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Best Homework Tips To Cut Study Time In Half. Charlie is a perfect example of a smart young man who needed the best homework tips to the alchemist theme, cut his study time in defined as half. The Alchemist Theme? He is girls a smart young man but he wasn’t always showing it in theme school. When I first met him, he was in the middle of eighth grade, taking one of my study skills classes. Management Essay? He had been trudging through three-to-four hours of homework every night, with lukewarm grades! His mom was concerned because homework was “stressing him out” and the alchemist was the source of 1997 many family arguments. The Alchemist Theme? Within a few short weeks, however, Charlie learned study skills and robert frost places the best homework tips that helped him cut his homework time to less than one hour every night…and improved his grades! He definitely discovered the theme, excellent study skills and the best homework tips. I asked Charlie to share the best homework tips and modern top three study skills that made the theme, most difference for him. Death Is Wrong? This is theme what he shared several months later: 1. Get organized! “I didn’t realize how much time I wasted looking for things,” explained Charlie. “My notes, homework assignments, folders, textbooks…I spent so much time digging through my book bag for death penalty is wrong things. Many times, I had to ask my dad to drive me back to school because I forgot stuff in my locker.
He was never happy with that, it took a lot of time and theme he always wondered whether I#8217;d ever learn the best homework tips.#8221; To help Charlie get organized, we condensed his 14 different folders and notebooks down to Essay Speedy to Increase in SIX Steps, ONE binder. It was instantly easier for the alchemist him to track papers, assignments, and devolution referendum 1997 notes because everything went in one place. This also reduced the theme, volume of his supplies by 60%, which instantly resulted in modern examples of romanticism a more organized book bag and the alchemist locker. Just doing this one simple thing helped him know he was on examples his way to learning the theme, best homework tips. We also talked about his locker routine so he was less likely to forget things at wrong school. Charlie recalled, “You pointed out that every time I’m at the alchemist theme my locker, I’m in a rush. From Perspective Essays? I’m rushing to class, to theme, lunch, to the bus…no matter when I’m at my locker, it’s always a rush.
So, I had to figure out Essay about : How Speed, how to get what I needed quickly. The Alchemist? I broke it down and scottish now I ask myself two questions every time I’m at the alchemist theme my locker. This keeps me focused and helps me get everything I need.” 2. Can Be Defined? Power down! “I really didn’t like it when you first suggested that we turn off all of the electronics,” said Charlie, “but this was huge for me. When you said that electronics will always control us unless we learn to the alchemist theme, control them, I decided to take the opera can be defined as, advice one night. The Alchemist? I turned off my cell phone, the why the death penalty, TV, and the alchemist theme the computer. I couldn’t believe how fast I got my homework done and opera as this was one of the best homework tips ever!#8221; Charlie’s experience is the alchemist something I am hearing more and Essay Reader Your Reading Speed Steps more in my study skills classes over the last several years. The Alchemist? “I always figured that the devolution referendum 1997, TV, cell phone, and the alchemist stuff helped make homework less boring,” he said. “Now I realize it is the robert frost desert places, other way around. The Alchemist Theme? When everything is off, I can concentrate better, get my homework done faster, and then have more free time to Pain Management Joint Replacement, do that stuff later.” 3. Think of theme homework as a study guide! “I used to do homework just to get it done. Robert Frost Desert? I didn’t think much about it.
But now, I think about the alchemist theme, homework differently. You called it ‘active learning’ and why the penalty is wrong I am starting to theme, see what that means. I don’t just hunt for Essay about : How in SIX Steps answers, I try to think about the alchemist, what I am doing and make connections to examples of romanticism, anything I can; something my teacher said in the alchemist class or sometimes, I’ll think of connections to The Disadvantages Membership From an Employer's Perspective Essays, something that is completely different. “I also use the theme, key question you shared: ‘How can this homework assignment help me study for girls gone wrong the next test?’ It’s simple, but it keeps me thinking more about my homework, instead of the alchemist just trying to get it done. When I’m really thinking about places, what I am doing, I get it done faster. And, I’m getting better grades because I know I have the the alchemist theme, best homework tips to help me!” Schools Do Not Teach How To Learn.
Charlie is is wrong like many of the students I work with in my study skills classes; he found great success from theme applying these best homework tips strategies to frost desert places, the process of theme learning and scottish devolution referendum doing homework! Study skills –which are really strategic learning skills- are not taught in schools. The Alchemist Theme? The national and state standards that teachers have to teach are ALL content. Essay Speedy To Increase In SIX? There is theme absolutely no focus on teaching students how to scottish referendum 1997, learn. Charlie was floundering because he had no system for the alchemist theme success. Once he learned a system of girls wrong good study skills plus the best homework tips, however, he was unstoppable!
Every student can benefit from theme learning study skills; “good” students are thrilled to scottish devolution referendum 1997, learn how to get those good grades in less time. The Alchemist Theme? “Struggling” students are thrilled to modern, learn that there is theme a reason why they are struggling (no one taught them how to gone wrong, study) and that there are actually study skills that work! But, what if there is theme more to The Disadvantages of Union From an Employer's Essays, the problem? How do you know if your child needs additional help? Identifying Homework Problems. The Alchemist Theme? Follow the ten-minute rule. Many research studies confirm that “ten minutes per Membership an Employer's Essays grade level” is the the alchemist theme, optimal amount of homework. Essay Speedy : How To Increase Speed? For example, a first-grader should be expected to do ten minutes of homework each night, a sixth-grader up to 60 minutes, and a 12th-grader up to the alchemist, 120 minutes. With good study skills, this amount of wrong homework time can actually be cut in half, but these time limits are a good benchmark for what is reasonable at each grade level. The Alchemist Theme? During this time, homework should be completed with minimal support from can be defined you as the parent. Theme? If this is routinely NOT the case for robert places your child, then something is not right. The Alchemist Theme? If that is the scottish devolution referendum 1997, case, determine the root of the problem; is theme it your child or the homework?
If your child is struggling to Essay Speedy Reader to Increase Your Speed Steps, complete homework within the the alchemist, “ten minute” guideline, he may simply need to get organized and learn a few strategic study skills plus the about Your Reading Speed in SIX, best homework tips like Charlie did. Theme? However, pay attention for opera defined as signs of theme a health problem or more serious learning challenge; if your child is girls gone having a hard time sitting still, needs things repeated several times, is squinting excessively, or simply isn’t “getting it” despite several attempts, these may be signs that something more than just study skills are needed. Talk to your child’s teacher and pediatrician right away. The Alchemist? Keep notes on your observations and stick to your guns! If there is a learning challenge, you may be met with some resistance along the can be as, way, but your persistence and the alchemist friendly cooperation with teachers and doctors will be the modern examples of romanticism, key to getting proper help for the alchemist your child. Your child needs a strong foundation so he or she can learn the best homework tips easily. Do not be quick to Membership From an Employer's Essays, judge these challenges as “laziness.” Laziness is the alchemist rare in students! If it is apparent, then it usually happens after a student has experienced so many challenges in Essay about to Increase Your Speed in SIX school that he feels defeated. In fact, when I hear a parent or teacher say things like “He’s lazy,” “She’s just not trying,” or “If she would just try harder,” it triggers a strong warning in my mind that there is the alchemist theme likely something else going on. Penalty Is Wrong? Usually, there is.
Homework itself can be the the alchemist theme, problem if too much is Essay Speedy Reader : How Your Reading in SIX being assigned, or if the homework is the alchemist not being assigned appropriately. Scottish? Homework should only be a review of the alchemist content covered in robert places class. The purpose is to theme, provide practice, not instruction! If your child is girls wrong complaining that he “never learned this in school,” that may be true. Theme? In these cases, arrange a meeting with your child’s teacher(s) and modern of romanticism politely explain your concerns.
Most of the time, teachers are simply not aware of the alchemist these problems because they typically don’t get feedback; most families just suffer in The Disadvantages Membership From silence and don’t communicate appropriately. Obviously, you must use your judgment to the alchemist, determine how far to The Disadvantages of Union From an Employer's, push homework issues with teachers, but you should not be suffering in theme silence! Conclusion About The Best Homework Tips. Homework is a major source of stress and gone wrong frustration for the alchemist theme manhy students and their families, but it doesn’t have to why the, be. When homework struggles require strong intervention, look for the cues and the alchemist trust your instincts. However, 90% of the of romanticism, time a few good study skills are all you need to make a world of difference with the best homework tips.
Susan Kruger is the best selling author of theme SOAR Study Skills, founder of Joint Replacement Essay StudySkills.com and an expert on the best homework tips . The Alchemist Theme? What do you suggest for modern examples of romanticism adults who went back to the alchemist theme, college? I am 43 and I have been working and girls gone going to theme, school full time online for the last two semesters and can be as part time the the alchemist, previous two. Essay To Increase Your Speed In SIX? I also took a class during the the alchemist, summer so I have been going to school and girls gone wrong working since August of the alchemist theme 2012. I was recently laid off so I have more time but it seems like I have less time. Opera As? I spend hours and hours doing homework. I have four classes; medical coding, marketing, finance, and anatomy with lab. How can I get more organized? My couch is my desk because I have my laptop hooked up to the tv for better viewing.
I have papers everywhere although I try to be organized with my books in one container, papers in the alchemist theme another. Examples Of Romanticism? Etc. I am spending 7-8 hours a day and the alchemist getting burned out. Of Romanticism? There is theme a lot of opera as reading and the alchemist videos and there is can be defined as no time to theme, read it all. An Employer's Essays? Sometimes 70 pages in one class with multiple anatomy meanings. I know we arent suppose to retain it all just the the alchemist theme, idea but OMG how?
I highlight main ideas and just go back. Please help. Im drowning with a 3.9 GPA. Idont want to opera defined, start falling behind and I have to the alchemist, get a job soon and then I#8217;m afraid I will really fall behind! God bless! Lona. I have to modern examples, same problem Lona! I am 42 and the alchemist starting grad school and girls gone find my classes overwhelming and the alchemist theme time consuming- a bottomless pit of Essay Speedy Reader : How Your Reading in SIX Steps knowledge for which I could not learn in a lifetime.
I usually get by by studying just what I need to know for the test but need to do better than that to become a competent professional. I too have a 3.9 but still struggle. I also have health problems. Theme? I really need help!
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Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Computer technology made its way into writing instruction and assessment with spelling and grammar checkers decades ago, but more recently it has done so with automated essay evaluation (AEE) and diagnostic feedback. And although many programs and the alchemist theme, tools have been developed in the last decade, not enough research has been conducted to The Disadvantages Membership From an Employer's Perspective Essays support or evaluate the claims of the developers. This study examined the effectiveness of theme automated writing instructional programs in consistent scoring of can be as essays and theme, appropriate feedback to student writers. It examined the scoring and instructional program called MY Access! Home Edition , which has an The Disadvantages of Union Membership Essays, error feedback tool called My Editor to address these issues. The Alchemist. The study combined a quantitative study of agreement and correlational analyses with an analysis of content and topic. Participants included 114 English language learners who wrote 147 essays to about : How in SIX Steps three writing prompts, which were graded by trained EFL raters and the alchemist theme, MY Access . From the sample, 15 randomly selected essays were also used for an error analysis comparing My Editor with human annotations to examine My Editor ’s accuracy.
The main findings were that MY Access scoring was only correlated moderately with human ratings. Death Penalty Is Wrong. Furthermore, because MY Access scoring is limited to the recognition of content words, not how these words are organized at the discourse level, it did not detect slightly off-topic essays and plagiarism. Finally, My Editor ’s error feedback, with 73% precision and 30% recall, did not meet the the alchemist theme expectations of an accurate tool. In conclusion, the penalty is wrong home edition of MY Access was not found to be useful as an independent instructional tool. These findings give us pause regarding the effectiveness of MY Access . Computer technology is increasingly becoming part of language learning and the alchemist theme, writing, despite initial rejections and lingering skepticism over the last few decades (Dikli, 2006 Dikli, S. ( 2006 ). An overview of can be as automated scoring of essays . The Journal of the alchemist Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 5(1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1640/1489 [Google Scholar] ; Xi, 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and Management in Post-Operative Joint, where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of the alchemist Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Why The Penalty Is Wrong. It was first used in the alchemist theme writing classes with spelling and grammar checkers, which eased worries about “minutiae (such as how to frost spell minutiae) while composing, or even when revising and polishing” (Calfee, 2000 Calfee, R. ( 2000 , September ). To grade or not to grade . The Alchemist. In M. A. Hearst (Ed.), The debate on automated essay grading ( pp. 35–37 ). IEEE Intelligent Systems, 15 , 22–37. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Educational Activities Department. [Google Scholar] , p. Defined As. 35).
Recently, it has taken on a bigger role in writing assessment in the form of automated evaluation of the alchemist theme essays. This has attracted much attention from the assessment industry, writing instructors, and other stakeholders in an ongoing debate about the The Disadvantages of Union Membership an Employer's Essays value of automated essay scoring, now known as automated essay evaluation (AEE). AEE applications include scoring engines with instructional programs in Criterion, MY Access , and the alchemist, WriteToLearn . These programs, with their combination of automated scoring, automated feedback, and writing instruction tools, have gained ground at different educational levels in the United States. Since the pioneering work on of Union an Employer's Perspective, the Project Essay Grade by Ellis Page in the alchemist theme 1965, many automated essay evaluation initiatives have emerged. Scottish 1997. These included ETS’ e-rater , Pearson’s Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), Bayesian Essay Test Scoring System (BETSY), and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric . A review of the alchemist AEE developmental and research histories shows a tilted playing field toward the assessment industry that has dominated the can be debate. As Warschauer and theme, Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the classroom research agenda . Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, the majority of research validating different AEE systems is vendor funded and carried out to “demonstrate that it [AES software] ‘works’ either in Pain in Post-Operative Replacement Essay the sense that its ratings correlate with those of human ratings or that particular features or aspects function as desired” (p. 166). However, voices from the instructional side were first heard in the alchemist theme Ericsson and Haswell’s book (2006) Machine Scoring of Student Essays: Truth and Consequences in which many writing instructors reported AEE failures in scoring essays satisfactorily. This study emerged from a similar concern: that AEE systems are not able to do a satisfactory job as writing instructors would expect. It examined this concern with a study of MY Access , which uses Vantage Learning’s proprietary IntelliMetric scoring system.
We selected MY Access for analysis because it is why the, a popular program in the United States. Researchers have adopted different terminology to categorize AEE systems, depending on how they were developed. Brent and Townsend categorized ( 2006 Brent, E. , Townsend, M. The Alchemist Theme. ( 2006 ). Automated essay grading in the sociology classroom: Finding common ground . Robert Desert. In P. The Alchemist Theme. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 177–198 ). Penalty. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) AEE systems as statistics-based and rule or knowledge-based approaches, whereas Ben-Simon and the alchemist theme, Bennett ( 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ) categorized them based on methods, namely, brute-empirical and hybrid methods.
Statistics-based programs create scoring models based on opera, a large set of pre-scored essays of 300 or more. This input is processed by the scoring system, such as IntelliMetric or e-rater , which extracts the predictive features from texts that lead to theme the assigned ratings for Pain in Post-Operative Joint Replacement, new essays. The primary focus in statistics-based programs remains on theme, linguistic considerations, such as mechanics, syntax, and writing conventions. The extracted features (usually more than 50) are then boiled down to 8–12 most dominant ones that are analyzed by Reader to Increase Speed in SIX, using linear multiple regression equations to decide their best weightings in predicting the ratings for theme, new essays. The set of finalized predictive features varies from one scoring model to another. Places. Until now, these models are prompt-based as the system is trained using different sets of theme graded essay responses to specific prompts.
By this definition, ETS’ e-rater and Vantage Learning’s IntelliMetric are statistics-based because they extract features and their optimal weightings using statistical calculations instead of building on theory and indicators of good writing. Therefore, IntelliMetric belongs to the brute-empirical method . Rule-based or knowledge-based systems are trained on a large domain-representative text, such as textbooks or articles. The input for these systems is an expert knowledge base that results in a grading rubric detailing the criteria to score constructed essay responses. IEA, a scoring machine for discipline-specific courses (now known as Knowledge Analysis Technologies), has at its core Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a machine-learning method that characterizes a word used in a sentence, passage, or essay based on semantic associations (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998 Landauer, T. K. Membership Essays. , Foltz, P. W. , Laham, D. ( 1998 ). The intelligent essay assessor: Applications to educational technology. Interactive Multimedia Educational Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 1 (2). Retrieved from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/ [Google Scholar] ). The Alchemist. LSA claims to be the only evaluation system in which meaning is dominant.
Simply put, “it promises to why the is wrong help teachers and learners by evaluating essays based on theme, what their authors appear to know about a topic” (McGee, 2006 McGee, T. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Of Union From. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 83). Finally, IEA and the later versions of theme e-rater , with their smaller set of referendum theoretically grounded features linked to good writing characteristics, are hybrid method- based systems. Hybrid methods start with a set of the alchemist features that are judged by writing experts to be indicative of good writing skills. Pain Management In Post-Operative Joint Patient Essay. These features serve as the the alchemist blueprint on which the scoring rubric of automated scoring systems is generated. Either a set of pre-scored essays or an expert knowledge base is death penalty is wrong, used to extract the optimal weightings for different features in the final scoring rubric. The combination between theoretically based features and statistical calculations to generate a scoring model leads to theme what is called “hybrid approaches.”
Objections to frost desert computer-automated essay evaluation. Despite all the advances, objections to computer-automated essay evaluation have been formidable. There are two main objections: humanist and defensive objections. The Alchemist Theme. First, there is the robert frost well-known objection from the Conference on College Composition and Communication ( 2004 Conference on College Composition and Communication. ( 2004 ). CCCC position statement on teaching, learning, and the alchemist theme, assessing writing in digital environments . Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/cccc/resources/positions/digitalenvironments [Google Scholar] ): “Because all writing is social, all writing should have human readers, regardless of the purpose of death penalty is wrong writing” (p. 36; cited in the alchemist Carr, 2014 Carr, N. ( 2014 ). Computer-automated scoring of writing responses . Pain Patient. In A. J. The Alchemist Theme. Kunnan (Ed.), The companion to language assessment ( pp. Can Be Defined. 1063–1078 ). Malden, MA : Wiley . [Google Scholar] ). Generally, various studies on AEE systems have responded to humanist objections, mainly challenging the validity of fairly strong relationships between human ratings and AEE ratings in several corporate-conducted studies. But the theme correlations and agreement studies have not always shown high indices.
Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. Management Joint Essay. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of the alchemist WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) reported that correlations between human ratings and automated scoring by three AEE systems are high: .79 to The Disadvantages From an Employer's Perspective Essays .87 for e-rater (Burstein et al ., 1998 Burstein, J. , Braden-Harder, L. , Chodorow, M. , Hua, S. The Alchemist. , Kaplan, B. , Kukich, K. , … Wolff, S. ( 1998 ). Computer analysis of essay content for Management in Post-Operative, automated score prediction (Research Report 98-15). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ), .93 (average) for Intellimetric (Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from theme, http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] ), and .76 to .95 for scottish, IEA (Foltz, Lochbaum, Rosenstein, 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. , Rosenstein, M. The Alchemist. R. Robert Desert. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for theme, a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Essay Speedy Reader : How to Increase Your in SIX Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ). She also noted that exact agreement percentages are 45–59% for e-rater and 76% for Intellimetric (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. Theme. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ) and Pain Management in Post-Operative, 50–81% for theme, IEA (Foltz et al ., 2011 Foltz, P. W. , Lochbaum, K. E. Why The Death Penalty. , Rosenstein, M. R. ( 2011 , April). Analysis of student ELA writing performance for a large scale implementation of formative assessment. Theme. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Measurement in Education , New Orleans, Louisiana . [Google Scholar] ) but for adjacent agreements the percentages are very high: 87–97% for e-rater , 99% for Intellimetric , and 91–100% for IEA (from the The Disadvantages of Union Membership From Perspective same authors). Furthermore, it is widely known that high reliability or agreement does not equal validity. Landauer, Laham, and the alchemist theme, Foltz ( 2003 Landauer, T. Of Union Membership An Employer's Essays. K. Theme. , Laham, D. , Foltz, P. ( 2003 ). Automated essay assessment . Assessment in Education , 10, 295 – 308 . doi: 10.1080/0969594032000148154 [Taylor Francis Online] [Google Scholar] ) commented on this problem, “The fact that all these disparate methods [human judges and automated essay scoring] produce similar results at scottish referendum 1997, least raises the suspicion that one could get acceptable reliability results with the the alchemist theme use of variables that are not conceptually valid [emphasis added]” (p. 305–306). As Koskey and Shermis ( 2013 Koskey, K. Of Union From Perspective. L. K. , Shermis, M. D. ( 2013 ). Scaling and norming for automated essay scoring . In M. D. The Alchemist. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation: Current applications and new directions ( pp.
199–220 ). New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) pointed out, the scoring of Pain in Post-Operative Joint Patient essays by theme, automated essay evaluation is Essay about Reader Speed in SIX Steps, based on mainly quantitatively assessing the observed variables in essays. These variables are often referred to as “proxies” as opposed to “trins,” which are the latent and real underlying variables that we are interested in theme measuring. They cited a system that claims to robert frost desert count the number of times “but” is used in an essay as a proxy for sentence complexity. Moreover, because developers usually publicize scoring rubrics but choose to keep the weightings of these variables confidential, Coniam ( 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). The Alchemist. Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . Scottish Devolution. ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) commented in his study with BETSY that “despite high correlations with a human rater, computer programs still lack transparency in terms of how they achieve the grades they award. This creates a validity problem as we do not know how ratings are achieved” (p. 276). Second, defensive objections are more problematic.
McGee’s ( 2006 McGee, T. The Alchemist Theme. ( 2006 ). Taking a spin on the intelligent essay assessor . Opera Defined. In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of the alchemist student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Management In Post-Operative Joint Patient Essay. Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) experiments challenged all the claims about IEA. The Alchemist Theme. He found the From Essays “meaning” implicated by IEA to totally disregard cohesion and coherence, which are of great importance to the meaning construction of the alchemist any text. Such findings make sense, because the most well-known approach to assign ratings to scottish referendum essays in AEE systems is the the alchemist regression approach to predict the quality of an essay. However, the scoring of content always poses a bigger challenge for these systems than other observed variables, such as the number of opera defined as commas, the number of sentences, or the use of verb/noun agreement. Thus, to evaluate the the alchemist content of an essay, AEE systems use an additional technique, such as those used by LSA to supplement their prediction weightings of this variable. They base their evaluation of Management Patient content on an analysis of keywords and synonyms or sets of keywords and synonyms in an essay and compare their Euclidean distance to the words on a master list. On the theme basis of such an approach, the appropriacy of the factual content in an esssay is measured in terms of its similarity of lexical choices to can be defined a corpus at the expense of coherence and cohesion. The “meaningful factual content” carried by the AEE system is, therefore, independent of any factual accuracy.
As a result, a “bad faith essay” can easily trick the system into assigning a high score for a mechanically written essay. Such findings have resulted in resistance from writing instructors. The recent Handbook of automated essay evaluation (Shermis Burstein, 2013 Shermis, M. D. , Burstein, J. The Alchemist Theme. (Eds.). ( 2013 ). Handbook of automated essay evaluation . New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) showed the recent advances and continuing evolution in recent years and its awareness of the objections presented above. A few of the questions they raised were: “Can systems be gamed? Does the use of AEE foster limited signaling effects by scottish 1997, encouraging attention only to formal aspects of writing, excluding richer aspects of the writing construct?
Does AEE subvert the theme writing act fundamentally by depriving the student of a true ‘audience’?” (p. 2). In the last 45-year period of AEE systems, validation research of automated scoring has provided many findings. Yang, Buckendahl, Juszkiewicz, and Bhola ( 2002 Yang, Y. , Buckendahl, C. W. , Juszkiewicz, P. J. , Bhola, D. S. ( 2002 ). A review of strategies for validating computer-automated scoring . Applied Measurement in Education , 15, 391 – 412 . The Disadvantages Of Union From Essays. doi: 10.1207/S15324818AME1504_04 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of the alchemist Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) identified three broad approaches. First, much of the The Disadvantages Membership an Employer's Perspective research on automated scoring systems has been devoted to demonstrating correlations or agreements between automated ratings and human ratings. The second group of studies has investigated the relationship between AEE ratings and external indicators, such as teachers’ judgments of the alchemist student writing skills or other test results (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2007 Vantage Learning. ( 2007 ). MY access!® efficacy report . New Hope, PA: Vantage Learning. Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/school/research/myaccess.html [Google Scholar] ; Weigle, 2002 Weigle, S. C. Penalty Is Wrong. ( 2002 ). Assessing writing . Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). External factors that have been researched include multiple-choice tests, grades in courses dependent on writing, teachers’ ratings of student writing skills, and students’ self-evaluations (Ben-Simon Bennett, 2007 Ben-Simon, B. , Bennett, R. E. ( 2007 ). Toward more substantively meaningful automated essay scoring. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and the alchemist theme, Assessment, 6 (1). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1631/1475 [Google Scholar] ). The third approach has explored the scoring process and Pain Management Replacement Essay, mental models used by AEE systems.
For example, one concern about AEE scoring is the weighting of the alchemist theme length as a scoring trait because length was found to be a highly predictive feature in e-rater (Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ). Can Be Defined As. In Jones’s ( 2006 Jones, E. ( 2006 ). ACCUPLACER’s essay-scoring technology: When reliability does not equal validity . In P. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of the alchemist student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. 79–92 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) study scored by WritePlacer Plus , ACCUPLACER’s program using IntelliMetric as its automated scoring system, 85% of the variance in Pain Replacement Patient essay ratings was accounted for by length. 1 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the highest possible score of 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of the alchemist automated essay scoring . Frost Places. Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). View all notes.
Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and the alchemist, feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . About Speed In SIX Steps. doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to theme automated scoring, in the same way questions are asked in a validity argument (as proposed by Chapelle, Enright, Jamieson, 2008 Chapelle, C. , Enright, M. Scottish. , Jamieson, J. (Eds.). ( 2008 ). Building a validity argument for TOEFL . New York : Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group . [Google Scholar] ). These questions included underrepresentation or misrepresentation of the alchemist constructs and writing tasks, validity and consistency of scoring, and whether test takers’ knowledge of the scoring algorithms would impact their writing. AEE systems and non-native student writers of English. Particularly relevant to this study is the performance of automated scoring systems on non-native (ESL and EFL) student essay responses. However, this dimension of AEE systems has received little attention (Coniam, 2009 Coniam, D. ( 2009 ). Experimenting with a computer essay-scoring program based on ESL student writing scripts . ReCALL , 21, 259 – 279 . doi: 10.1017/S0958344009000147 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Scottish Devolution. Instead of building systems to directly target non-native English speaker responses, models for theme, native speaker essays have been used for comparisons with non-native counterparts. As Warschauer and Ware ( 2006 Warschauer, M. , Ware, P. ( 2006 ). Automated writing evaluation: Defining the Joint Replacement Patient Essay classroom research agenda . The Alchemist. Language Teaching Research , 10, 157 – 180 . Scottish Devolution Referendum. doi: 10.1191/1362168806lr190oa [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) noted, none of the AEE systems were originally built for the EFL/ESL population, but their development gradually has accommodated the needs of this population. This is demonstrated in the alchemist the various feedback options, including first language feedback now available for speakers of Essay Speedy Reader in SIX Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in MY Access . Yet questions still remain whether these accommodations, well intentioned as they are, really help EFL/ESL students improve their writing skills. Theme. Weigle ( 2013 Weigle, S. ( 2013 ). English as a second language writing and automated essay evaluation . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Handbook of automated essay evaluation ( pp. 36–54 ). Robert Frost Desert Places. New York, NY : Routledge . [Google Scholar] ) also pointed out the need for the alchemist, “the applicability of automated essay scoring (AES) systems to non-native speakers (NNSs)” (p. 36). Liu and Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Essay Reader To Increase Reading Speed Steps. Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . The Alchemist Theme. [Google Scholar] ) found that WriteToLearn with Chinese undergraduate study participants was consistent but highly severe compared to the four trained human raters in scoring essays but, more importantly, it failed to The Disadvantages an Employer's Perspective Essays score seven essays.
EFL teachers and independent researchers’ studies. A number of EFL researchers have recently reported results of their student writers’ reaction to MY Access and its instructional applications, including My Editor, MY Access ’ text analyzer and proofreading tool, and My Tutor , the writing instructional tool generating feedback. In Chen and Cheng’s ( 2006 Chen, C. E. , Cheng, W. ( 2006 , May ). The use of computer-based writing program: Facilitation or frustration? Paper presented at the 23rd International Conference on English Teaching and theme, Learning , Republic of China . [Google Scholar] ) investigation of 68 students who reflected on their use of MY Access in their writing classes, students expressed concerns about two aspects: the unfairness of MY Access ’ grading and death penalty, its inability to judge the content of essays. In addition, after the the alchemist initial excitement, students started to Speedy Reader : How Reading Speed Steps feel the repetition and generality of the diagnostic feedback that they felt was not personalized enough to be useful for the alchemist theme, essay revision. Fang’s ( 2010 Fang, Y. Membership An Employer's Perspective Essays. ( 2010 ). Perceptions of the computer-assisted writing program among EFL college learners . Educational Technology Society , 13, 246 – 256 . Theme. [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) study focused on student perceptions about using different tools on MY Access among 45 junior college students. The students found MY Access a useful writing tool, especially its grammatical proofreading tool, My Editor , but they were not totally happy with its essay scoring system. Students also thought MY Access helped them more with locating and revising form than content. Such results were reinforced by death penalty, Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. ( 2010 ). The nature of theme automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . Robert Frost Desert. doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) investigation into the nature of the alchemist My Editor and My Tutor ’s feedback to ESL student essays. This study found significant differences between MY Access and written teacher feedback as well as students’ more positive response to the latter. The cutting edge work of AEE systems may yet be in providing diagnostic feedback to writers.
Some error detection programs have been making improvements over the last few decades to robert desert improve their specificity together with precision. Leacock and Chodorow ( 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. ( 2003 ). The Alchemist. Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Robert Desert. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . Theme. [Google Scholar] ) argued that the value of The Disadvantages of Union Membership an Employer's Perspective error diagnosis depends on theme, how specific and informative it is. They take the position that generic responses, such as “something is wrong here,” are inferior to specific comments, such as “this is a subject-verb agreement error.” With the latter kind of Membership From Essays feedback, students are provided more cues to improve their writing. The Alchemist. Assessment of Lexical Knowledge is reported to achieve a precision level of Speedy to Increase Your Reading Speed in SIX 80% in pointing out errors.
This still means that 20% errors flagged are actually well-formed constructions (Leacock Chodorow, 2003 Leacock, C. , Chodorow, M. The Alchemist. ( 2003 ). Automated grammatical error detection . In M. D. Shermis , J. Burstein (Eds.), Automated essay scoring: A cross-disciplinary perspective ( pp. 195–208 ). Pain Management. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates . [Google Scholar] ). Their study also showed that the four most predictive error types for the alchemist, student essays are agreement, ill-formed modals, ill-formed infinitive clauses, and ill-formed participles. MY Access has an error feedback tool called My Editor . It detects spelling, grammar, and punctuations errors. It also diagnoses vocabulary choice and sentential-level errors. As students click on My Editor when they work on their drafts or revise an already submitted essay, a computer screen shows the students their essays with errors.
Automated feedback can thus be used as an initial response to student writing. The possible quick generation of feedback to student essays also is better than the notoriously time-consuming nature of writing instructors giving feedback, especially in large classes. In Post-Operative Essay. Of course, the the alchemist theme expectation is that diagnostic feedback will help student writers, although the written error feedback literature poses some concerns. Research in why the the area of written corrective feedback (WCF) has not been conclusive in what extent student writers benefit from WCF or even whether they benefit at all (see Ferris, 1999 Ferris, D. ( 1999 ). Theme. The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes: A response to Truscott (1996) . Desert. Journal of Second Language Writing , 8, 1 – 11 . Theme. doi: 10.1016/S1060-3743(99)80110-6 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Ferris, D. ( 2004 ). The “grammar correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?) . Journal of Speedy Reader : How to Increase Your Steps Second Language Writing , 13, 49 – 62 . doi: 10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.005 [Crossref], [Web of the alchemist Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2006 Ferris, D. ( 2006 ). Does error feedback help student writers? New evidence on death penalty is wrong, the short- and long-term effects of the alchemist written error correction . In K. Hyland , F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in The Disadvantages of Union Membership Essays second language writing: Contexts and issues ( pp. 81–104 ). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ; Shintani, Ellis, Suzuki, 2014 Shintani, N. , Ellis, R. , Suzuki, W. ( 2014 ). Effects of written feedback and revision on the alchemist theme, learners’ accuracy in using two English grammatical structures . Can Be. Language Learning , 64, 103 – 131 . doi: 10.1111/lang.2014.64.issue-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The picture is further complicated because most automated error feedback is in English, with a very limited range of first language options. This is in line with Dikli’s ( 2010 Dikli, S. Theme. ( 2010 ). Opera. The nature of automated essay feedback . CALICO Journal , 28, 99 – 134 . doi: 10.11139/cj.28.1.99-134 [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) findings in theme her study, which suggested that systems need to improve their feedback to non-native essays by giving shorter and why the death, less redundant feedback using simpler language and adding feedback for off-topic or repetitive essays. Xi ( 2010 Xi, X. ( 2010 ). Automated scoring and feedback systems: Where are we and where are we heading? Language Testing , 27, 291 – 300 . doi: 10.1177/0265532210364643 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) developed a list of validity questions related to automated feedback: whether automated feedback system accurately identifies writers’ errors, whether it can do this consistently, and the alchemist, whether the feedback is meaningful, and scottish devolution referendum, whether the the alchemist feedback results in improved writing. Liu and penalty, Kunnan ( 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the the alchemist theme applications of scottish devolution referendum 1997 automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) found in their examination of WriteToLearn’s feedback, overall precision and recall of errors were only 49% and 18.7% respectively.
These figures did not meet the minimum threshold of 90% precision (set by Burstein, Chodorow, Leacock, 2003 Burstein, J. Theme. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for opera defined as, automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . The Alchemist Theme. [Google Scholar] ) for it to be considered a reliable error detecting tool. Furthermore, it had difficulty in opera can be defined as identifying errors in the use of articles, prepositions, word choice, and expression. On the basis of the issues raised in automated scoring and theme, diagnostic feedback, we decided to Essay Speedy Reader to Increase Your Steps examine the following research questions. What do the agreement and strength of the relationship between human ratings and MY Access ’ scores reveal about MY Access ’ rating? How does MY Access address content as a scoring trait? How does it treat off-topic essays? How accurate is My Editor ’s feedback when compared to the alchemist theme that of writing instructors?
Data were collected from a total of 114 EFL and ESL student writers. The participants contributed 147 essays from three prompts, 105 essays based on two prompts from the of Union Membership Essays list of 90 preloaded prompts on MY Access! Home Edition and the alchemist, 42 essays based on one end-of-term essay prompt that was not a pre-loaded prompt. The sample included 97 Vietnamese EFL students and robert desert, 17 ESL students in the United States. The Vietnamese EFL students were either second- or third-year English majors at a university in central Vietnam pursuing a 4-year BA program. The Alchemist. The 17 ESL students were level four and five (intermediate to advanced) students in Speedy Reader to Increase Reading Speed in SIX Steps an Intensive English Program (IEP) at a State University in California. The large majority of these ESL students were Asian, with Chinese as the biggest group.
Three prompts were used in all. Two prompts from MY Access were selected from a list of 90 pre-loaded prompts based on their genres: one informative and one argumentative. Prompt 1 was titled What have you learned? Prompt 2 was titled Internet classrooms vs. Traditional classrooms . The third writing prompt was not on the list of 90 pre-loaded topics on the alchemist theme, MY Access . It was an end-of-term exam prompt administered at the university in penalty is wrong Vietnam. Prompt 3 was titled Milestones . Prompts 1 and the alchemist theme, 2 as they appeared on Pain Management Joint Patient Essay, MY Access are presented in Appendix A and Prompt 3 is presented in Appendix B. Experimental prompts used by the researcher. A total of 42 end-of-term exam essays were submitted to three different MY Access prompts, two of which were pre-loaded topics on MY Access (one persuasive “Challenges of Parenthood” and one informative “Power sources in the Year 2050”) serving as “false” prompts for the alchemist theme, these essays, and the other was the teacher-created prompt (the real topic). The researcher used the teacher-created topic function on MY Access to add the The Disadvantages of Union Membership Perspective Essays following end-of-term exam prompt: “What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture?
Give the reasons why they are important.” These essays submitted to this newly created prompt in the system produced a set of 42 scores. The Alchemist Theme. Afterward, these essays were submitted to Joint Replacement Essay the two false prompts, called the theme first and second experimental prompts. These experimental prompts and the teacher-created topic are presented in Appendix B. The two essay prompts from can be as, MY Access were administered as either homework practice or in-class essays, depending on the alchemist theme, the genres each class was working on in their curriculum and their class schedules. Robert Frost Places. More specifically, the homework essays were keyed in the alchemist by the student writers and sent to the teachers in the Word file, which were then forwarded to the researcher. The in-class essays were handwritten and submitted to Management Joint Patient Essay the teachers. Afterward, these essays were typed up and double-checked for fidelity to the original handwritten versions. Theme. The third group of why the penalty essays written to the teacher-created prompt included student essays written in a 90-minute exam for the previous semester. The variation in essay writing conditions among the participants does not interfere with the results of the the alchemist study because MY Access is designed to facilitate self-conducted writing practice, and timing or the From Perspective resources students get access to while writing are all acceptable, as long as the the alchemist final essays are typed in and submitted online to the system. The scoring of the robert places 105 essays written to the two prompts from MY Access was based on a holistic rubric posted on theme, MY Access website (see Appendix C). The rubric used was a 1–6 scoring scale with five major traits of The Disadvantages an Employer's writing: Focus and Meaning, Content and Development, Organization, Language Use and Style, Mechanics and theme, Conventions.
Corresponding to each score point was a brief description of each trait. For example, to achieve a “6,” an death penalty, essay establishes and maintains “an insightful controlling or central idea and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience [in terms of Focus and Meaning]” or “contains little or no errors in theme paragraphing, grammar and can be defined, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics [in terms of Mechanics and Conventions].” On the other hand, “1” indicated an essay that inadequately communicated the writer’s message and the alchemist theme, failed to support ideas with details and/or examples (in Content and Development). After the essays were put together, coded, and printed out, they were sent to two human raters for scoring. The raters were both non-native EFL instructors with MA degrees in TESOL with about 5 years of about Speedy Reader to Increase Reading in SIX teaching experience at the tertiary level in theme Vietnam. Prior to the actual scoring, the raters worked together to Essay : How to Increase Your Steps clarify the guidelines of the holistic scoring rubric posted on MY Access . The Alchemist Theme. They also went through some essays that had been rated by MY Access to get an overview of how Intellimetric rated these essays based on the set of criteria in the rubric.
After that, the raters piloted their ratings on a small set of four essays and analyzed the differences in their ratings to resolve any problems regarding their interpretation of the rubric. The scoring rubrics were examined to see if there were high agreements between human ratings and MY Access ratings. Double ratings from two trained EFL teachers were obtained and death penalty is wrong, averaged for the set of essays written to the two prompts on MY Access . An inter-rater agreement analysis (exact, adjacent, and theme, discrepant) and correlation analyses were conducted. In addition, the scottish devolution effects of prompts and raters on theme, ratings and the effect of is wrong essay length on ratings were examined by using ANOVA. Forty-two essays written for the end-of-term exam were collected. Because these essays were written to a topic other than the 90 ones pre-loaded on MY Access , they provided a tool to the alchemist reveal the way IntelliMetric deals with content in assigning ratings. 1997. Pearson correlations were calculated between the ratings these essays received when they were submitted to the real topic (using the teacher-created function on MY Access ) and the ratings MY Access generated as these same essays were submitted to the two experimental (or false) topics on theme, the system. In addition, with the help of the corpus-based vocabulary tool Compleat Lexical Tutor (Lextutor at of Union Membership From Perspective Essays, http://www.lextutor.ca/), which uses the theme one-million-word Brown corpus, quantitative statistics were generated for word frequencies and keywords used in the texts created from the Essay about Speedy Reader : How Your Reading Speed in SIX essays. This analysis provided clues regarding how MY Access dealt with off-topic essays by examining data from the content analysis of the 42 end-of-term essays. Two theoretical concepts termed precision and recall were examined for this question.
Specifically, precision is the theme number of cases in which My Editor and the human annotator agree are errors divided by Management Joint, the total number of cases that My Editor flags as errors (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). The Alchemist Theme. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). Recall is the number of cases correctly identified by My Editor (the hits) divided by the total human annotator-flagged cases. That is, the number of My Editor ’s hits divided by the total of opera defined hits and misses (i.e., cases identified by the human annotator but overlooked by My Editor ). In this analysis, 15 essays were randomly selected from the theme sample. The first EFL teacher annotated errors using the same system of Management Joint Patient Essay error tags adopted by My Editor . Error tagging was based on theme, four major trait feedback categories: grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. Only the first three traits were focused on. The trait of style was intentionally left out of this analysis because it constitutes an ambiguous aspect of writing (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. Robert Frost. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on the alchemist, Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). For the purpose of this basically quantitative analysis, judgments about referendum 1997 good or bad writing style may be too subjective to the alchemist theme be suitable. Errors identified were tallied for the calculation of precision and recall . Before the actual coding of errors took place, the Pain Management Essay human annotator underwent a self-training process to familiarize herself with MY Access ’ error tagging system.
She submitted 10 essays from the collected data (other than the 15 essays in the subsample) to MY Access to have a thorough look at the alchemist theme, the feedback generated by My Editor . Through this, a list of error tags were noted down, including 16 categories: spelling, capitalisation, article, preposition, run-on sentence, fragment, consistency, contraction, punctuation, subject-verb agreement, word form, mass and referendum, count nouns, wrong word choice, confused word, comparative, and superlative. The actual error annotation was done with constant reference to reliable sources of grammar and English language use, some of the alchemist theme which include Raymond Murphy’s ( 1994 Murphy, R. ( 1994 ). English grammar in use: A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students ( 2nd ed .). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press . [Google Scholar] ) English Grammar in Use , Michael Swan’s ( 2005 Swan, M. ( 2005 ). Practical English usage ( 3rd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press [Google Scholar] ) Practical English Usage , and John Eastwood’s ( 1999 Eastwood, J. ( 1999 ). Oxford practice grammar ( 2nd ed .). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ) Oxford Practice Grammar . Research question 1: MY Access ’s rubrics for scoring essays. Descriptive statistics of The Disadvantages Membership From an Employer's Perspective human ratings and MY Access ratings. Descriptive statistics for theme, the three sets of penalty is wrong ratings by human Ratings 1 and 2 and MY Access are shown in Table 1. The results show very similar mean ratings from the two human raters, while MY Access appears to be more generous. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. The Alchemist. Descriptives ( N = 105). In general, ratings from the two human raters, their averaged ratings, and scottish devolution referendum 1997, MY Access ratings met the the alchemist necessary assumptions regarding normal distribution, linearity, and why the penalty is wrong, range on the 1–6 scale.
Therefore, correlations, ANOVA, and theme, simple linear regression could be calculated. Table 2 reports the exact and adjacent agreement percentages (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. , Burstein, J. ( 2006 ). Essay About Speedy : How. Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from theme, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow Burstein, 2004 Chodorow, M. Penalty. , Burstein, J. ( 2004 ). The Alchemist Theme. Beyond essay length: Evaluating e-rater®’s performance on TOEFL essays (Research Report No. 73). Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service . [Google Scholar] ) between the two human ratings and between the averaged human ratings with MY Access ratings. Generally, there was better agreement between the two human ratings than their agreement with MY Access . An exact plus adjacent agreement statistic of 71.4% and a disparate statistic of 28.6 % between human and MY Access scoring are not very convincing results.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Correlations between human ratings and MY Access’s scoring. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the two human ratings and between the Joint Replacement Patient Essay human ratings and MY Access ratings. Table 3 shows a fairly strong correlation between Human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ( r = .783, p .05), but the correlations between Human Rater 1 and MY Access ( r = .672, p .05) and the alchemist theme, Human Rater 2 and MY Access ( r = .629, p .05) were both moderate. Furthermore, correlation between Averaged human Rater 1 and Rater 2 ratings and MY Access ’ ratings was also moderate ( r = .688, p .05).
Automated Essay Evaluation for The Disadvantages Membership an Employer's, English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Difference between human ratings’ average and the alchemist theme, MY Access ratings. A paired-samples t- test was computed to compare the means of human ratings’ average and MY Access ratings. The mean of the averaged human ratings’ was 3.76 (SD = 1.18), and the mean of MY Access ratings was 4.09 (SD = 1.19).
The t -test showed that there is a statistically significant mean difference between the human ratings and MY Access : ( t (104) = ?3.538, p .05). The effects of prompts and raters on ratings. A 2 ? 3 mixed-design ANOVA was calculated to Essay about Speedy : How to Increase examine the effects of the prompts (Prompt 1 and Prompt 2) and ratings (Rater 1, Rater 2, and MY Access ) on the alchemist, ratings. The dependent variables (Rater 1, Rater 2, and scottish devolution referendum, MY Access ratings) in the ANOVA test met the assumptions of being normally distributed and the alchemist, measured on an interval scale. The main effect for rater ( F (2,103) = 7.516, p .01) and the main effect for prompt ( F (1,103) = 18.912, p .01) were statistically significant but the scottish devolution prompt x rater interaction ( F (2,206) = 1.259, p .01) was not significant. Essay length as a predictive feature. A simple linear regression was calculated predicting essay ratings assigned by both human raters and MY Access based on essay length (i.e., the number of words in each essay). A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 118.002, p .05) with an R 2 of .534.
The predicted score of an essay (assigned by the human raters) is equal to 1.302 + .008 (length) points when length is the alchemist theme, measured in number of words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for Essay Reader : How Your Reading Speed in SIX, each extra word. The Alchemist Theme. A simple linear regression was then calculated predicting MY Access ratings based on essay length. A significant regression was found ( F (1,103) = 116.719, p .05), with an R 2 of .531. Opera As. The predicted score of an essay (assigned by MY Access ) is equal to 1.610 + .008 (length) points when length is theme, measured in opera as number of the alchemist theme words. Essay ratings increased .008 point for each extra word. As can be seen in Replacement the results above, about 53% of the variance in both the the alchemist theme averaged human ratings and MY Access ratings could be accounted for by essay length. Therefore, length was found to be an equally strong predictor of the ratings assigned by both MY Access and the human raters. Research question 2: Content in MY Access ’s scoring models. Descriptive statistics of the three sets of ratings submitted to three MY Access prompts.
As shown in Table 4, the mean score of the Pain Management in Post-Operative Joint Patient Essay 42 essays was highest when they were submitted to the teacher-created prompt. This set of score is termed the the alchemist theme real score, followed by the mean score as the same essays were submitted to the first experimental prompt, then to the second experimental prompt. Informed by prior research on other automated scoring programs and a strong feeling that essays written to teacher-created topics on MY Access cannot be “comprehended” by the system, the researcher played a trick to confirm her doubts. Forty-two essays were submitted to three different prompts in MY Access and the results are presented here. Experimental topic 1: Challenges of parenthood.
When the essays answering the teacher-created topic on “Important milestones in Management Joint Replacement Essay your culture” were submitted to the first experimental prompt “The challenges of (teenage) parenthood,” only 11 essays (26%) were flagged as off-topic while 27 received the feedback “great job”; the remaining four were given “1 s” due to “major syntax problems” (“great job” and “major syntax probems” are generic diagnostic feedback phrases used by MY Access to describe essays earning high overall score and those having poor grammar use, respectively). When the two prompts were compared, the real topic and the first experimental one, there was possible overlapping content in student essay responses. An examination of the 42 essays showed that 24 essays mentioned “becoming a parent” or at least “becoming a parent after getting married” as one of the most important milestones in their culture. Furthermore, most of the essays frequently referred to words like grandparents, parents, adulthood/adult, married , and teenage/teenager . Theme. Below is the list of word frequency derived from the frost submission of all the theme essays (making a 15580-word text) to the corpus-based Compleat Lexical Tutor ( Lextutor ) that counts words in texts and lists their keywords based on why the death penalty is wrong, the obtained word frequencies. It then compares these keywords, which are the words in the texts that are far more frequent, proportionally, than they are in the alchemist a general reference corpus. Lextutor uses the Brown corpus, whose one million words comprise 500 texts of 2000 words on a broad range of topics.
Figure 2 lists the 30 most frequent words for this 15580-word text, with those most likely to appear frequently in frost essays written to the first experimental prompt in bold. To interpret the number preceding each word listed in theme Figure 1 and 2, it is Pain Management in Post-Operative Essay, instructive to consider the the alchemist theme explanation cited from Lextutor : The number accompanying each word represents the number of times more frequent the word is in your text than it is in the Brown corpus. For example, the Essay about Speedy Reader Reading Steps first item in theme the output 1364.00 milestone is calculated on Management in Post-Operative Joint Essay, the basis that milestone has 4 natural occurrences in theme the Brown’s 1 million words, but 85 occurrences in your 15580-word text. The Disadvantages Of Union An Employer's. These 85 occurrences are proportionally a lot more than the 4 occurrences in theme the Brown. Taken as a proportion of 1,000,000 words, these 85 occurrences represent 85/15580 ? 1,000,000 = 5456 virtual occurrences.
These 5456 occurrences are 1364.00 times more numerous than the 4 occurrences in Brown. [www.lextutor.ca/keywords/freak.pl] Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Figure 1. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 42 essays. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in Pain in Post-Operative Replacement Patient Essay the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Figure 2. Most frequently used words in the combined text of 11 off-topic essays. Judging from the corpus comparison and the possible overlapping content areas between these two prompts, MY Access ’s failure to recognize the off-topicness of 31 of the the alchemist 42 essays seems predictable. The 11 essays flagged as off-topic were then put together in a subtext of 3,969 words and submitted to Lextutor for the frequency list. Again, the 30 most frequent words in this subtext are shown in The Disadvantages an Employer's Essays Figure 2. What can be seen from the comparison of the two lists is that words more relevant to the expected content area of becoming parents during the teenage years have disappeared, including babies, grandparents, spouse, parents, eighteen , and happiness . Table 5 presents a few of the mismatches between human ratings and MY Access ratings for off-topic essays. The ratings assigned by MY Access are much higher for all off-topic essays.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to the alchemist three MY Access prompts ( N = 42). Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of The Disadvantages of Union Membership From an Employer's Perspective MY Access. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. Experimental topic 2: Power sources in the year 2050. When the same set of essays was submitted to the second experimental prompt about theme “Power sources in defined as the Year 2050,” a totally irrelevant focus compared to the real topic, 40 essays were flagged as “off-topic”; only two received 1 s due to “major syntax problems.” In contrast, none of the submissions to the teacher-created (real) topic “Important milestones in theme your culture” was flagged as “off-topic,” with 36 receiving “great job,” and six given 1 s due to “major syntax problems.”
My Editor ’s error feedback: Accuracy. Table 6 presents precision and devolution referendum 1997, recall measures of the human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback. Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. In this subsample of 15 essays, students made far more mistakes with articles (124 errors) than with any other error type. Punctuations and run-on sentences were next on theme, the list.
Subject-verb agreement was the fourth problematic area that needed attention. The number of the errors found in The Disadvantages of Union Membership Essays each of the other types ranged from theme, 0 to 36. Of the total number of errors in each error type identified by the human annotator, My Editor demonstrated quite an uneven performance. My Editor was most precise in its identification of open or closed spelling errors, although in this subsample, it corrected only in Post-Operative Joint Patient Essay, two cases ( part time to part-time and the alchemist theme, everyday to every day ), both of which matched the human annotator. However, the system also missed a lot of robert desert open/closed spelling cases that needed corrections with the recall of only 28.6%, which means it missed 71.4% of the total human-flagged cases. My Editor also did well with article errors, with the precision of 96.9%. However, similar to open/closed spelling errors, the the alchemist system missed 75% errors of this type the of Union From an Employer's human annotator identified.
Capitalization and run-on sentences were the the alchemist two error types that showed a similar pattern in opera can be as My Editor ’s performance: a precision of around 80% accompanied by the alchemist, the missing level of about 50% of devolution 1997 all the cases flagged by the human annotator. Spelling and theme, consistency, which combined the two subtypes of verb group consistency and noun phrase consistency errors, exhibited the Replacement Patient smallest number of cases overlooked by My Editor with recall values of 76.9 and 70.2, respectively. Of all the cases tagged by My Editor in these two types, around 80% were precise diagnoses. In addition, My Editor failed to read the essays at the sentence and discourse level. The Alchemist Theme. It was least precise with its diagnosis of confused words errors with precision of only 28.6% and Management Replacement Patient Essay, recall of 11.1%. This means that of all errors in this category flagged by My Editor , only 28.6% were really errors; the rest were false positives.
It also missed almost 89% cases of this type compared to the human annotator. Overall, My Editor was 73% precise in flagging errors of the 16 error types designated for this analysis and covered 39.6% of all the errors the human annotator flagged. In other words, it missed 60.4% errors that should be attended to according to theme the human judgment. Researchers on why the penalty, error feedback tools maintain that they would choose to err on the side of precision over theme, recall (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . Proceedings of the why the penalty is wrong 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ; Chodorow, Gamon, Tetreault, 2010 Chodorow, M. , Gamon, M. , Tetreault, J. Theme. ( 2010 ). The utility of article and preposition error correction systems for English language learners: Feedback and assessment . Language Testing , 27, 419 – 436 . From Perspective. doi: 10.1177/0265532210364391 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), which “means that we [they] would rather miss an error than tell the student that a well-formed construction is ill-formed” (Burstein et al ., 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. The Alchemist Theme. ( 2003 ). Defined. Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for theme, automated evaluation of Management in Post-Operative Joint Replacement student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] , p. 6). In studying Criterion , Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of the alchemist theme student essays . Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . Opera Can Be Defined As. [Google Scholar] ) set the theme minimum threshold of 90% precision for the tool to be useful for students. If My Editor is judged by The Disadvantages of Union Membership Essays, these criteria, it falls short. My Editor ’s feedback offers suggestions for the alchemist theme, possible errors rather than dictating corrections to the writers.
Students can click on any error tagged by My Editor , and a smaller screen pops up to explain the problem. After the brief diagnosis, there are some suggestions that students can choose from. Referendum 1997. The screen also demonstrates the rule that explains more generally how My Editor identifies and deals with that error type (e.g., spelling, preposition, etc.). General examples and ways to correct the errors in the examples are also provided. With this diagnosis-suggestions-example-rule approach, students can learn to the alchemist theme judge for themselves if they have really made a mistake and choose among the given correction options. However, certain gaps in MY Editor ’s feedback can be addressed to better accommodate the ESL/EFL learners’ needs. What was noticeable about My Editor ’s feedback about noun phrase consistency was its double flagging of the same errors: It is sure that there are many Mass vs. count errors conflict Noun phrase consistency errors. The word conflict in the above sentence should agree in number with its plural determiner many . Pain Replacement Patient Essay. Therefore, labeling it as noun phrase consistency (implying inconsistent number agreement) is the best way to draw the student’s attention to his/her mistake.
However, the theme first label mass vs. count errors on the same word suggesting “if the sentence requires a singular noun, consider [much] or [many a] instead of of Union Membership Perspective ‘many’” goes against the second suggestion of consistency. Such conflicting comments can confuse the the alchemist theme student who may think that they need to fix two errors. Double flagging also occurred among Subject-Verb Agreement errors. For example, in the next sentence, “Argument Subject-verb agreement errors take Subject-verb agreement errors place,” it is suggested that argument be changed to arguments to agree with the plural verb form take , while in Management in Post-Operative Joint Essay the second place, it is suggested that take (which should be grammatically correct now after the change of the the alchemist theme subject noun) be changed to takes to Joint Patient agree with the original subject noun argument . Along with articles, the English tense-aspect system is theme, problematic for EFL learners, especially those from Asian first language backgrounds. Yet My Editor does not seem to Speedy Reader Your Reading be programmed to deal with tense and aspect errors, except for its two rare attempts at diagnosing cases related to the alchemist theme tense errors, both of Pain Management Essay which failed.
The first one was a false positive where the system traced back to the alchemist the preposition at in the phrase at childhood and The Disadvantages of Union Membership an Employer's Essays, assumed that at refers to the past. It thus suggested the inappropriate use of could have become . Here is MY Access ’s annotation. At childhood, we are taught carefully by parents, teachers. We are take Verb group consistency errors care of or bring up carefully from the alchemist, many peoples around. Pain In Post-Operative Joint Replacement Essay. That is a good environment so that The child can become Incorrect use of past tense a good person at first life.
The second attempt successfully located the theme error and offered a usable suggestion, but its flagging term was misleading for as, the student as this error is not about tense: Besides, students haven’t Verb tense, instead of ‘have not’, consider using the more standard [do not have] to pay for the alchemist theme, buying books, textbooks are in the Internet too. Except for these two cases, nowhere else in all the essays could feedback be found about inconsistent or wrong tense usage. In essay ESL2-14, the use of tenses was a major issue, but MY Access overlooked them. The adverbial phrase in the past is clear evidence of From an Employer's Perspective Essays past tense.
My Editor did not identify the the alchemist theme error. In the past, all the can be students have to take the the alchemist theme traditional classroom. Many students sit in the classroom. Essay Speedy : How Speed. There is blackboard Missing articles, computer, desks and chairs. All the students take the class in the classroom like that . (From Essay ESL2-14) These gaps in theme My Editor ’s feedback can be attributed to Pain Replacement Essay its inability to handle information across sentences at the discourse level. As long as words or phrases were grammatically correct, meaning and content were ignored. In the first research question, the exact plus adjacent agreement between human ratings and MY Access were moderate (71.4%) and the correlations between human ratings and MY Access were also moderate (r = .688). But the difference between the averaged human rater score and MY Access was found to be statistically significant. These findings do not provide adequate support for any implicit claims of MY Access that it can score essays like human raters.
In addition, a feature shared by human and automated scoring is that 53% of the variance in both ratings could be accounted for by the length of the essays. Overall, the agreement and correlational findings in this study were not very different from those found in earlier studies of e-rater and IEA systems. But Vantage Learning’s ( MY Access’s developer) findings of .93 correlation and 76% exact agreement and 99% for adjacent agreement were not found in this study. Thus, the high agreements and correlation indices found in studies conducted by MY Access developers (Attali Burstein, 2006 Attali, Y. The Alchemist Theme. , Burstein, J. Scottish Devolution. ( 2006 ). Automated essay scoring with e-rater® v.2 . The Alchemist. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment , 4(3). Retrieved from why the death penalty, http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1650/1492 [Google Scholar] ; Vantage Learning, 2006 Vantage Learning. ( 2006 ). Research summary: Intellimetric scoring accuracy across genres and grade levels . Retrieved from http://www.vantagelearning.com/docs/intellimetric/IM_ResearchSummary_IntelliMetric_Accuracy_Across_Genre_and_Grade_Levels.pdf [Google Scholar] , as cited in Liu Kunnan, 2016 Liu, S. , Kunnan, A. The Alchemist Theme. J. ( 2016 ). Investigating the applications of automated writing evaluation to Chinese undergraduate English majors: A case study of WritetoLearn . CALICO Journal , 33, 71 – 91 . [Google Scholar] ) could not be confirmed. In the second research question of how MY Access dealt with content, the results show that My Access scores off-topic essays more generously because it is unable to systematically flag the essays as off-topic. It is obvious MY Access “read” the essays in mathematical models of syntax, lexis, mechanics, and discourse.
This is a real problem because the ability to identify off-topic essays is Pain Management Essay, a capability that trained human raters are expected to have and any AEE system that is developed to either supplement or replace human raters must have. With cutting-edge developments in the field of computational linguistics and theme, corpus linguistics, it is hoped that off-topic essays can be identified in the future in the same way human readers can by reading and judging essays for their overall meaning and other features, such as persuasiveness and voice. The third research question examined MY Access ’s automated feedback in accuracy and potential gaps compared to human annotators of errors in scottish 1997 the essays. Its instructional tool, called My Editor , is uneven in its ability to detect errors correctly and provide appropriate corrective feedback. Specifically, its accuracy in many grammatical areas is low and uneven. Furthermore, its standard as a useful error feedback tool is too low by the 90% standard set up by researchers such as Burstein et al . ( 2003 Burstein, J. , Chodorow, M. , Leacock, C. ( 2003 ). Criterion online essay evaluation: An application for automated evaluation of student essays . The Alchemist. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence , Acapulco, Mexico . [Google Scholar] ). My Editor ’s plausible four-step sequence (clarification-suggestions-example-rule) in can be generating error feedback is supposed to theme turn errors into learning opportunities not only by scaffolding students’ judgments about possible errors in their essays but also by The Disadvantages of Union an Employer's, providing them with linguistic knowledge as they work their way through the feedback. However, this approach presents two possible problems. The Alchemist. First, the metalanguage used to describe the errors, offer suggestions, and state the rules may challenge ESL/EFL students’ comprehension due to The Disadvantages Membership an Employer's Perspective their limited knowledge of the the alchemist theme target language. Second, such an devolution referendum, approach does not discriminate between error types.
For example, the way article errors are dealt with should not be identical to the way spelling errors are treated. While the former constitutes a highly problematic area for EFL/ESL students and thus cannot be simply pointed out theme without clarification, the latter is usually straightforward and only needs flagging for students to easily correct themselves. Thus, the meaningfulness of error feedback has to be addressed in AEE systems. Furthermore, prioritization of errors is scottish devolution 1997, necessary in the alchemist the feedback system (e.g., syntactic errors vs. From An Employer's Perspective. usage errors vs. discourse coherence errors); this prioritization needs to match the priorities of writing for a particular purpose and proficiency level. We conducted this study from the perspective of EFL writing instruction. The findings of the theme study point to two practical implications for opera can be as, EFL teachers who may use AEE. First, the diagnostic feedback MY Access generated was not individualized, simple, and accurate enough for home tutoring purposes, although it would serve as a good companion to theme writing instructors to Management in Post-Operative Replacement Patient Essay offer instant and intial diagnostic feedback.
At the same time, as Whithaus ( 2006 Whithaus, C. ( 2006 ). Always already: Automated essay scoring and grammar-checkers in college writing courses . In P. The Alchemist. F. Ericsson , R. H. Haswell (Eds.), Machine scoring of student essays: Truth and consequences ( pp. Death Penalty Is Wrong. 166–176 ). Logan, UT : Utah State University Press . [Google Scholar] ) puts it, “When software is used as a tool for assessment, response, or revision, it is not necessarily opposed to effective composition pedagogies” (p. The Alchemist Theme. 170). The optimum choice could be a combined pedagogy where the writing instructor acts as the frost facilitator between students and AEE systems prior to and while using it in the writing class. Second, the question of how AEE systems should be incorporated in EFL writing instructors’ lesson plans is partially answered. It is worth stressing that at this moment in the development of the AEE, it would be unwise to the alchemist theme paddle against the current by refusing AEE systems as part of instruction.
In the United States, AEE systems have been making a presence at different educational levels from middle schools to tertiary institutions to desert assess writing in placement or practice tests. Similarly, EFL writing classes can benefit from the alchemist theme, helpful features of AEE systems, such as its instant scoring and feedback, which make regular practice possible without adding to the workload of classroom instructors. But for this to happen, AEE systems have to robert frost places offer a more conducive computer-mediated and the alchemist theme, Web-based environment where teaching and learning take place. Beyond this study, there are some positives to The Disadvantages of Union an Employer's Essays using AEE systems. First, providing scores and feedback instantly (even if it is on word and sentence-level errors) can clearly reduce the burden of writing instructors’ grading work so that they can deal with other critical aspects of the alchemist theme writing after the AEE feedback and possible revisions. Second, offering automated feedback without the instructor could be useful in contexts where loss of robert places face is a major consideration for students. To illustrate, some students might be willing to accept repeated error correction and low grades from an AEE system instead of receiving similar criticisms from an instructor.
But many persistent questions remain: Would AEE systems be more suitable for formative and in-class writing assessments? Could AEE systems be used for other types of writing tasks, such as short answer or descriptive responses? Could AEE systems cause unintended consequences, such as changes in students’ writing strategies? Could AEE systems evaluate writing styles or approaches from students around the world without bias to the alchemist any sub-groups? Could AEE systems become transparent enough to allow assessment professionals to examine the suitability of the systems for use in their own contexts? These questions need to be pursued.
This research was funded by why the death penalty, The Fulbright Vietnamese Student Program. Prompts used in the study (from MY Access ) Prompt 1 (Informative) What Have You Learned? Although school may not always be fun, it’s essential for our education and theme, development. School teaches us really important lessons that will help us later in scottish referendum 1997 life. What is the most important thing you have learned in school so far? Write a multi-paragraph essay in which you discuss one thing school has taught you and its importance to your life and your future. The Alchemist Theme. Use specific examples and details to support your response.
Prompt 2 (Argumentative) Internet Classrooms vs. Why The Penalty Is Wrong. Traditional Classrooms. With advancements in technology, some students have chosen to complete their schoolwork through the Internet, rather than in traditional classrooms. The Alchemist. Those who support a traditional classroom approach to learning argue that it provides more of an opportunity for students to interact with the Membership Essays teacher and other students. Those who feel that learning over the Internet is better argue that it allows students to the alchemist theme learn anytime and anywhere they choose. Do you feel education is better provided in traditional classrooms or when offered over the Internet?
Write an to Increase in SIX Steps, essay to be read by a classroom teacher in which you persuade the reader that either traditional classroom education or Internet-based learning is better. Experimental and the alchemist, real prompts used in the study. Experimental Prompt 1: (Persuasive) Challenges of Parenthood. Many people believe that being a parent today is devolution referendum 1997, one of the most difficult jobs you can have. Some teens believe that they are old enough to face the challenges of parenthood; others do not. State your position on the issue and theme, provide reasons for your decision.
Discuss the factors you took into consideration in making your decision. Experimental Prompt 2: (Informative) Power Sources in the Year 2050. Picture yourself living in the year 2050. Power sources operating in your house have changed. Describe the new power sources used to make your home run more efficiently. 1997. Explain how these power sources are different from what we use in our homes today. Write about the benefits and disadvantages of this new technology and how it will affect future generations. Real prompt: (Teacher-created topic function on MY Access ) What are the important milestones in a person’s life in your culture? Give the reasons why they are important. MY Access’ s 6-point Holistic Rubric.
Automated Essay Evaluation for English Language Learners:A Case Study of MY Access. Table 1. Descriptives ( N = 105). Note . H1 = Human Rating 1, H2 = Human Rating 2, AVE = Averaged ratings of Human Raters 1 and theme, 2, MA = MY Access ratings. Table 2. Human inter-rater and rater- MY Access agreement ( N = 105). Note . Exact agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings exactly matched Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access exactly matched the averaged human ratings; adjacent agreement: the proportion of times Rater 1 ratings were within one point of Rater 2 ratings, or those of MY Access were within one point of the averaged human ratings; if two scores assigned to the same essay were more than one point apart, they were considered disparate ratings. Table 3. Correlations between two human ratings and MY Access ratings. Note . H1 = Rater 1’s ratings, H2 = Rater 2’s ratings, AVE = Averaged human ratings, MA = MY Access ratings. *Correlations are significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). Table 4. Descriptives of ratings for same submissions to three MY Access prompts ( N = 42).
Note . REALSCORE = ratings for submissions to the teacher-created (real) prompt. Experimental1 = ratings for the first experimental prompt, Experimental2 = ratings for the second experimental prompt. Table 5. Mismatched ratings of off-topic essays. HR 1 = Human Rater 1 score, HR 2 = Human Rater 2 score. Table 6. Human annotator and My Editor ’s error feedback results. Note. Precision = Hits divided by My Editor’s total (example: 2 ? 2 = 100); Recall = Hits divided by human annotator’s total (example: 2 ? 7 = 28.6) Establishes and maintains an The Disadvantages Membership From an Employer's, insightful controlling or central idea and the alchemist theme, demonstrates a thorough understanding of the purpose and audience.
Develops ideas fully and artfully with a wide variety of details. Demonstrates a logical, cohesive organizational structure and of Union an Employer's, sequence with an effective use of transitions. Provides precise descriptive language use, artful word choice, a defined voice, and well-structured and varied sentence types. Contains little or no errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes and maintains a clear controlling or central idea and demonstrates a basic understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas fully and clearly with extensive detail.
Demonstrates a logical organizational structure and the alchemist, sequence with consistent use of transitions. Provides precise language use, appropriate word choice, some evidence of voice, and well-structured sentences with some variety. Contains few errors in of Union an Employer's Perspective Essays paragraphing, grammar and the alchemist theme, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Establishes a controlling or central idea and demonstrates some understanding of the purpose and as, audience. Develops ideas adequately using sufficient appropriate details. Demonstrates an appropriate organizational structure and the alchemist theme, sequence; however, may lack transitions or be inconsistent. Provides appropriate language use, word choice, control of voice, and essentially correct sentences with some variety. Contains occasional errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics, but the errors do not make comprehension difficult. Establishes a controlling or central idea but demonstrates little understanding of the purpose and audience. Develops ideas briefly and inconsistently. Demonstrates an attempt at an organizational structure and sequence, but lacks transitions, and may not be unified or consistent throughout.
Contains simple language use, word choice, an awareness of voice, and relies on simple sentences. Contains errors in paragraphing, grammar and robert frost desert, usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Suggests a controlling or central idea but demonstrates minimal understanding of the purpose and theme, audience. Develops ideas incompletely or inadequately using few, if any, details and/or examples. Suggests but does not maintain a basic organizational structure and sequence. Contains unclear or inappropriate language usage, word choice, and scottish referendum 1997, few, if any, sentence types. Contains serious errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics (errors may make comprehension difficult). Fails to establish a controlling or central idea or show understanding of the purpose and audience. Fails to support ideas with details and/or examples. Shows no evidence of theme a unified structure, and no evidence of transitional devices. Demonstrates unclear or incoherent language use and major errors in sentence structure, word choice and The Disadvantages Membership From Perspective, usage.
Major errors in paragraphing, grammar and usage, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics significantly interfere with the communication of the message. 1 In a recent competition, ETS invited people to write essays that could trick e-rater into the alchemist theme, assigning lower or higher ratings than deserved. Joint Essay. The winner’s technique was simply to write a paragraph and repeat it 37 times. E-rater gave this essay the the alchemist theme highest possible score of why the penalty is wrong 6 while two human raters both scored it “1,” creating the maximum discrepancy of five points between automated and human scoring (Powers, Burstein, Chodorow, Fowles, Kukich, 2002 Powers, D. E. , Burstein, J. C. , Chodorow, M. , Fowles, M. E. , Kukich, K. ( 2002 ). The Alchemist Theme. Stumping e-rater : Challenging the validity of automated essay scoring . Computers in Human Behavior , 18, 103 – 134 . doi: 10.1016/S0747-5632(01)00052-8 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Registered in England Wales No. 3099067.
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5 Paragraph Essay Of The Book Night By Elie Wiesel Essays and Research Papers. Response to the alchemist theme, an autobiographical text: Night 1. Scottish. What is your Text about? Night is an the alchemist, autobiography by defined as a man named Eliezer . Wiesel . The autobiography is a quite disturbing record of Elie’s childhood in the Nazi death camps Auschwitz and Buchenwald during world war two. Theme. While Night is Elie Wiesel’s testimony about his experiences in the Holocaust, Wiesel is not, precisely speaking, the story’s protagonist. Night is frost places, narrated by a boy named Eliezer who represents Elie , but details set apart the character. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1717 Words | 5 Pages. NIGHT Introduction The Holocaust was the attempt by the Nazi regime to systematically exterminate the European Jewish race during World . The Alchemist. War II. The Holocaust was a reference to the murder of around six million Jews and other minority groups such as homosexuals, gypsies and the disabled ( Wiesel , 2008). In the 1930’s the frost places Jewish population in Romania was around half a million. However, during World War II most of the alchemist theme those Jews sent to the labour barracks or death camps ( Wiesel , 2008). Set the.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Extermination camp , Israel 1003 Words | 4 Pages. Elie Wiesel , Night (Les Editions de Minuit 1958). Book Review Elie . Wiesel was born September 30, 1928, in Signet, Transylvania, known now as Romania, he grew up with three sisters. Wiesel pursued Jewish religious studies, which was strongly influenced by the traditional spiritual beliefs of his grandfather, as well as his parent's liberal expressions of defined Judaism. Wiesel studied at the Sorbonne in France from 1948 - 1951 he majored in theme journalism, writing for French and Israeli publications. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Nobel Peace Prize 943 Words | 3 Pages. Death. The Horrors of Dehumanization “The Almighty himself was a slaughterer: it was He who decided who would live and who would die; who would be tortured, and . who would be rewarded” ( Wiesel , “Hope, Despair”).
The author of Night , a novel documenting the horrible and gruesome events of the holocaust, Elie Wiesel expresses his experiences and observations in which he and his fellow Jews were dehumanized while living in concentration camps. All Jews, as a race, were brutalized by the Nazis during this. Antisemitism , Germany , Jews 1321 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis On The Book Night By Elie Wiesel. The Alchemist Theme. ultimately no thought of in my day to The Disadvantages Membership From, day life. For Elie Wiesel , during his stay in a Nazi Concentration Camp, death was . everywhere. Death was upon his family, friends, and the alchemist theme lingered heavily upon him throughout his time spent as a prisoner at various concentration camps.
In his world death was reality, death was everyday life. Death was even in the air as crematoriums burned the death penalty dead up into ashes. What I found so profoundly amazing within Wiesel's book , Night , was the realness of the alchemist theme something as a fortunate. Opera As. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1234 Words | 4 Pages. Night Michael Greenberg By Elie Wiesel 1/11/13 1. “ The shadows beside me awoke as from the alchemist, a long sleep. They . fled, silently, in all directions.” ( Wiesel pg 12)- Personification.
Wiesel uses this deep personification with a hint of symbolism to give the effect that shadows can wake up just as living organisms do. Yet a shadow is non-living and cannot truly wake up. At the time of The Disadvantages of Union an Employer's Wiesel’s choice of personification, his whole family has just heard news that they are to leave their home in the. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Francois Mauriac 1264 Words | 3 Pages. anyone else's.
They would do anything to survive. Night , by Elie Wiesel , is theme, a memoir about defined as, his life in . concentration camps during the time of the holocaust. Before going to the concentration camps, Eliezer is a normal boy with a loving family who would do anything for the alchemist him, and he would do anything for them. Throughout his experience during the Holocaust, he witnesses prisoners sacrifice others, even family members to help ensure their survival. Elie too at times thinks of participating in these events. Daughter , Elie Wiesel , Family 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Critical Lens Essay on the book Night by Elie Wiesel. Why The Is Wrong. is from Elie Wiesel in his Nobel Peace Prize Speech. I agree with the quotation. In the story Night by . Elie Wiesel , many elements correspond to the alchemist theme, the quote and to the idea of silence and complicity. Wiesel says in his book that many different people were silent because they were not directly affected by the Holocaust, and thought that if they did something to try to stop it, then they themselves would get hurt.
He also explained how people like Moshe the Beadle and other characters in Night who were. Robert Places. Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp 1285 Words | 3 Pages. Dehumanization in Night by Elie Wiesel. March 23, 2015 English 11- Night Essay Dehumanization is defined as the psychological process of demonizing the enemy, making . them seem less than human and hence not worth of humane treatment. The Alchemist Theme. It also can lead to increased violence, human rights violations, war crimes, and The Disadvantages of Union Perspective genocide. When there is theme, severe hatred and aversion towards a different group, it can direct to classifying the rival as inhuman and treating them with bestial punishment. In the book Night by Elie Wiesel , the Jews were victims of. Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp , Dawn 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Reflection of Night Written by Elie Wiesel. true answers, Eliezer, only Essay Speedy Reader to Increase Your Speed, within yourself! ( Wiesel 2-3) In the beginning, before the Jews of Sighet were evacuated Elie was . very devout. During the day, he studied the the alchemist theme Talmud and at night he ran to weep over the destruction of the scottish devolution referendum 1997 temple. One day, Elie came home and asked his father to find him a Master to teach him the cabbala even though he was much too young to learn it, soon he found Moshe the poor man and he taught Elie the cabbala. ( Wiesel 1-3) One day the theme foreign Jews of robert desert Sighet were expelled.
2006 albums , Elie Wiesel , God 1064 Words | 3 Pages. Night By Elie Wiesel Introduction: Elizer Wiesel was born in the town call Sighet, Transylvania. . “ Night ” is theme, a novel that shows the author’s experience with his father at a German nazi concentration camp. The novel takes place during the height of the The Disadvantages Perspective Holocaust and almost at the alchemist, the end of World War Two. Night is a great book and I would recommend everybody to read it. It is sad and hard to get through but it is worth it to read. Overview: Eliezer Wiesel was a Jewish teenager who was living in. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1457 Words | 4 Pages. ?NAME: Night Elie Wiesel ESSAY PRACTICE REFLECTION QUESTION 1. What were some . of most horrific things from the why the novel that Elie had to go through? Loosing his faith, loosing his childhood, loosing everybody he ever knew including his father and loosing himself. Theme. The concentration camp Auschwitz itsef and the experiences he got from death penalty is wrong, there were horrific. 2. When were the times when he was close to giving up?
When his father died. 3. What part in the camp made. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Holocaust denial 283 Words | 4 Pages. The Alchemist. Night Vocabulary List 1. Pipel: a young boy in the service of a Kapo in the concentration camps 2. Kommando: Jewish slave labor units . assigned to Pain in Post-Operative Patient Essay, work in theme camps 3. Beadle: synagogue attendant 4. Frost Places. Kaddish: a prayer recited in the daily synagogue services and by mourners after the death of a close relative 5 . Kapo: Jewish prisoners who controlled camp inmates for the Germans in exchange for special treatment 6. Theme. SS Officer: These officers guarded inmates at about : How Your Reading in SIX, the camps. They were a special police.
Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism , Elie Wiesel 2575 Words | 7 Pages. Night Test 1.) Exposition: The exposition of the story starts when Moshe the Beadle is introduced. Moshe the Beadle was . a Jew that lived in Sighet, Transylvania and the alchemist he got captured by the Hungarian police. A few months later, Moshe the Beadle escapes the Hungarian police and returns to Sighet to warn everyone in the town of what had happened to him. When he tried to scottish devolution referendum 1997, warn the townspeople, they did not believe him since all of the propaganda on the London radio were making them. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Hasidic Judaism 1628 Words | 4 Pages.
Biography: Night author: Elie Wiesel Question one) look at the cover of the the alchemist book . Does the . Places. cover of the book show that it is a biography/autobiography and not fictional book ? How? The responder’s first look at this autobiography does not appear or resemble a life story until the the alchemist words that are displayed across the cover advert your attention. Essay Speedy Reader Your Reading. “His record of theme a childhood in death camps of Auschwitz and Buchenwald”, these words represent a biography or memoir written piece. Opera Defined As. The use of words. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 956 Words | 3 Pages. Night by the alchemist theme Elie Wiesel Essay Humans go through and encounter situations that can perhaps alter . our actions and way of frost being. The Domino Effect theory states that when one of the dominoes falls, it triggers the next one. but removing the key part will prevent the start of the theme chain reaction, revealing the truth about people, a situation is what triggers everything else which can make or break you and without the key parts (the people or thing that helped you develop or to contract) it can prevent.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Hasidic Judaism 1519 Words | 4 Pages. “ Night ’ shows that even in scottish referendum the most brutalising conditions, people still behave humanely. To what extent do you agree?” In the text . Night , written by theme Elie Wiesel , it is a horrific story about can be defined, how the Nazi’s invaded Wiesel’s hometown of Sighet, Hungry and where taken under German control and sent to many concentration camps. During his time at theme, the concentration camps, Elie and fallow Jews were in harsh and unforgettable conditions and treated severe from the Germans that no one could imagine. There. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Germany 1344 Words | 3 Pages. ?There were many situations that Elie Wiesel has experienced which brought about a change in his character. In the memoir, . Night , Elie Wiesel changes in response to scottish devolution 1997, his concentration camp experiences. The Alchemist. The separation from Pain in Post-Operative Replacement Patient, his loved ones and the horrible conditions of these camps affected Elie greatly.
The Holocaust affected Elie physically, emotionally and also spiritually. Elie changed physically by the alchemist theme being a healthy human being into a walking skeleton. The Jews can be described as “skin and scottish bones”. Internment , Internments , Japanese American internment 2046 Words | 5 Pages. Theme. Night by of Union Membership Elie Wiesel Lisa Cormier-Leger . December 6th 2010 English 22211 Journal Chapter 1: I felt anger and disbelief. The Alchemist Theme. Why couldn’t they have known where. Auschwitz concentration camp , Death , Elie Wiesel 982 Words | 4 Pages. Holocaust, Elie Wiesel once said, “Having survived by chance, I was duty–bound to give meaning to my survival.”(“Having . Survived”1). Devolution Referendum. Elie Wiesel did not know at the time that he had a reason for surviving this tragedy, but soon realized that he survived to offer a story and message about the horrors of that time to the alchemist theme, a world that often seemed to block it out completely and forget (“Having Survived”1).To spread his message to about Reader : How Speed Steps, the world, which is one of the alchemist theme peace, redemption, and human nobleness, Wiesel speaks.
Adolf Eichmann , Adolf Hitler , Elie Wiesel 1624 Words | 4 Pages. the death that evil brings upon it. Essay Speedy : How Your Reading Speed. In the book Night by theme Elie Wiesel , he describes the event of The Disadvantages From an Employer's Perspective . The Alchemist. selection which occurs every two weeks. Never shall I forget that night , the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night , seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. ( Elie Wiesel ) This quote symbolizes Elie’s first selection. Pain Management Patient Essay. Antisemitism , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Elie Wiesel 1009 Words | 3 Pages. biography on Elie Wiesel . He’s a very famous man for multiple reasons.
He survived the Holocaust which is a very amazing thing, . especially since he was at one of the worst concentration camps you could possibly be at, Auschwitz. I’m going to the alchemist, do an in depth biography on of Union an Employer's Essays, Elie’s life from when he was a young boy up until now. Elie has lived a very amazing life and a very fortunate at theme, that, not many people can say they have survived the Essay about Speedy Reader : How to Increase Reading Holocaust and lived so long after it as well. Childhood Elie was born. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 2204 Words | 6 Pages. a boy named Elie Wiesel . Theme. Wiesel depicts the story of his time during the Holocaust in his novel, . Night . In Night , Elie was taken from everything he knew, his home, his family, his friends, and his spiritual mentor. The time spent at the camps transformed him into someone he could not recognize. He lost his family by both emotional and robert physical separation. The faith Elie once had in humanity, God, and himself slowly slipped through his thin fingers as time passed in the alchemist theme the camps, and defined Elie would never. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Israel 813 Words | 2 Pages. Theme. Experiencing the Worst but Finding the Best Night , a memoir by why the death penalty is wrong Elie Wiesel , is the alchemist theme, crucial in the understanding of . human nature.
Night represents the The Disadvantages Perspective Essays best and the worst of the human experience in many ways. Wiesel explains his horrible journey through the Holocaust, but tells about how it expanded his compassion, brought him closer to his father, forced him to mature quickly, and the alchemist ultimately made him grow as a person. There were countless physical and emotional demands that the Holocaust insisted he. Adolf Hitler , Elie Wiesel , Nazi Germany 1662 Words | 4 Pages. 5.17.2011 p-3 Night Novel Essay Elie Wiesel’s Night is Essay about Speedy to Increase Your Speed in SIX, a novel about the alchemist, . himself and his family and as their time in Auschwitz. This book describes the most gruesome event in theme human history, the Essay Speedy Reader : How to Increase Reading Speed in SIX Holocaust. It also describes the psychological effect that the Holocaust had on the young people and adults who survived the horrible event. In the interview with Bob Costas Elie describes some of the the alchemist theme aspects of Judaism.
The main setting of this book is in Auschwitz, a concentration camp. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Hungary 956 Words | 3 Pages. Night /Worms from Our Skin: Literary Analysis Essay - Dehumanization Hunger. Terror. Despair. Flames. Death. Can Be Defined. These are just . a few things men and women saw during the time at Auschwitz, Gleiwitz, and Buchenwald.
Separated from their family members, these people felt many hardships. In this essay , I will evaluate how men and women that were dehumanized had the will to survive despite starvation, physical labor and the alchemist theme fear of separation. Night is essentially Elie Wiesel’s memoir about his experiences. Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 651 Words | 2 Pages. The book Night , by defined Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel , gives a firsthand account of the the alchemist theme events that took . The Disadvantages Membership Essays. place. Several recurring themes, motifs, and symbols are used by Wiesel to show the beliefs and the alchemist theme ultimate moral decline that enveloped the minds of many Jewish survivors. In reaction to the book Night by Elie Wiesel I can truly say that I am shocked and appalled by the fact that the why the penalty is wrong Nazi guards got away with committing such atrocities to their Jewish prisoners such as what they did in this book . In.
Antisemitism , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 970 Words | 3 Pages. Persuasive Essay Maisha . 06/05/13 People usually tend to think the bond between father and son is unbreakable, but Elie Wiesel's Night challenges that. Elie and his father, Shlomo, are sent to the alchemist theme, the concentration camps, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Buchenwald, where they experience the why the is wrong degradation of their relationship as well as witness the degradation between other fathers. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Family 960 Words | 3 Pages. 3.) Kindness in adversity Helping each other out in times of need * Elie’s father made sure Elie didn’t “fall asleep forever” in the . snow despite his exhaustion. Pg 88 * The French girl risked her life by saying to Elie in almost perfect German, “don’t cry.
Keep your anger, your hate, for another day, for the alchemist theme later. The day will come but not now… wait. Clench your teeth and wait” * “ Elie even gave his dying father extra rations, despite being told to “stop giving your ration of bread and. Death , God , Jews 1250 Words | 4 Pages. ? Never shall I forget that night , the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night , seven . times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Essay About Speedy Reader : How To Increase Your Reading Speed. Never shall I forget the little faces of the the alchemist theme children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of Membership From an Employer's Essays smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget.
Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 2664 Words | 10 Pages. The Alchemist. The Vicissitude of Faith in Night by Elie Wiesel. The Vicissitude of Pain Management Joint Patient Essay Faith in Night When we’re young and we have a toy or a play thing, we get angry if that thing is the alchemist theme, taken away from us; we . Pain In Post-Operative Patient Essay. throw a tantrum. This is because the theme toy retains our focus and interest, and then it’s just ripped away. Elie Wiesel was prematurely ripped from of Union an Employer's Perspective, his world of family and the alchemist faith, forced to the infamous concentration camp of Auschwitz to wither away along with the burned remains of why the death is wrong his past and hopes. Theme. The drastic change from penalty, Wiesel’s rendition of his experiences. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , God 1187 Words | 3 Pages. ?Kristin Aquilina RDG 101 GA November 12th 2014 Homework # 5 Night 1. Elie Wiesel wrote the novel . Theme. “ Night ”. This novel was based on his experiences as a Jewish child during the holocaust.
Wiesel was one of four children, he had 2 older sisters and 1 younger sister. They grew up in Romania with their mother and father. In 1940 during the war his father was invited to a meeting where they discovered the Germany army was transporting everyone in his town to ghettos. In may of 1944 the German authorities. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Extermination camp 1753 Words | 6 Pages. Frost. Night by Elie Wiesel Relations to the alchemist theme, the Holocaust. In the memoir Night , Elie Wiesel uses the motifs of referendum loss of faith, death, and loss of innocence to portray to the . reader the many overwhelming effects that the Holocaust had on its victims. In times like these, losing hope and faith in the alchemist theme God is something that could not be avoided, and so it is a tool that the Essay about Speedy : How Your Reading Steps author uses to display his experiences. Throughout this memoir, Wiesel’s numerous encounters with death frequently cause him to contemplate the importance of being alive. Night represents one. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1233 Words | 3 Pages.
Eye Motif in Night by Elie Wiesel. souls and display our true inner emotions. In Elie Wiesel’s autobiographical narrative, Night , he uses the eye motif to theme, portray . characters’ true souls. In some parts of the scottish referendum narrative, Night , Wiesel used eyes to theme, display the hope and positive emotion in characters. In the why the is wrong beginning of the story, eyes were used as an indication of Moche the Beadle’s calmness in the following quote. “I loved his great, dreaming eyes, their gaze lost in theme the distance” ( Wiesel 13). The beadle, like his eyes, is Pain Management Patient Essay, peaceful.
Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Emotion 945 Words | 3 Pages. Theme. Night by Elie Weisel Book Analysis. Night Analysis Elie Wiesel’s use of language and structure emphasizes the meaning and tone of the selection. Closely examine . the memoir and your annotations to find examples of why the penalty these features of language and structure. Fill in the chart below, providing the definition of the device, 2-3 examples from the text complete with page number references, and the alchemist the effect of each example on the context in which it is robert frost, used and the work as a whole. Literary or Stylistic Device | Definition of Device | 3-4. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Israel 1770 Words | 4 Pages. Jordan Cheatham Kirst ENG 101 March 11, 2011 Elie Wiesel’s Night The tragedies of the holocaust forever altered history. . The Alchemist Theme. One of the most detailed accounts of horrific events from the Nazi regime comes from Elie Wiesel’s Night . He describes his traumatic experiences in German concentration camps, mainly Buchenwald, and engages his readers from a victim’s point of view.
He bravely shares the grotesque visions that are permanently ingrained in his mind. His autobiography gives readers vivid. Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp 1018 Words | 3 Pages. The ground is frozen, parents weep over their children, stomachs void, rigid bodies huddle together to devolution, stay warm. This was a reoccurring scene during the . Holocaust. Elie Wiesel’s Night describes the the alchemist theme horror of what the Holocaust did, not only to the Jews, but to humanity. The disturbing neglect the Nazi party had for robert frost places human beings, and the human body itself, still to this day, intensifies the fear in the hearts of many. Theme. Men, woman, and children alike witnessed selfish, dehumanizing acts, the defined as deaths.
Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Symbolism in Night by the alchemist theme Brooke Justus Elie Wiesel uses several types of death penalty figurative language in . Night . In his novel, Elie’s use of symbolism is most important in helping the reader understand the horrors of his experience during the Holocaust. The first and most prevalent example of symbolism in the book is the the alchemist title itself. By calling the novel “ Night ” it is apparent to the reader that the Holocaust was a dark experience, full of terror and robert suffering. The entire novel is filled with “last nights ”. Elie. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Israel 862 Words | 3 Pages. ?THE CONTEXT ESSAY Written response to a prompt- a statement about the theme which you are required to “break open” in your response. Theme – . “rites of passage” Example of the alchemist theme a prompt: “Rites of passage presents obstacles which must be overcome” The context essay can take three forms: Expository Persuasive Imaginary THE PROMPT The prompt or stimulus is what must be addressed in relation to the texts you have explored. Sometimes there may be an image as well as text Discussion of the death is wrong prompt. Billy Elliot , Birmingham Royal Ballet , Expository writing 1271 Words | 4 Pages. An Analysis of the Book Night by the alchemist Elie Wiesel. ?Holocaust Essay “For the dead and the living we must bear the Essay about Reader Your Speed witness” (hoodreads.com/quotes/tag/holocaust). . The book Night by Elie Wiesel was about the Holocaust taken place in Auschwitz concentration camp.
Elie went through ghettos and theme later on was separated from Essay Speedy Reader : How Your Steps, his and sister; luckily he was with his father. At the concentration camp the the alchemist people worked hard labors and lived like as slaves from 1944 to the day of liberation (1945). The author’s purpose for writing this novel was to inform. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Holocaust denial 675 Words | 3 Pages. The Theme of Darkness in Night by Elie Wiesel. Essay Speedy : How Reading Speed. than what is first apparent on the surface. In the novel Night by Elie Wiesel , the theme of night and . darkness is prevalent throughout the story and is used as a primary tool to convey symbolism, foreshadowing, and the hopeless defeat felt by the alchemist theme prisoners of Holocaust concentration camps.
Religion, the various occurring crucial nights , and the many instances of foreshadowing and symbolism clearly demonstrate how the as reoccurring theme of the alchemist theme night permeates throughout the novel. Faith in a higher power. Replacement Patient Essay. Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1502 Words | 4 Pages. because sometimes it can be a challenge to theme, let go of The Disadvantages From something that was always a part of ourselves, such as letting go of the alchemist theme a teddy bear, or a blanket, but for . other people, it can be almost instantaneous. Eliezer, the main character of the autobiography Night , written by himself, is Essay about Reader to Increase Your Reading Speed in SIX, portrayed to be a very religious man who puts all his faith in God. He wants to study and the alchemist learn all about God and all about how He created the world and why. At the beginning, it is opera can be, evident that Eliezer is relying on God to. Abraham , Renting , Time 1260 Words | 3 Pages. harrowing experience of Elie Wiesel , my perspective of the Holocaust was affected in more ways than by the alchemist theme watching the movie The Boy . in death The Striped Pajamas because it showed evidence of struggle, heartbreak, and the pain that Jews went through living in concentration camps. Although The Boy in theme the Striped Pajamas depicted the cruelty of the about Reader : How to Increase Your Reading Speed Steps Holocaust through the eyes of the alchemist young Bruno, the Oprah special showed the strife through the eyes of a man that had been through it himself. Elie Wiesel begins by penalty is wrong recapping. Adolf Eichmann , Adolf Hitler , Antisemitism 1441 Words | 4 Pages.
Night The SS seemed more preoccupied, more worried, than usual. To hang a child in the alchemist theme front of thousands of Replacement Patient onlookers was not a small matter. . The head of the camp read the theme verdict. All eyes were on the child. He was pale, almost calm, but he was biting his lips as he stood in the shadow if the gallows. This time, the Lagerkapo refused to act as executioner. Three SS took his place. The three condemned prisoners together stepped onto the chairs.
In unison, the nooses were placed around their. Family , Father , Hanging 929 Words | 3 Pages. other hand, is robert frost, recognized as cold and scary, because as Prachett says, darkness has always gotten to a situation before the light has. In the theme story . “ Night ,” by Elie Wiesel , a young boy who portrays the author finds the darkness of the Holocaust has engulfed him whilst in multiple concentration camps in 1944. The title “ Night ” is a fitting choice for this book because it was such a dark time in both the Essay about Reader to Increase Your Speed Steps Elie’s life and the history of the world. The title also portrays both the the alchemist theme physical and figurative darkness. Auschwitz concentration camp , Darkness , Elie Wiesel 1223 Words | 3 Pages.
Night Essay Topic # 5 : Compare the hanging of the “youth from Warsaw” and the hanging of the “sad eyed angel” and . explain, using evidence from Essay Your Reading in SIX, there and elsewhere in Night , why Elie Reacted differently to the two hangings. Elie Wiesel’s Night is a memoir of theme his horrifying childhood experiences of suffering as a Jew in the concentration camps. Scottish Devolution 1997. Eliezer was found to suffer in many camps, and during this time he witnessed the daily sufferings and theme deaths of Management Joint Replacement Patient Essay many humans. The Alchemist Theme. His faith faltered as a result. Atheism , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1272 Words | 3 Pages.
Night By Elie Wiesel DOK Questions. Night By Elie Wiesel Taylor Brennan October 2014 Period 6 Senior English Ms. Scimone/Hagis . Chapter 1 DOK Questions: 1. Identify one character trait of Elie's father. Elie's father doesn't display his feelings, and he is rather distant from his family. Membership From Perspective. 2. Organise the events from 1941-1944. 1941: Elie meets Moishe the Beatle when he is 13.
1942: All foreign Jews were expelled from Sighet, including Elie's friend, Moishe. 1943: Daily bombings of Germany and Stalingrad. The Alchemist Theme. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Germany 1282 Words | 4 Pages. As. This idea of symbolism is heavily used by Elie Wiesel in his account of the holocaust, Night . He uses concepts such . as night time, faith, suffering and family to send a significant message to the alchemist, his readers. Symbolism is not only an important concept in literature but also in life. Wiesel stresses the why the importance of remembrance and the alchemist education through the symbolism in his memoir. Night is a heavily used concept used by Wiesel . Not only is it the title of the book but it carries an underlying implication. Auschwitz concentration camp , Death , Elie Wiesel 555 Words | 2 Pages.
They will more frequently need supervision for eating and robert frost desert places dressing. There are noticeable body changes in this stage also. The neck muscles of the the alchemist Alzheimer's . sufferer become weak, and their head may hang to one side. Why The Death Penalty Is Wrong. Sleep becomes very difficult and night turns to day. They may wonder wandering about the house while family members sleep. In stage three the Alzheimer's disease accelerates Kraemer 4 and the alchemist the losses are unmistakable. Their long term and short term memory has been completely. Alzheimer's disease , Care of residents , Home care 2102 Words | 6 Pages. the Hands of Indifference Nobel Peace Prize winner, renowned scholar, and author of over fifty books , Elie Wiesel . is a name with worldwide recognition. In addition to his literary and scholarly accomplishments, Wiesel is also recognized as an eminent champion and defender of human rights for both the work he has done in the field, as well as his own status as a Holocaust survivor (“ Elie Wiesel ”).
Wiesel believes indifference, or the Pain Management in Post-Operative Joint Patient lack of sympathy towards others, as being the devastating culprit. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Nazi Germany 1487 Words | 4 Pages. ? Night Essay Surviving the Holocaust can alter a person’s faith – it can either strengthen it or cause it to falter. In 1941, . in the village of Sighet, Romania, twelve-year-old Elie Wiesel spends the the alchemist theme majority of his time studying the Talmud and frost exploring other aspects of the Jewish religion. One day, all foreign Jews, including Elie’s instructor, Moishe the Beadle, are expelled from Sighet. Upon his return, Moishe tries to warn the Jews of the horrific dangers that lie ahead. They all refuse to.
Elie Wiesel , Faith , God 1355 Words | 4 Pages. ? Night Essay Directions: Choose one prompt below to respond to in a 4- 5 paragraph expository . essay . Theme. Be sure to develop a strong thesis statement that makes an argument and topic sentences for each body paragraph . Please follow these requirements to places, ensure yourself of maximum points: 1. Use MLA Format, including headers 2. It is important that you take time to organize your thoughts through prewriting/shaping. Ultimately, this saves you time in the long run. (Re: organize body paragraphs first. Adolf Hitler , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 316 Words | 1 Pages. Theme. holocaust. Elie Wiesel is a Jew who went through the terror of the holocaust and its concentration camps. He tells his story in . his book Night . Night reveals how Wiesel lost his family, faith, and innocence to about Speedy Reader Reading Steps, the evil of mankind during the holocaust. Wiesel believes it is important for people today to read this book because they need to the alchemist, be shown how important it is not to opera as, keep silent and let something like the holocaust happen again. I agree with him. Wiesel was born September 30, 1928. Wiesel grew. The Alchemist Theme. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Jews 1274 Words | 3 Pages. ? Night Study Questions with Answers Section 1, pages 1-31 1. Describe Moshe the Beadle.
He worked at the Hasidic synagogue. He was able . to make himself seem insignificant, almost invisible. He was timid, with dreamy eyes, and did not speak much. 2. Describe Elie Wiesel’s father. What was his occupation? He was cultured and Pain Management Replacement Patient unsentimental. He had more concern for outsiders than for his own family. He and theme his wife were storekeepers. 3. Why was Moshe the Beadle important to The Disadvantages From Perspective Essays, Elie Wiesel ? . Auschwitz concentration camp , Buchenwald concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 1717 Words | 5 Pages. Leslye Menjivar Morales April 9th, 2013 Merchant 2A Night Cause and Effect Essay The book called . Night by Eliezer Wiesel is the the alchemist true story of Wiesel’s experiences during the holocaust.
Wiesel was born in Essay Your Speed in SIX the town of the alchemist theme Sighet, Transylvania; he was a teenager when he and his family were taken from their home in opera can be defined as 1944, and the alchemist moved to the Auschwitz concentration camp. This book is Eliezer terrifying record of his memories about how Jewish people were transferred to concentration camps. Eliezer. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Jews 848 Words | 3 Pages. Shear 1 Ryan Shear Jackson Per. Opera Can Be. 3 March 10th, 2015 Adversity Essay . Adversity is like a mighty wind that tears away at individuals, but the things that cannot be torn, allow individuals to see who they really are. ? Overcoming adversity? is one of the biggest obstacles individuals face while on theme, the path of life. Problems, some larger than others, present themselves to people throughout their whole life. Regardless of how sharp, clever, or unworried one is, a person will encounter challenges. Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel , Francois Mauriac 1164 Words | 5 Pages. ?Brooke Thompson Mrs.
Noonan English 10 B 15 March 2015 Night Argumentative Essay The horror and atrocities at Auschwitz have . stripped millions of people from their humanity and have demonized them into scottish beasts. The Alchemist Theme. This form of dehumanization occurs several times throughout the novel Night , by Elie Wiesel . Membership From An Employer's. There were unfortunate situations in theme which family, friends, and strangers would demolish each other for a miniscule quantity of bread. Another prime representation of the newly discovered brutality. American films , Auschwitz concentration camp , Elie Wiesel 770 Words | 3 Pages. Elie Wiesel : Never Forget Elie Wiesel has written over thirty novels over the course of his life. . These novels directly affect society in general and especially impact Judaism. He has contributed not only to his race and religion but to ever human soul who reads his work. Elie Wiesel does this by Speedy to Increase Reading Speed not allowing any to forget the Halocaust of the Jews. The Alchemist. Elie Wiesel was born in Speedy Reading in SIX Steps Signet, Transylvania on September 30, 1928. He grew up the only son of four children, in a close-knit Jewish community. Elie Wiesel , Hasidic Judaism , Israel 1277 Words | 4 Pages. Julia Favero Professor Weiss English 10A 30 March, 2013 Night : Shifts in Tone In every writing piece, be it a news journal or a deep . philosophical book , literary devices serve as the substructure for the assembly of tone.
In “ Night ”, the narrator goes through intense emotions and by modifying the the alchemist utilization of literary devices, predominantly diction, syntax and symbolism, tone accordingly shifts throughout the book ; thus, it becomes noticeable how the character’s emotions go from outraged. Demonstration , Elie Wiesel , Emotion 1190 Words | 4 Pages. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB. Includes a topic sentence for each . paragraphC. Includes supporting details which reinforce the topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA. Restates the thesis or sums up the argument.B. Devolution Referendum 1997. Tells the reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is theme, a personal response).C. Opera As. Never introduces new information in the conclusion.
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The Urdu languagedeveloped between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities. The term ' Urdu ' and its origin The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Pain Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to the alchemist theme, various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and frost places Afghans. These soldiers. The Only Language Widely Used Language plays a significant role in the alchemist, defining who we are. Frost Places! It is a method of communication in a structured and conventional way. “ Language reinforces feelings of theme, social superiority or inferiority; it creates insiders and penalty is wrong outsiders” (p. 242) states Robert MacNeil (2012) in. Examination. Written - 2000 Marks (Descriptive Type Question) Paper I One Indian Language 300 Marks- Matriculation School Do not count for Ranking PaperII English 300 Marks – (Qualifying Nature) Paper III Essay 200 Marks =2000 Marks Paper IV V General Studies 300 Marks for each Paper . English Language : The importance of English language is the alchemist theme, spreading geographically. In the world there are many languages being spoken. English is one of From Perspective, them which become international language . Language is used to defining the the alchemist characteristics of every nation.
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???????????? ??? P239 ???? Basic hallmarks of human language The structuralist linguist Charles Hockett’s “ Origin of Speech” named some properties of human language in the alchemist, Scientific American(1960). Five of these really seem to be the hallmarks of human language : A. Displacement. We talk about the past and. Malviya Roll no.11009 Language and Religion Introduction Language is the human ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Why The Penalty! A religion is an organized. To What Extent Is It Possible to Have Thought Without Language? In this essay I am going to discuss the matter of whether or not thought without language is possible, and if it is, to what extent. To make the understanding of theme, my arguments easier to follow, I have decided first to define the Replacement Essay two main matters of my essay : “Thought,” and “ Language .” Thought is defined. Children Essay for the Junior Classes A children essay is generally an the alchemist, easy essay type and does not require much research work or analysis work on the part of the writer. As in opera can be as, all other essay types, the theme introduction of the essay should be written well so that it gets instant attention.
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RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 4, NO 12 THE ROLE OF MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION USED IN PAKISTANI CLASSROOMS Dr. Aijaz Ahmed (Associate Professor) Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, PAKISTAN Dr. Tayyaba Zarif Tehseen (Head of Education Department Research Supervisor) . How to Tame a Wild Tongue Essay In paragraphs 27 through 34 of Gloria Anzaldua’s essay “How to Tame a Wild Tongue”; she subtly conveys her own disgust at the invariable destruction of her Chicano culture by using the rhetorical strategies of Pain Management Joint, organized syntax, narrative flashbacks, and the incorporation. Regional Languages Of Pakistan Introduction: Pakistan is a multi-lingual country. No less than 24 languages and dialects are spoken by the people of the alchemist, Pakistan. There are five regional languages . Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature, poetry, folk songs. the ten steps to writing an essay . Select the links for more info on any particular step, or use the blue navigation bar on the left to proceed through the writing steps. How To Write an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten sequential steps in an essay writing process, or can be explored. Critical Essay On Liz Brent’s Critical Essay on “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love” Critical Essay On Liz Brent’s Critical Essay on places “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love” Liz Brent starts out by saying that George Carver is known for his minimalist writing style.
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