Learning without Our Parents, variables in to his, American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and crisis, are subject to to his legislative action.

Class size is one. Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and testing and accountability. Advocates for barbara kruger artwork legislation on any of to his poem, these topics are likely to appeal to research evidence as support for their position. That is appropriate and desirable as long as: a) the evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isn’t ignored, and cooley self, d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and coy mistress, compared. The absence of any of these four conditions undermines the legitimacy of advocacy that is built on assertions about what “research says.” If the evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for about any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in to his, smaller classes perform better on state examinations. But this simple correlation could be due to families with higher levels of education living in more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per goffman se might have no more to do with student achievement than the condition of the schools’ sports stadiums. “Evidence” that is to his poem this weak is Essay about Living Our Parents no evidence at all. Research can be of high quality but of questionable relevance to legislative action because the coy mistress, settings and circumstances of the research are so different from barbara artwork those at hand. For example, a number of well-designed studies of class size in the U.S. prior to World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the population, the to his poem, organization of schools, the about Living and Learning without Our Parents, characteristics of teachers and so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the two world wars that the relevance of this research for to his coy mistress poem current legislation is weak. Considering the balance of the Essay about and Learning, evidence is poem also very important. Cooley Self. Too frequently advocates for particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and the prospect of coy mistress, legislation.[2] Finally, and goffman and stigma, most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to to his poem evidence to support expenditures without consideration of the costs and benefits of all the options that are available can seriously mislead. With a limited and currently shrinking pool of state funds available to support K-12 education, the relative productivity of expenditures should be carefully considered. What are the costs and benefits of maintaining a cap on class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the costs and benefits of state mandates on specific uses of education funds relative to barbara kruger artwork appropriations that allow more flexibility at the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in class size compared to the period prior to to his the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on public K-12 education in the U.S. (per pupil revenue increased by 58 percent in real dollars in the last 20 years[4]). Cooley. Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for public schools has decreased by 21 percent in coy mistress, the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the present average would cost over $12 billion a year in aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in class size would generate an equivalent savings. The costs of barbara kruger, CSR are not limited to teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for smaller classes. In our example of a one-student reduction in class size across the U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to be added to the nation’s stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for any educational initiative is a large amount. By way of comparison, the federal government’s largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, involves about the to his coy mistress poem, same level of annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in who introduced, the nation’s average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of federal stimulus funding and coy mistress, economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the goffman and stigma, size of the to his coy mistress poem, 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of class size on student learning, and to explore what the findings from that research have to contribute to the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the cooley looking glass self, uncertainties in the conclusions that can be drawn from existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is poem a large body of research on looking glass, the relationship between class size and coy mistress, student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of cooley looking glass, these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and student achievement. Coy Mistress. The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in many other, difficult-to-observe ways. For example, more affluent schools are more likely to have the resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in define, fact family characteristics were the real reason. Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to to his poem manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the rates, behavior problems were the main factor. The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in to his coy mistress poem, which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of suez crisis, its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in 1985, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on coy mistress poem, the STAR experiment. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Krueger’s analysis of the Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to looking glass small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to students in the smaller classes having received about to his, 3 months more schooling than the rates, students in the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in the first year that students participated in the program.

In addition, the coy mistress poem, positive effects of class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the economic returns to class-size reduction in Tennessee were greater than the costs, with an internal positive rate of return of about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in college at age 20. They did not find any evidence of an impact on incomes at age 27, but the rates, income effects are measured with too much imprecision to warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of early and to his coy mistress poem, very large class-size reductions on academic achievement in school and college attendance, with the rates of evaporation, economic benefits of the program outweighing the costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the coy mistress poem, effects of natural variation in tuition fees, class size in to his, Texas in and stigma, the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. The researchers found positive effects of smaller class sizes on reading and mathematics in 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in coy mistress poem, 5 th grade, and goffman, little or no effects in later grades. Because the to his coy mistress, researchers used state assessment results that were only available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and 5 th graders in Texas were about goffman, half the size the K-3 effects in Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and Lavy took advantage of a class-size limit in Israel of 40 students. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and coy mistress, classroom must be added. The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and who introduced, fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to reduce class size by ten students per class, from 30 to 20, throughout the state. School participation in first and to his coy mistress poem, second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of CSR provided opportunities for researchers to study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in its first two years. Crisis. Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and coy mistress poem, Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to examine the influence of both the class-size reduction and the changes in the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for suez crisis class-size reduction that are about half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the same time they find that increases in coy mistress, the numbers of new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of these gains. In other words, students who ended up in the classrooms of goffman and stigma, teachers new to their classrooms and grades suffered academically from the teacher’s inexperience by almost the same amount as they benefited from to his coy mistress being in Essay Living and Learning without, a smaller class. Coy Mistress. There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of a student’s educational experience are likely to who introduced tuition affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of California’s CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and to his poem, five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in average class size between the rates, 7 th and 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on international examinations in 11 countries around the coy mistress poem, world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of smaller classes in a small number of define suez crisis, countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and small effects in coy mistress poem, the remainder of the countries. Suez. Interestingly, the countries in which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and lower than average performance on international exams. A low average salary level for teachers suggests that a country is drawing its teaching population from a relatively low level of the overall capability distribution of coy mistress poem, all its employees. Thus, the countries studied by goffman Woessman and to his, West seem to who introduced have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isn’t as affected by the number of students in class.

In this regard it is worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at poem higher levels than the U.S. on about Living without, international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and West used a nationally representative database of students to poem compare the outcomes of the same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in different subjects. They find no overall impact of class size on test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on and stigma, test scores in urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and attitudes about learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against coy mistress, these positive and cooley glass, mixed findings for CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in a grade in a school. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of poem, 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of 13 if there were 26 students. Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). Barbara Artwork. Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by Chingos systematically examined the to his, broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on the number of students in core classes (such as math, English, and science) in the state’s public schools. Beginning with the Essay Our Parents, 2010-2011 school year, the maximum number of to his coy mistress poem, students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and 25 students in grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the amendment by first requiring, from 2003-04 to 2005-06, districts to reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Beginning in define suez, 2006-07, compliance was measured at the school level, with schools facing the same rules for to his their average class size that districts faced previously. Beginning in 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and 2009. He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on test scores in grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in math and reading were not administered in rates of evaporation, the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of to his coy mistress, high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for about Living Our Parents legislative action. Because the pool of credible studies is small; the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on to his coy mistress poem, the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have meaningful long-term effects on student achievement and perhaps on non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to who introduced tuition be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in classrooms of coy mistress, teachers who are less well prepared and effective in Essay about and Learning without, the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the largest estimate of the payoffs of a big decrease in class size. In Krueger’s cost-benefit analysis, the return to the investment in smaller class sizes in Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of implementing the program. Coy Mistress. In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the effects of variation in class size or find no effects at all.

Getting a decent sense of the size of the effect that can be expected from reducing class size is obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the population’s health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to be noticeable. One way to roughly estimate the size of barbara kruger artwork, class-size effects that is consistent with the existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in class size by one student would generate 10 percent of the benefit of a reduction in class size by 10 students, and to assume that the effects diminish with each grade in school, with a reduction of a given number of students in 5 th grade expected to have about poem, half the effect of barbara kruger artwork, reduction of the same number of coy mistress poem, students in kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of class-size effects are those produced by Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to 8 students smaller on average than regular-sized classes performed about 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. Of Evaporation. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in the class. These effects were generated largely by to his coy mistress class-size reductions in kindergarten. If we take the define crisis, effect by 5 th grade to be half the size of the kindergarten effect, then a reduction in 1 student per class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on a statewide assessment such as the Texas Assessment of to his poem, Knowledge and Essay about Living, Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of coy mistress, about 100 at 5th grade for mathematics, a reduction in class size by one student would generate an of evaporation improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. Coy Mistress. Alternatively, an and stigma increase of class size by coy mistress one student would lead to a statewide mean of 698.5 on goffman and stigma, TAKS. At grade three the effect would be about 2 points up or down (assuming an poem effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in and stigma, student performance as a result of class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of whites and blacks on to his poem, TAKS at 5 th grade is 65 points. Note that our estimates of a one to cooley two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on an upper bound for class-size effects based on Krueger’s analysis. Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for all the studies we have reviewed, including the two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not “Does this policy have any positive effect?” but rather “Is this policy the most productive use of coy mistress, these educational dollars?” Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in goffman and stigma, the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Will a dollar spent on class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to teachers to help guide instruction, investments in educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments.

In other words, the coy mistress poem, comparison condition for all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of who introduced tuition fees, $20 billion invested in smaller classes vs. $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Thus, estimates of effects and costs from different education investments have to poem be extrapolated and estimated from different studies, and rates, this process is to his poem necessarily inexact. Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and increases in instructional time that are all greater than those for CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the teacher workforce (for example by cooley substituting Teach for America teachers for new teachers from traditional training routes); and poem, enrolling students in suez, popular charter schools in to his coy mistress poem, urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of define suez crisis, class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for policymakers to increase class size in poem, order to sustain other investments in education, even in who introduced fees, a time of budget austerity. In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at students who have been shown to benefit the coy mistress poem, most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in cooley, developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the poem, board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to be very carefully considered. Effects on looking, student achievement related to differences in to his, teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for and stigma class-size reduction produces estimates of much larger effects for to his variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for example, while differences between large and rates of evaporation, small classes in early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in to his coy mistress poem, classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of goffman and stigma, teachers with lower salaries. It means that funds that might be devoted to raising teacher salaries across the board or selectively in hard to to his poem fill positions or for highly effective teachers will be limited. Goffman. By one estimate, an increase in average class size by 5 students would result in an across the board increase of 34 percent in teacher salaries if all the savings were devoted to coy mistress that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into define suez crisis, the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the current fiscal climate, it is clear that the yearly increases in funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nation’s public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to poem make hard choices. So although the research literature has focused on the effect of reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the coin—the consequences of increasing the size of classes. The potential for negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to be weighed against the fallout from cutting other programs in order to preserve smaller classes—both academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and the arts. Another important point is that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per year in and stigma, salary costs alone, would decrease the teaching workforce by about 7 percent of the nation’s teachers. Many school districts and states across the nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of magnitude.

If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as “last in first out,” then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the need to carefully weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of poem, austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and kruger artwork, countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of to his poem, class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the cooley self, alternatives when difficult budget and program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, “Field Experiments in Class Size from the Early Twentieth Century,” Journal of Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211–230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, “The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F64–F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, “Economic Considerations and Class Size,” Economic Journal , 113(485): F34–F63 (2003). Education Commission of the coy mistress poem, States, “State Class-Size Reduction Measures,” Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by all U.S. school districts to the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in rates, the public schools, which corresponds to 15.3 students for every teacher. To His. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in tuition, salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to account for poem all costs of Living Our Parents, teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009).

Gene V. Glass and Mary Lee Smith. “Meta-Analysis of Research on Class Size and Achievement.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 2–16 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, “Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(2): 497–532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the coy mistress poem, end of third grade (Carolyn J. Who Introduced Tuition. Hill, Howard S. Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and coy mistress poem, Mark W. Lipsey, “Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research,” Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172–177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of 0.22 is artwork 25 percent of that, which corresponds to 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and coy mistress poem, Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from who introduced Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Poem. Kain, “Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,” Econometrica , 73(2): 417–458 (2005). Joshua D. Goffman And Stigma. Angrist and Victor Lavy, “Using Maimonides’ Rule to Estimate the Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533–575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, “Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size,” Journal of Human Resources , 44(1): 223–250 (2009). David Sims, “Crowding Peter to Educate Paul: Lessons from a Class Size Reduction Externality,” Economics of coy mistress, Education Review , 28: 465–473 (2009). David Sims, “A Strategic Response to looking self Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and Student Achievement in California,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 27(3): 457–478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and Martin West, “Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS,” European Economic Review , 50(3): 695–736 (2006).

Thomas S. To His Coy Mistress. Dee and Martin R. West, “The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size,” Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, “The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from glass self Population Variation,” Quarterly Journal of to his coy mistress, Economics , 115(4): 1239–1285 (2000). [25] “2009–10 Florida Education Finance Program,” DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at http://www.fldoe.org/eias/databaseworkshop/ppt/fefp.ppt . [26] Matthew M. Define Suez Crisis. Chingos, “The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Florida’s Statewide Mandate,” Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and coy mistress poem, Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf. [27] Douglas N. Harris, “Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Essay Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 3–29 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. “Don’t forget Curriculum,” Brown Center Letters on Education, #3 . October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, “How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR,” NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Coy Mistress. Chingos, “The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction,” Center for American Progress (2011).