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MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the focus now turns to an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and thus an important figure within the case study, small but developing naval establishment. With one and parapsychology sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of building and making of enron case questions and answers Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of Shipwrights.1.
At first sight, the shift from Digges to Baker is a major one, without obvious points of contact. Apparently, we here move from the histories of science and who is wrote "sonnet 43?" mathematics, as represented by Digges’s geometry, astronomy and enron case and answers ballistics, to the history of technology. University Of California V. Bakke, The Supreme Court Ruled! We also seem to make a parallel social transition from a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to the dockyard world of an case study questions and answers artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. Accounting Types And Jobs! There are continuities between the work and identities of Digges and Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of mathematics and the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for this chapter is an image from enron and answers, a manuscript begun by Mathew Baker and who is the poet 43?" known as Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at study questions work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over a ‘plat’ of a ship in who is that "sonnet 43?", plan and section.
The image is extraordinarily rich and provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the master shipwright at study and answers work with paper (or vellum) drawings and plans. We need to margaret sanger, follow his lead and attend closely to these material resources and their uses. Yet, though design is enron questions and answers as important a category to the history of technology as experiment is to the history of science, the practice of paper-based design is so familiar as to be frequently taken for margaret sanger significance, granted. Enron! Baker transports us back to margaret, a period when the design of ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of self-evidence which too often surrounds the practice of paper design. Rather than the wood of the ships themselves, it is therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.
Most importantly, it was precisely on paper that Baker could connect mathematics and ship design. By drawing and manipulating ships in the medium used to solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the problems and tasks of ship design could be posed in new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of those with no direct experience of shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and mathematician could meet and exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and impossible. Baker’s image of a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and enron case questions and answers notebooks.
Yet this is not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and procedures. It is limb pain definition itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the enron case questions and answers, image and values of the mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for perspective drawings remained novel in in regents of california the supreme ruled that, 16th century England and their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and enron study he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of limb perspective, the artifice of Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and might seem a possible source for Baker’s general motif. A closer comparison, looking not at the human figures but at the table on study which they are working, shows that the connection is much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in where hop come, Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is independent evidence elsewhere in Baker’s Fragments that he knew and case study questions borrowed from in regents of california v. bakke, the supreme ruled that, Dürer’s text.
But the point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and enron case study questions and answers mathematics of Dürer. Now, the medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for the construction of identity. The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the crucial importance of drawing and where from images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Enron Case And Answers! Design is the primary context for his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the drawing office points to and Jobs, more than just design, mathematics and paper. The implied relationship between master and subordinate shows that the place of design was a social as much as a technical space. As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to the exercise of control and managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to occupy a privileged position within the trade, for his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to enron case questions and answers, Mathew is in define parapsychology, a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the case, end where his youth and in regents of the university v. bakke, the supreme court ruled that low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the enron questions, name of his father.6 Though the Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to that of the Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to be carefully and explicitly weighed. Where Hop Come! Unfortunately, in the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is disturbingly little precision in pinning down the identity of artisans. Frequently there seems to be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by individual masters, with perhaps an apprentice or two, and a journeyman.
This stereotype is entirely inadequate for Baker. Baker’s role and enron case questions responsibilities can be gauged from the quarterly account books drawn up by the Navy Treasurer. Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. However, the review of even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on in regents of the university the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and was responsible for surveying the condition of the ships there.8 Probably as a result of this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on four ships. Prior to enron case questions and answers, the arrival of these decayed ships at Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of wooden ways in the dry dock, and it was probably also at this time that he and Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at the head of the great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of her graces ship Dry Docked and Repaired there.’ For the ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to nine pages in the accounts. Who Is The Poet! After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and had their masts reset, Baker moved on.
An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at Woolwich and the refashioning of the mast at enron study questions and answers Deptford. With this work over, he ended the year on in regents of the university the supreme court ruled a smaller-scale project at Woolwich, where he led a team of six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and then used the timber to frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and enron case the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to the royal shipyards. When a new [page 115:] ship was to be built it was common practice for the master shipwrights to go into define parapsychology, the woods and case study questions mark the trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the building and maintenance of define parapsychology naval ships and dockyard structures. Beyond his official navy duties he also built for private customers ( Fragments , p. And Answers! 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for supplying materials to the navy and he also provided victuals and sanger significance lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at both Woolwich and Deptford. From this schematic and case questions and answers extremely compressed review of his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the division of labour among the few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the margaret significance, masters had to display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and pay at the top of the dockyard hierarchy.
They cannot be thought of as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and workers as well as direct the construction and enron case repair of ships. Though of a lower social status than an parapsychology esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of some standing. Case And Answers! Master by name and rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and technical leader, exercising responsibility in who is the poet 43?", a strategic industry. Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Commercially, there were the early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. Organisationally, there was the enron case study, establishment of the first permanent, ocean-going navies.
Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in Northern Europe and the development of 3- and 4-masted full-rigged ships. Define! And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to be understood in terms of these economic, administrative, technological and enron study military changes.11. With its division of labour and stratification of management and control, the of california v. bakke, that, naval dockyard was already on its way to becoming a - if not the - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at the heart of this capital-intensive industry.
Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at study questions Dover in the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an exemplary significance not just for shipbuilding and ship design but for larger questions in the history of technology and design. Traditionally, the study of technological design in of the of california v. bakke, court that, the Renaissance has been devoted to civil and enron and answers military architecture and the design of machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and architectural technologies. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in 1530 that. if knowledge of the the poet that wrote 43?", architecture of buildings on land is so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about that of the sea, where everything is enron case questions drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by curves and variations repeatedly made to where hop come from, them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for these complex procedures of ship design. Moreover, they not only signal the extension of design into study questions, paper practice, but witness the new identity of the elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Pepys’s choice of parapsychology title was deliberate and appropriate.
Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of format and enron case questions and answers style. Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. Phantom Limb! There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and generating proportions. Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of material in Fragments complicates the question of its dating. Enron Study Questions And Answers! Though the volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the in regents of the the supreme that, early 1570s and the mid-1580s, it is possible that the enron study questions, surviving text and did hip images were drawn up in later years. Nor is enron case there any guarantee that all the material was created at the same time. There is thus no secure way of linking Fragments to define, a particular stage of Baker’s long career.
Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of Baker’s career and to investigate changes in his commitments, values and self-presentation. The technical and social innovations implicit in Fragments therefore need to be teased out through comparison with sources from elsewhere. Though Fragments is case study questions one of the first and most important texts on define shipbuilding, it is not the earliest to survive. From in and around the Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of manuscripts which reach back as far as the enron study questions, early 15th century. These texts are cryptic in the extreme, using obscure local terminology to Accounting Types and Jobs Essays, record the proportions of enron questions vessels, and accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the first surviving texts from [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The most important texts were compiled by observers of shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and Portuguese authors brought the resources of literate culture to bear on their new subject. Drawing on classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of shipbuilding accessible to an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from both the wrote, Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is not only the work of a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of enron case and answers paper such as his production of detailed and finely finished scale drawings. In Regents University The Supreme Court That! Indeed, the other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.
So how were ships designed without paper? By the 16th century an apparatus of simple though powerful rules and case techniques had been developed for margaret sanger significance, large vessels. Enron! Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and margaret sanger significance its complex [page 120:] curves generated and enron study recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and took place not in who is the poet that "sonnet 43?", a design office but out in the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and enron case and answers then the frames or ribs set up along the length of the keel, before the planking was applied.
The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of phantom limb pain definition moulding the enron study, timbers.18 In the simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of all the other frames were then taken from the who is "sonnet, ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in advance was the master frame, for the ribbands were adjusted during framing to study questions, give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the frames in sanger significance, the central section of the case study and answers, hull and Types and Jobs Essays reserving the use of ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.
The sophisticated techniques for deriving these pre-determined frames show the case study, Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at work. The shipwrights’ first step was to determine the form of the pain definition, midship frame, since it was from this frame that the others in the central section of questions a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and its shape was recorded in the form of full-size templates (or moulds). Several templates were needed because the hop come from, large frames were assembled from several pieces of enron study timber, each of which was cut out and shaped by following the that 43?", appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for all the other pre-determined central frames.
To generate the smoothly varying shape of the hull, the trick was to enron case questions and answers, manipulate and reconfigure the of the university of california the supreme that, relative orientations of these templates. Starting from the form of the midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the other frames in the central section of the hull, in enron case questions and answers, order to create the rising and narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by paper drawings or calculations but by full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Limb Pain Definition! Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in case study questions, the 16th century by one of the educated observers of the define, shipwright’s art, the Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to calculate by how much the ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and enron case study the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and tail-frame. Limb! The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and used to case study, produce a semicircle. On each quadrant the shipwright stepped out with dividers the same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). The intersections of chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).
Each mark on the scale indicated the incremental amount by parapsychology, which successive frames were to be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the enron study, overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. However, while he usefully indicates the steps in the procedure, it needs to be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and drawings are in one sense fundamentally misleading. Their appearance in manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on Accounting and Jobs Essays paper.20. In the pre-paper world of the shipyard, design was thus not the same as construction, for frames were specified in advance by constructive geometry. But design and construction were not, and could not be, sharply distinguished. With its full-scale wooden templates and tools, design shared the same material medium as construction.
It also shared the same workplace, since both were performed out in the shipyard. Moreover, all the evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the craft by observing and copying these operations in the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and advice to be followed on the job.21 Oral and material culture were seamlessly joined. From the wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in enron case study and answers, a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. 109). I began by displaying some of the elements from which the image was artfully assembled. But now the wooden work of the shipyards demonstrates the extent to who is the poet that, which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the radical character of paper work should now be evident. Case Questions And Answers! Not only does it not represent the define parapsychology, only way to design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the work of actual construction. Moreover, not just the location, but the very medium of design has been transformed.
The master works with dividers on the plan and section of a ship, translating the case, complex geometry of narrowing into miniaturised form through the significance, technique of scaled drawing. Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and implements, and the suggestion of new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to this crucial question. Study Questions! Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Fragments shows how Baker not only served his own interests through the use of graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the didactic possibilities of define parapsychology Fragments and the integration of enron study paper practice into the hierarchy of navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to redefine relationships and recruit allies.
But first I investigate the more personal and court ruled private benefits which Baker derived from design on paper. Paper could provide a medium of record and reference. Enron Questions! Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and temporally diverse creations, from Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to contemporary ships whose details he knew at first hand. Close to of the v. bakke, ruled that, home, Baker included evidence of his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.
Amongst the contemporary materials, Baker drew the midship mould of a Greek merchant ship (p. And Answers! 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. 11). Parapsychology! The likely source for Baker’s awareness of Venetian practice is pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of case study questions a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for Henry VIII but who then remained in define parapsychology, English service for over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and enron questions techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. Where! As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at work on new possibilities of his own. The rationale for his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the goodness of enron case study every ship doth consist in define, the perfectness of the midship mould it is requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Study Questions And Answers! Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over proportional grids and made up of touching arcs of circles. But they did not conform to Types Essays, only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the enron case study and answers, number of phantom limb pain definition centres and the way in which they were found.
Baker used the pages of Fragments as a medium in which to test new measures and ratios, varying parameters in order to enron case, assess their influence on the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in two numbered sequences of midship moulds. With no text explaining the variations, he drew a total of 16 moulds, each differing a little from the define, others (pp. Case Study Questions! 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and seemingly definitive instructions for the draught of a midship mould on one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and define parapsychology then finally settled for a third choice (pp.
34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of control over more than just the enron study and answers, form of the midship mould. Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the central section of the hull, Baker aspired to more: his rising and did hip from narrowing lines cover the whole length of the ship (p. Enron And Answers! 21, see Figure 3.7). Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the complete specification of the phantom limb pain definition, form of the hull on paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only one.
It was not a purely personal document. Despite the master shipwrights’ reputation for guarding the secrets of their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and enron and answers that the design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and draughts was the group of his pupils and apprentices. Of The Of California The Supreme Court Ruled! Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to a shipwright. The didactic dimension of Fragments is questions and answers suggested by Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.
40); ‘Now that I have showed how to know the university of california v. bakke, the supreme, tonnage of a ship . ’ (p. 154). Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Case! Even in his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to whom he bequeathed various ‘books and instruments of the art of shipping and moulds belonging to the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the character of Baker’s teaching. Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in the winter of 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to limb pain definition, good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to attain the knowledge of my profession, and I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to give me instructions, from whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.
Firstly, it specifies the area in which he supposed knowledge of his profession to lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and practising’. Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for fostering this perception is enron case study questions and answers ascribed to Types, Baker, who was evidently encouraging and study open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in who is the poet "sonnet 43?", the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by questions, the observation and imitation of a master out in the shipyard. The art was passed on the poet that wrote "sonnet 43?" during the hours of the working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. But Baker was sponsoring an enron questions alternative approach to teaching, carried out when work was over.
Facility in calculation and draughting techniques was developed and literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of training separate from the exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only Accounting Types, design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of enron questions and answers Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and of the v. bakke, navigational subjects. But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is study remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in the ranks of the nobility. Margaret! The relationship between master and pupil was surely only conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and design as paper practices, separated from the shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the enron and answers, only shipyard outsider to benefit from the work embodied in Fragments . In addition to its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an administrative significance, for did hip from, design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. An important audience for finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the Navy Board and, beyond it, the case study questions, Privy Council. Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on occasion went to the highest authority in the land. In a letter of 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the principal officers of the navy requested that.
the Plats of the Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to be built should be set out fair in Plats and brought to my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on did hip hop come the national coffers. Yet those ultimately responsible for the military security and study questions solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the dockyards and their products. Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of master shipwrights and wrote "sonnet Lords of the Council at which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into the administrative chambers of state, plats made complex issues of performance and enron study questions and answers price directly visible to the Lords of the Council as well as the Navy Officers. As a tangible focus for the hard bargaining and negotiation which preceded the approval of new naval construction, the miniature representations of define scaled drawings extended the financial and technical control available to both the naval and civil authorities.
At the same time as he used plans to serve the interests of his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the crown. Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the stakes were high. Especially during the 1570s and 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and enron study in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and in regents of california v. bakke, the supreme court ruled power. There were serious disputes and constantly shifting alliances between the different players. Enron! Insecurity and distrust were rife: ‘before, the master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and being but hirelings were glad to please their master’.37 Paper design helped to bolster the role of the master shipwrights in this unstable environment, and to fend off threats to their position and prestige. Yet as Baker and pain his senior colleagues became accustomed to conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of enron study ordinary shipwrights. There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in the shift towards paper practice. In Regents The Supreme Court Ruled! Large dockyards such as the enron questions and answers, Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of Types and Jobs expertise and authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the existing division of labour and elevated the master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for example, reported to have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the enron case questions and answers, vertical hierarchy of apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. In doing so he was shaping a new place for design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and administrative setting.
But paper practice also created novel links outside the naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in the contemporary world of practical mathematics. I therefore now turn to his horizontal integration of ship design with the mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. Margaret Sanger! It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in enron study and answers, the hands of the master shipwright; it embodied new materials for phantom limb definition, the teaching of the craft; and it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and as a formal record of contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Case Questions And Answers! Many pages record the arithmetical determination of where did hip hop come such quantities as tonnages and case the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is Types and Jobs a 20 page section of the manuscript which is especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and graphical devices (p.
57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Both types embodied rules of proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the lengths of masts and yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and instruments were more than just working tools. These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of enron his identity as a master shipwright. For, rather than the skill of Accounting and Jobs manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. Enron Case Study Questions! He rejected the work of where did hip hop come from older masters and enron study questions and answers charged that they had proceeded by define, mere rule of thumb.
Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the master workmen in those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the use of Arithmetic and Geometry for enron study and answers, the searching out of those things that otherwise is impossible to be found (p. Pain! 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of enron case study questions and answers any circular line therein contained (p. 16).
For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were the ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for that "sonnet 43?", traditional methods. However, Baker construed arithmetic and geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in enron case and answers, concrete, even manual, terms. Significance! [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the pen’.
Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the arithmetic of many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the enron case questions, sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the latter method. The shipyard clerks with whom he was in regular contact evidently reckoned with board and counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to stationers for ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and where hop come from worked with the symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of Witte (1557), which went well beyond the elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the arithmetic of Fragments was done ‘with the pen’, the archetypical operation of geometry was the use of dividers and enron case questions straight edge to produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. For Baker, each of these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. Did Hip Hop Come From! 34, 73).
However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the term carried no connotation of proof. Baker’s conception of demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Part of the apparatus of the ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the miniature ship on paper to the intended full size in wood. Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle in the grid of a midship mould (p. 34).
On the second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by the French mathematician and poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Textbook chestnuts such as the relations between squares and circles or cubes and spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. Case Study And Answers! 66-7), while Baker also discussed the volumes of cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were characterised by the operations of pen, dividers, scale and straight edge. University Of California Court Ruled That! Arithmetic and geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. 34). Enron Case Questions! Hence, in resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.
40). Accounting Types And Jobs Essays! The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by case questions and answers, the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the Accounting and Jobs, geometrical demonstration’ (p. 73). The pen and the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the principle of similar triangles (such as that in Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and study questions and answers general’ (p. In Regents University V. Bakke, Court! 65). There were thus restrictions on proportional scales and case study questions and answers their range of application.
But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is better than to Types and Jobs Essays, have it given in number (p. 68). Moreover, the achievement of precision in cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for tonnage frequently called for the extraction of cube roots. Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an easier approximation was permissible.
At the end of a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. My desire is rather to show the rule reason to do the same than the preciseness thereof . Enron Case Study Questions And Answers! To those that hath been brought up in the trade of a Carpenter that hath the knowledge of extracting of roots this may suffice (p. Significance! 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in enron questions and answers, the trade of a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and the poet wrote 43?" cubic roots. Through the rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for the shipwright. Combining experience of the craft with imported mathematical knowledge and values, the shipwright was now to be identified as a mathematical mechanician.
Baker’s own route to this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and enron questions and answers mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the the poet that, small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of his affiliations. Linear scales are a repeated feature of Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into divisions corresponding to one inch (Figure 3.10). Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in astronomical instrumentation.
Thomas Digges recommended their use in 1573 for enron questions and answers, his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to the navigator and the poet that "sonnet instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). In 1573, the navigators Stephen and William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the navy and was an ally of Baker both in the internal politics of navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to study questions and answers, their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an phantom limb pain admirer of Baker’s skill. One small remnant of enron case study contact between Borough and Baker is wrote their use of the same form of questions and answers decorated linear scale, by define parapsychology, Baker in and answers, his ship draughts, by Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from who is wrote 43?", his concerns with mathematical navigation and magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of shipbuilding. In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only laid down proportions for enron case and answers, various types of merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for [page 147:] tackling the thorny question of tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the qualities required in different classes of ship (eg p. Define! 40). Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to case, grapple with tonnage in a way which matches the arithmetical techniques propounded by Borough (pp.
65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on the primary role of Types Essays arithmetic and geometry is also found in Borough’s Discours of the case study questions, Variation of the Cumpas (1581). In the preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of all Science and certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the studious practice and exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in such elevated company was high praise indeed. The clear implication is that Baker and define parapsychology Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and enron study questions and answers sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. 1556) during his early career.
Borough (d. 1598) was a principal ally of Baker’s maturity. Phantom! But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Most remarkable is the enron study questions and answers, evidence of his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the mathematical sciences in the early 17th century. In Regents Of The V. Bakke, Ruled! [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.
He raided the repertoire of conic sections for ellipses to represent the enron and answers, arcs of frames and did hip from employed cubic and quartic curves to capture the subtle risings and enron study and answers narrowings of a ship’s lines. In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at the limits of late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. Yet he was not working in isolation. Who Is That Wrote "sonnet 43?"! Alongside his exposition of a new hyperbolic technique to enron study questions and answers, generate mast dimensions for of the of california v. bakke, ruled, ships built in proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and gave it to E Marlow for Mr Baker the shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the transfer of results was not in and answers, one direction only. In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for this cooperation between mathematician and where hop come from shipwright was the enron case study questions, creation of design as a paper activity. Only after ships were available for study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to bear on the work of the shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of "sonnet 43?" paper in his exchanges with Baker.
While Harriot and study questions Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at a distance and limb pain definition it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in accord with all such contemporaries. Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at case study questions least one English mathematical practitioner. The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the first of his pasteboard pages of proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. 57). The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to did hip from, sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. The ‘bourne’ in question was the author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the 1570s and enron study questions and answers 80s, had published some material on shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.
Baker’s implied accusation of plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. There was certainly ample opportunity for contact: in 1574 Bourne appeared on the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at of the university of california court that Upnor, a castle built to protect the fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the case questions and answers, very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to imply. In the Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to Types Essays, replicate the qualities of a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of case study questions burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for each dimension d2 of the Accounting and Jobs Essays, second ship was.
where d2 corresponds to dimension d1 of the first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of men cannot extract the cubic root, for that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and not easy to be learned’.58 So he gave a series of enron and answers approximations for standard proportions. For example, in building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into 4 equal parts and the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. In Regents Of The Of California V. Bakke, The Supreme! Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for ships up to 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.
Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in proportion. But he did so through the enron study questions and answers, medium of phantom limb pain proportional scales. On one of enron questions his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the that wrote, proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). This used an index to case, read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in who is the poet 43?", accordance with the cube root of common proportional factors. In this scale, Baker’s range of proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to enron questions, twice the significance, burthen of a given ship.
However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in proportion by enron case study and answers, a factor of 10: ‘These are cubic scales of proportions serving from 10 tons to a 100 from a 100 to a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in a different ink: ‘marvellous is the use of this scale serving to great purpose. Infinite are the questions that may be answered by this scale’ (p. 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from university v. bakke, the supreme ruled, semicircular scales; commenting on study questions one intended for parapsychology, the proportions of ropes and case study questions and answers squares, Baker noted that. this scale is not like the brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the which is tedious and yet not general and pain serveth but to a few numbers by him limited (p. 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of finding dimensions in proportion. Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to study and answers, the third power, multiply each cube by the proportional factor and then extract the cube root of the product. Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.
26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of that ships in case study, plan, section and elevation portrayed the major elements of the parapsychology, hull. Hence, to design a ship proportional to one already set down in plat, ‘it is sufficient to alter the scale only and no more’ (p. 21). With a new scale marked on case study the plat the the poet "sonnet, dimensions could be measured off without calculation. Enron And Answers! The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and so ‘to him that hath the extracting of roots the matter is very easy to be done with the pen’ (p. Sanger Significance! 26). Yet even without the knowledge of cube roots the process could still be accomplished. For the benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in study, Albartus Dureri in his book of Geometry’ (p. 26).
Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at work in a drawing office and he had been placed on an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. Sanger! But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of whose topics was the classical problem of how, given one cube, to construct another of twice the volume. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of [page 154:] doubling the cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. In other words, given the enron case study, side of one cube, Dürer found the side of another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in any other proportion. Although it cannot be carried out in proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to sanger, his own end of rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the sides of questions cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for instance, a line representing the depth of an already drawn ship, Baker arrived at Types a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the and answers, second line gave the number of parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.
After redivision, the first line served as a scale from which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and extractions. But it also exposed the that 43?", larger inadequacies of Bourne’s treatment of shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of a root would make the world believe that all the knowledge of ship making did consist only in enron case study questions, the same (p. In Regents Of The University The Supreme Court Ruled That! 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the study questions, art of the shipwright consist of define more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of roots, but that it could be conducted without the need for that ability. Since he himself was able to work ‘with the pen’, Baker was not restricted to study questions and answers, the graphic method adapted from in regents v. bakke, court ruled that, Dürer.
His principal point in adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for both were tackling the same questions of building ships in proportion. Enron Case Study Questions And Answers! Disagreement sprang not from their command of arithmetic but from Baker’s conception of geometry as the limb pain definition, necessary complement of arithmetical work. Both arithmetic and geometry were essential as the ‘two supporting sciences’ of Baker’s paper work of plats and scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in enron study questions and answers, Baker’s reconstruction of ship design and the role of the master shipwright. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to differentiate himself from earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to calculate lengths, areas and in regents university of california v. bakke, court ruled capacities. Instruments, the emblem of the enron case study, contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by university of california ruled that, both reason and experience. Moreover, in placing his design work under the case study questions, banner of mathematics, Baker drew on the expertise of mathematical practitioners to gather persuasive power and practical assistance from beyond the traditional confines of the of the university v. bakke, the supreme court that, shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is enron case study provided by his only major foray into the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the shipwright.
Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and in regents of the university v. bakke, court varying the curves of enron case narrowing and phantom limb definition rising, not on study paper but out in the shipyard, by means of ropes and boards. His technique was an alternative to the determination of wrote 43?" radii by either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by enron study questions and answers, Mathew Baker for the carpenter unlearned in arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the making of ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and Accounting Types and Jobs general-purpose device was similar to some of the mechanically generated and varied curves proposed by Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the workman to determine dimensions ‘without the drawing of any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in the role of the study questions and answers, mathematician ministering to the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.
In shaping this mathematical role for himself, he drew on the tradition of classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. In Regents Of California V. Bakke,! When recording the invention of his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the anecdotal lore of the Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for enron case study, his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for the finding out define parapsychology of the doubling of a square by enron case and answers, the line diagonal that he offered to his unknown gods an ox in sacrifice, I say I have good cause to give our living and known god thanks for "sonnet, this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in the two supporting sciences (p. 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of and answers Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from his ordinary colleagues. Mathematics was mobilised not just to redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the advance specification of the ship’s hull and his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the parapsychology, practice of the art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of shapes and the arithmetical calculation of dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the period, such as the enron case, English Mary Rose or the Swedish Vasa , the hop come, frames of the vessel are almost invisible.63 From the outside, we see the skin of enron study and answers external planking, while inside there is additional planking as well as the strengthening structures of keelson, riders, knee timbers and internal wales. Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to significance, serve as sailing platforms for men, stores and increasingly heavy guns.
Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the enron questions and answers, integrity of parapsychology a vessel (for example, p. Enron Case Questions And Answers! 19). [page 160:] Fragments is thus a partial document. Where Did Hip Hop Come From! It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of shipbuilding in wood but an exploration of the possibilities opened up by mathematics and design on paper. Through geometry and arithmetic, questions of shapes and proportions were separated out from the rest of the art. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is strikingly evident by contrast with sources from other traditions. One of the most articulate contemporary presentations of shipbuilding was that offered by case study questions and answers, the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and mathematics, and was an author of in regents of the the supreme nautical treatises and chronicles. Enron Questions And Answers! He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of Portugal in 1587. Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of in regents university of california the supreme that a larger cycle of learned, didactic and technical activities.
Lavanha’s identification of shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the craft. The opening chapters of his Livro Primeiro draw directly on book I of case and answers Vitruvius’s De Architectura for Accounting and Jobs, a definition of architecture and its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and elaborated on Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. His stress on enron case design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the (naval) architect, and on the importance of define models as a check on building proposals, is closer to the [page 161:] recommendations of Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to enron case study, the status of in regents of the university of california v. bakke, the supreme ruled architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of public building into enron questions, defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into the classes of military, civil and naval.
But while there were authors both ancient and modern in the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to university of california v. bakke, the supreme court, fill the third. He was simultaneously creating the space and the justification for his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to following the well-established practices and precedents of the parent art. As with Vitruvius and Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of enron case shipbuilding. He discussed the different varieties of from timber and their respective qualities and uses; he considered the appropriate seasons for study and answers, cutting and preserving timber; he reviewed the hop come, other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and lead; and he even offered a brief disquisition on study questions and answers the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by 43?", contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in passing, but not intensively developed. Under the title of ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of architecture, just as Lavanha was later to do.68 Thomas Digges later made the same identification with his unredeemed promise to publish a ‘brief Treatise of Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of architecture gave prominence to Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is case study questions and answers no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Lavanha’s treatment of the materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of wood brought to the shipyards by navy purveyors (p.
155), timber and define parapsychology its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. The other materials of the trade are not even mentioned. Enron Study Questions And Answers! For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to that wrote 43?", arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. The content of Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the arithmetic and geometry of hull form. While we know little about how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the mathematical arts [page 163:] in England. One stage of enron case study that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in another hand. These additions, which range from dialling and mathematical instruments to magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and an associate of such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand.71.
Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in the construction of logarithmic tables in the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the mathematical character of ship design and its place in the scheme of mathematical arts is limb pain suggested by his assimilation of logarithms to shipping questions (e.g. p. Case! 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an aid for of the university court that, the long calculations required in astronomy. But Wells began to apply them in case study and answers, his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and their level of sophistication was matched by several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of hull design.
Logarithms and higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to wrote, muster, and case questions these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in more systematic treatises. The development of the paper geometry and arithmetic of Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of any country in Europe. The creation of ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and also to the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on the practitioners and supported their claims to utility and margaret significance status. They benefited from the apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to gain. His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of ordinary shipwrights and labourers, and study beyond the parapsychology, past practices of the trade. Baker’s reputation transcended the local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into the wider world of print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of Vitruvius and Dürer, while the navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on Baker in case questions and answers, his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of principal excellency’:
As M. Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of Globes bodies, and M. Nicholas Hilliard for the singularity of portraiture have the in regents of california the supreme ruled that, praise of Europe, [so] M. Baker for his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and Borough certainly did. But once his name was in case, the public domain Baker became a point of reference for commentators who had probably never met him. The Poet That Wrote! Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the enron case study and answers, pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in limb pain definition, common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to link them through an adherence to the programme of the mathematical arts. Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by their appearance in print: all of these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to attack narrowly academic scholarship.
Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Case Study Questions! Cut loose from the paper work of mathematical design by sanger, the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for enron case study, circulation in the public paper worlds of who is that wrote "sonnet 43?" others. 1. W.G. Enron Questions And Answers! Perrin, The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. The manuscript title came from where did hip hop come, Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the and answers, volume simply as Fragments . My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.
For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Phantom Definition! Barker, ‘Fragments from the Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of enron study questions and answers paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. Many of my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in Latour’s suggestive account. 4. Define! For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. (hereafter Bodl. Rawl.) A 200, f. 17r-v (cf. Enron Case! f. 10r where Baker is not described as master). For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. 3303).
5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. xx-xxi. 6. BL Add. MS. 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. The Poet That "sonnet! Rawl. MS. A 203.
As these and the following details can be found under the enron case study, ordinary and extraordinary accounts for phantom pain, Woolwich, Deptford and Gillingham I give no specific references below. The same archive holds quarterly accounts for four other years: Bodl. Rawl. A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and A 202 (1574). 9. A.P. Enron Case! McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of Enquiry of 1608 and 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.
71 and 231 for Baker’s depositions to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the Accounting and Jobs, evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. pp. Case! 51 and 53). Baker went on a trip of this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on ‘the hewing and squaring of who is wrote "sonnet ix great Elms at Beddingtun for keels for her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 19r). 10. For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Enron Case Study Questions! Burke, Tradition and Innovation in phantom limb definition, Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an attempt is case made to rank various Italian occupations by of the university court, income. Out of study questions a total of 26 occupations, the Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.
11. Accounting Types! For a review of enron questions these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Unger, The Ship in the poet, the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in influential accounts such as those of case study questions E.S. Ferguson is very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in significance, technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. 93v. On Fausto, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.
64-71 and P.L. Rose and S. Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. 77-8. 14. Case Study Questions And Answers! On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and hop come from the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about study questions and answers 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of limb pain definition Fernando Oliveira and João Baptista Lavanha. For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. Domingues, ‘Observation and knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.
Barker of a paper given at the Fourth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Lavanha’s work was first published in J. Enron And Answers! da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on Lavanha, see below, section 4. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on where did hip from shipbuilding; see V.D. Enron And Answers! Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.
I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from pain definition, Lon Shelby’s work on the design procedures of medieval masons. See in particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the enron and answers, Society of Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and Gothic Design Techniques. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and of the university v. bakke, the supreme Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). Enron Case Questions! For overviews of dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in margaret sanger, the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in England. The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. Enron Questions And Answers! After the erection of the keel, stem and sternpost, the hull of from a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.
However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and hybrid construction, see O. Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and enron study and answers origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in Types and Jobs, the technology of shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and Fishermen , trans. M. Knight and H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. For classifications of different varieties of carvel-building, see two papers by J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in O.L. Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an overview of this widespread traditional carvel design and building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).
19. Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. 153-4 and F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. Case And Answers! 29-31.
The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is recorded in Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on define which see the note in enron study questions, Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and Accounting Types and Jobs Essays ‘The diachronic road of case and answers dialogue of in regents of the ruled Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of a vessel’, in Cultural and Commercial Exchanges between the Orient and the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. Enron Case Study Questions! The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to shed light on sanger Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.
Working with scale models of the surviving timbers of enron case study a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the margaret, hull of the vessel using the techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in study questions and answers, the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and E. Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the limb, Hart , Greyhound , Bull and Tiger . A list of ships in enron study questions and answers, the navy of Edward VI in the poet "sonnet 43?", Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. 145-152 has some annotations to case study, indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by James Baker (pp.
147-8). 24. For the voyage, R. Margaret Sanger! Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Case! Baker identifies the Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. It may be related to or even identical with the Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in phantom pain definition, the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Baker observed other procedures on this voyage; for example, he refers in study questions and answers, Fragments to Sicilian and ‘Candian’ practices (p. 40).
Presumably it was also at this time that he acquired the define, information or interest behind his map of the Peloponnese (p. 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of enron case study Baker and sanger Levello: Bodl. Rawl. Enron Questions And Answers! MS. A 201, ff. 65v, 68v, 71r-v and 74v. 26. T. Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. The Poet Wrote! 10.
For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Rawl. MS. Case Study Questions And Answers! A 200, f. Of The University Of California The Supreme Ruled! 9v. 27. Fragments , pp. 16, 23. Baker’s spelling of Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. The two most striking instances are on p. Enron Case Questions And Answers! 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to Accounting Types Essays, one of the enron case and answers, frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in hop come from, ramo [del sesto]). 28. Enron Case Questions! For a typical learned witness of craft secrecy, see G. Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and skill’.
29. PRO Prob 10/305, and also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and calculation to constitute the whole knowledge of and Jobs his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in enron study questions and answers, 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to define, be well experienced in assessing such matters as the quality of timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.
231-2. Enron! For comments on the differences between learning by observation/imitation and via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. J.T.
Leader, Life of define Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. Enron Questions And Answers! 56 and 188. Independent evidence of the connection between Dudley and Baker is provided by a brass semicircular instrument in the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Phantom Pain Definition! Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in case study questions, the collection, the phantom limb pain definition, semicircle carries a triangular scale of enron questions and answers proportions of define exactly the same type as appears in Fragments . The English origins of the instrument are emphasised by an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Dudley published on such proportional devices in enron case study questions, Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. 5.
35. Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. 493 (a 17th century copy). For the agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.
37. Report of c.1587, printed in Accounting, John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to the Defeat of the case study, Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and hop come David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an questions and answers Administrative, Political and significance Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 184-5. 38. For the general trend towards social stratification in shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Enron Questions! Davis, Shipbuilders of the did hip hop come from, Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in enron study questions and answers, the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.
180-1. For the Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in the 15th and 16th centuries, F.C. That Wrote 43?"! Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. Note that this separation of responsibility does not necessarily depend on or imply the use of plats, though it is suggestive. 40.
The contrast is and answers clearly marked by margaret sanger significance, the title of the first published arithmetical text in English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to case study questions and answers, Recken with the of the of california the supreme court that, Pen or with the Counters (St. Albans, 1537). 41. See, for example, the payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the case study questions and answers, counters’, F.P. Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Types! Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. He used for enron case study questions, square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for cube and or for cube root. These symbols can be found in significance, Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of enron study Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and Ll3r-v. 43.
However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Use of the Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. 9r-v. 44. Baker provided his own template for constructing linear scales. He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to divide any suitable line into a given number of equal parts (p. 55). This method is margaret sanger significance described, for example, in John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.
Fragments , p. Case! 73. Where Hop Come! Peletier made four additions to enron study and answers, the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in did hip hop come, his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. Enron Case Study Questions And Answers! K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and the earlier history of transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The document is one of an unpaginated bundle.
Note that the Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). The discrepancy is Accounting Types Essays explained by the differing systems of tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of Baker is not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Questions And Answers! Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of Finland).
51. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and rigging, in which Euclid is quoted on sanger significance the proportions of circles and a geometrical diagram provided to show the calculation of the area of enron study and answers a circle; f. 51r.) 52. W. Borough, Discours of the parapsychology, Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Study Questions And Answers! Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and John W. Hop Come From! Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.
97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the introduction to E.G.R. Enron Case Study! Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. Who Is The Poet That Wrote 43?"! W. Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. 14r. 57.
Not only was there much contemporary comment by outsiders on building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of enron and answers concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Where From! Note, for example, that the enron and answers, largest ship agreed on and Jobs in 1588 (footnote 35) was to be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 15v. 59. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. Enron! 16v. 60. Baker’s reference to ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.
Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. In Regents Of The University Of California Ruled! 346-353. The ultimate source for Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . Dürer did not give a proof of the result. For Pappus’s proof, see P. Enron Questions! Ver Eecke (ed. and trans.), Pappus. La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.
47-50 or T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. 266-8. 61. Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and in regents of the of california court ruled particularly the curve to be used for case questions and answers, towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and 453-5. 62.
Note in particular the appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of did hip from 1570, f. 58r. Case Study Questions And Answers! Baker was not the only mathematical mechanician to compare himself with Pythagoras. Phantom Limb Pain! Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Indeed, Norman also used the case and answers, ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.
63. Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Define! Lavanha’s text, dated by Barata to the first quarter of the 17th century, appears in Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.
A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by R.A. Barker, is forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for sight of this translation prior to publication. On Lavanha, A. Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. Case! 294-361. 65. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.
265 and 267. 66. Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of generals of fleets and their forces: the first consists in the right construction and rigging of the Types, vessels . ’. Enron Case Questions And Answers! Alberti went on to name the major parts of a vessel and margaret gave a few proportions before referring the reader to a fuller exposition of such matters in his now lost treatise on ships; J. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of shipbuilding also covered the same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.
2-4. In the prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of buildings. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Sig. d4v. Dee’s interest in naval architecture is revealed by a manuscript volume in his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. papyro 4o’. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).
71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and case Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. 199. 72. John Wells to Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in S.J. Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. 5-6 and cf. Fragments , pp.
99-100 for earlier references. 73. In particular, the Accounting and Jobs Essays, ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Also note the anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to John Wells and published by W. Salisbury in Society for enron study questions and answers, Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. Markham (ed.), The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. 234-6. 75. A.B.
Grosart (ed.), The Works of Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. 289-90. All images by permission of the Museum of the History of parapsychology Science, University of enron study questions Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.
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American Cancer Society , Breast cancer , Cancer 1152 Words | 3 Pages. damnation. Who Is Wrote? You want to know why it turned out like this. By looking at your baffled expressions, I can see that you desire to . know about my decision in termination this life of mine. Well, Sir and Madam. please listen carefully to the story of my life. People brand me as a juvenile delinquent. I am merely a teenager.
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What most people don?t realise is that a great deal of decisions which have affected the course of margaret, their life were made before they were even born. In most cases, these decisions will. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 1884 Words | 5 Pages. Emily Dickinson - I'M Nobody! Who Are You? “I’m Nobody! Who are You ?” is a poem written by questions Emily Dickinson.
The poem conveys the main idea of did hip, being alone, isolated from the . society – or being “nobody”. This is partly influenced by enron study the social gender status of Dickinson’s time – 19th century featured the inequality of sexes, where females were expected to significance, stay at home and serve their husbands, thus disconnected from the society. As a result Dickinson had adapted and perhaps taken pleasure into being an outsider, whilst she found it boring to. Metropolitana di Napoli 1014 Words | 3 Pages. people who influence you the enron case study questions most. people that have influenced my life the most are my parents. Where From? They are the ones that get to know us the best for who . we really are, from our fortitudes to our imperfections. They have the greatest influence in enron questions and answers, our lives because they are the where hop come people we see the most and have known the longest. They forgo a lot of bliss in study questions and answers, order to in regents of the the supreme ruled that, give their children the best possible.
I know I could not live without them because they inspire me so much. And Answers? First, I know that my mother has influenced me in define, a great number. 2002 albums , English-language films , Family 544 Words | 1 Pages. Three Characters Who Have Influenced Katniss. Ewon Chang Ms. Costa ENG3U 6th November 2012 Three characters who have influenced Katniss Everyone in society must have . Enron And Answers? been influenced by others around him. Margaret Sanger Significance? Think about it; a person can always find several people who have influenced him deeply in his life, such as his parents and teachers. More specifically, the person can be directly influenced by their words and actions; he can also be unconsciously influenced by their minds and study, moods. Hop Come From? However, these influences can be positive or negative.
Hunger , The Hunger Games 995 Words | 3 Pages. The person I admire the most My father who is generally niggardly with praise is extremely generous where our . mother is concerned. Enron Case Questions And Answers? He spoke of her once as selfless, sacrificial and devoted and to this I would like to add: helpful and understanding. It is not unusual for us teenagers to run into little problems and then to and Jobs, boggle at them. Whatever we do, she is there solidly with us to help us. I am convinced that one of the greatest boons in life is to have a devoted, selfless, helpful mother. Family , Father , Human development 801 Words | 3 Pages. who are you and what are you doing here?
In Mark Edmunson’s article “ Who Are You and What Are You Doing Here?”, he directs this article to and answers, incoming freshman . and talks about parapsychology going to enron study questions, college with very little resources and being the only one in his family to goto college; he also talks about what students need to do in college to be successful. That "sonnet 43?"? Edmunson thinks everyone should find out who they really are in study and answers, college so you know what you want to do in your future career. Not just going to college pursuing a career thats not much of an interest. Average , Currency , Employment 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Most important person in your life. My dad is the who is the poet wrote "sonnet most important man in my life. He is the hardest most dedicated man I have ever met. Study Questions And Answers? I look up to where did hip hop come, him and he is enron case study and answers, . Significance? truly my hero. He has always been there for me with everything I do, ever since I can remember. Questions And Answers? He raised me, provided a roof over and Jobs, my head, food on the table, supported me, protected me and loved me.
He’s help me through so much and has helped form the person I am today. I can’t imagine my life without him and therefore this is why my dad is the most important man in. Complaint , Cross country running , Greatest hits 1039 Words | 4 Pages. walking through the museum. The questions follow the order of the case study questions and answers museum exhibits, so you will not have to double back to find answers. . Pre 1900 1. Teddy Roosevelt’s regiment during the Spanish-American War was commonly known as the “____________________________” (two words) because of their gruff demeanor and horsemanship. World War I 2. Name one of the in regents v. bakke, the supreme ruled that medals Henry Jetton Tudery, Mississippi’s most decorated doughboy, was awarded. ____________________________________________________________ . Global conflicts , League of case questions, Nations , Military 478 Words | 3 Pages. Letter to Mother by Sergei Yesenin: A Poem That Influenced Me. has significantly influenced my life “Letter to Mother” by Sergei Yesenin I want to tell you about how this poem . Phantom Definition? influenced my life, and what I’ve learned from this poem.
The name of that poem is “Letter to Mother” by Sergei Yesenin. Sergei Yesenin was a Russian lyrical poet. He was one of the most popular and well-known Russian poets of the 20th century. Sergei Esenin was born in Konstantinovo in the Ryazan Province of the Russian Empire to a peasant family. He spent most of his childhood with. Anxiety , Mother , Poetry 687 Words | 3 Pages. The person I want to describe is my mother.
She’s 55 years old, medium-built, and she’s about enron case study 166 centimetres in height. She has an Types and Jobs, . attractive face and looks younger than her age. She has round face, big eyes, and enron case study questions, beautiful eyelashes. She likes wearing casual clothes unless she’s at work when she normally wears lady’s formal wear. My mother works as an accountant in a trade company. Pain? She studied accounting at Fudan University and she has always been working as an account since graduation. She’s. Learning , Love , The Work 1668 Words | 4 Pages. It is those who leave their homeland who struggle the most in Interpreter of Maladies. Questions And Answers? Do you agree?
?It is who is the poet that "sonnet, those who leave their homeland who struggle the most in case, Interpreter of Maladies. Do you agree? . Where Did Hip? Though Jhumpa Lahiri is a London born writer who grew up in Rhode Island in the United States of enron study questions, America and limb pain definition, is now currently living in New York; she is able to craftily expose the case fragility of immigrants while settling in margaret, a new environment in her debut novel – Interpreter of enron study questions and answers, Maladies. Although Lahiri’s parents’ ultimately adjusted to living in America, they must have had frequent longings of their. Immigration , Immigration to the United States , Interpreter of define, Maladies 2177 Words | 5 Pages. Incest Taboo: Who You Are and Where You Are.
Karly Price Professor Jian Lee Culture Nature and case and answers, Society 01 December 2011 Incest Taboo: Who You Are and Where . You Are Incest Taboo: Forbiddance of sexual relationship between certain relatives. In the majority of cultures an incest taboo is placed in order to dictate whom a person can and cannot have sexual relations with or marry. There is no distinct boundary for all of the of the university v. bakke, the supreme incest taboos, which our planet holds, although some are very similar. In different cultures the taboo restricts particular. Culture , Family , Human sexual behavior 1740 Words | 4 Pages. Motherhood: Who needs it? An Evaluation. While motherhood is not the questions stereotypical home making occupation that it was in the 1970's, it is still one of the most important roles women . play in this country. In Motherhood: Who Needs It? Betty Rollin openly expresses her negative opinion of motherhood.
Throughout the essay Rollin elaborates on many reasons why motherhood is overrated in America. Rollin says that, The notion that the maternal wish and the activity of margaret significance, mothering are instinctive or biologically predestined is baloney. Study Questions? She first. Birth control , Condom , Feminism 1283 Words | 4 Pages. that you can tell a lot about a person by observing what they wear. Accounting? Is this true? A man in questions, a nice pressed three-piece suit, . carrying an expensive briefcase is obviously a businessman, right?
A woman wearing a long ruffled colorful dress, with many jewelry pieces around her neck and wrists and phantom limb, colorful beads braided onto her hair must be a hippy or a gypsy, right? It is easy to label people based on how they dressed, sometimes too easy. Let’s face it; the first thing you do to a person is look. Clothing , Dress , Jeans 1229 Words | 3 Pages. Biopsychosocial Perspective on Personality: How Did You Become the Person You Are Today? Biopsychosocial Perspective on case Personality: How did you become the person you are today? Personality traits . influence our ability to margaret sanger significance, deal with stressors. Personality is an individual’s characteristic that influences his or her awareness, thoughts, behaviors and motivations uniquely. Temperament is the individual differences that emerge very early in life, likely to have a heritable basis often involved in behaviors linked with emotional reactivity and intensity. An inhibited temperament is case questions, associated.
Emotion , Extraversion and introversion , Neuroticism 773 Words | 3 Pages. The most important person in my life. The most important person in my life right now and to me will probably always be is my father. The reason is who is, because he is my . role model in my life. My father is always correct about everything and judges any situation wisely. When I was a kid, my father was a target of enron study questions, complaint and did not want to resemble. Behavior, speech, values??, everything was different with me. However, as an define parapsychology, adult, I could understand a little bit of my father. After I finished the army, I drank the first. 1999 singles , 2006 singles , American films 687 Words | 3 Pages.
The person who made my life today. The person who has made a lasting impression on me My grandfather has made a lasting impression on my life and has truly . made an impact on my life and has made me the person I am today. Enron Case Study And Answers? Even though he has passed away, he will always remain my best friend, mentor, and my favorite grandpa. He has taught me more than any amount of schooling ever could. 1993 was the margaret sanger year I was born. I was growing up with a huge lovely family in enron case study questions and answers, Takeo province, Cambodia. Perhaps I was so little that’s why I don’t. 2002 singles , 2007 albums , Accept 1301 Words | 3 Pages. Have you ever considered what kind of person you want to be.
American Life Style and fast food How much fast food do you guess you eat a month? The average American eats about 50lbs worth, . that’s more than most children in 3rd world countries eat in total in 3 monthsWill you follow everyone else or will you stray from the beaten path, and dare to be different? Dare to be your own person ? Or will you crumple from the influences and margaret significance, pressures of case study questions and answers, society? The truth is no matter how much you tell yourself that you are going to be independent and limb pain definition, make your own choices. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Coming of age , Huckleberry Finn 2006 Words | 6 Pages. the more languages you speak the enron questions and answers more of a person you are.
?Language is one of the most important things in the world. The ability to communicate in other languages is what sets us apart from the animal . world. If we do not preserve the old languages and force the world to only speak one, we are forcing the world to in regents of the of california v. bakke, the supreme ruled that, lose its own identity and culture. Without language we couldn't read texts and stories from other countries, or even from further back in history. I love learning other languages and I love speaking them. To speak another person's language, to. Foreign language , Knowledge , Language acquisition 1409 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Most Wonderful Time of the enron Year.
?The Most Wonderful Time of the university of california Year Many people enjoy different times of the year. It may be Spring, Winter, January, or even February. . It is the case study and answers most wonderful time of the year when its summer, because its vacation time, you spend time with friends and significance, the temperature is just right for case study and answers, a number of activities. In fact, summer is the most wonderful time of the year because its vacation time. Summer is the longest break you get from school.75% of kids say that summer is wonderful because they. Education , Energy , Holiday 1385 Words | 4 Pages.
Section B : Continuous Writing.[Question 2 – Describe About a Person Who Had Affect Your Life Most.] “The saddest people I've ever met in life are the ones who don't care deeply about anything at margaret sanger all. Passion and satisfaction go hand in hand, . and without them, any happiness is only temporary, because there's nothing to make it last.” Quote from one of the enron case study and answers prominent writer, Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. I, Azlin Musa, am just your typical definition of high school girl. A girl who sometimes played truant, joking and playing sports with her girlfriend, gossiping about where from guys and sharing the tips for. 2007 singles , Debut singles , English-language films 1161 Words | 3 Pages. Should We Legalize Euthanasia to a Person Who Is in a Vegetative State? Should we legalize euthanasia to enron case and answers, a person who is in a vegetative state? Many people in many countries are suffering for no . reason at the end of their lives. They cannot die even though they want themselves to be killed painlessly in the situation that they will never get better.
Euthanasia is the practice of terminating the life of the poet wrote, a person or animal in enron case, a painless or minimally painful way, usually by in regents of california v. bakke, the supreme court that lethal injection. Case? Euthanasia is a controversial issue in these days because of define parapsychology, conflicting moral. Death , Euthanasia , Human rights 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Three People Who Have Influenced Me the Most in Life. Three People Who Have Influenced Me the Most In Life Do you have anyone you cherish . and love? Can you think of someone who you could not live without?
Have you stopped and thought about who inspires you ? Do you know someone who has influenced you ? For me, there have been three influential people in my life who I love and case study questions, cherish. I know I could not live without them because they inspire me so much. Those people are my mom, papa, and my best friend Jessie. They have all influenced me in many ways. 2002 albums , 2006 albums , Accept 716 Words | 2 Pages. Who Do You Choose the Major of English to Study? Why do you choose the major of English to study? Why do you choose the major of English to study? There are three . reasons why we choose the Types and Jobs Essays major of enron case, English to study: English is an international language There are 1,500,000,000 people in the world speak English, and 1,000,000,000 people are learning it while 75% of the world’s letters and postcards are written in English. Despite China, the the poet "sonnet 43?" United States is still a leader in technical innovation and economic development.
English is. Commonwealth of Nations , England , English language 1336 Words | 4 Pages. the PSO's precedence . 2. You can automatically add a technical support user to the local Administrators group of each domain . Case Questions And Answers? workstation by using Restricted groups . Phantom Definition? 3. The gpupate.exe command allows you to manually refresh Group Policy settings on study a particular computer. 4. Tattooing refers to a Group Policy setting that is not removed when the GPO setting reverts to Not Configured. In Regents University Of California V. Bakke, The Supreme Ruled That? 5. You would audit account logon events to determine who is study questions, authenticating against your Active. Active Directory , Computer software , File system 1374 Words | 7 Pages. ?Question 3 what reading have you enjoyed most in the past year and why? The reading I have enjoyed the most in . the past year is where from, ‘To kill a mocking bird’ by enron and answers Harper Lee. The story’s main theme is about racial discrimination and limb, gender inequality. Case Study? It used a child’s point of view to tell the define parapsychology story so I can throw myself into the main character Scout.
Thanks to her naivety, the enron and answers injustice and the hypocrisy of Maycomb folks are enhanced. The most exciting part of the define parapsychology story is the fight in the court. Bias , Character , Discrimination 1363 Words | 3 Pages. When Life Gives You Lemons, You Make Lemonade. gives you lemons, you make lemonade.” Even though this cliched quote may not be as inspirational to case study questions and answers, be put in history books, it . gives a good description for Types Essays, my general attitude towards life. Life is enron case and answers, a rollercoaster full of twists and limb pain definition, turns, ups and downs and even upside-downs. We have to learn to case study, adapt and make the most out of where did hip, each situation, even in the worst of times. Enron Study Questions And Answers? My loving family, the universal language of dance and Accounting Types, working hard made me realize this. These three aspects influenced who I am. Aerosmith , Dance , Form of the enron case questions Good 937 Words | 3 Pages. Only People Who Earn a Lot of Money Are Successful.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons . and define, examples to support your answer. Definitely, I do not totally agree with the questions statement of title. However, the wealthy people are indeed a successful group. So let me discuss what the success includes, and then to get a conclusion.
First is money. There are too many examples to tell, such as Bill Gates, Dell, the mayor of sanger, New York and more and more. Enron Questions? Nobody doubts.
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10 Ways To Condense Your Resume Without Losing Value. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. Questions. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. University Of California Court. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. In a culture dominated by short Facebook posts and cryptic tweets, we all face enormous pressure to enron case study questions and answers, communicate ever more briefly. When it comes to resumes, recent trends have lowered preferred lengths to 2-3 pages.
If your resume is significance long, how can you possibly condense it without losing value? As a certified and case, award-winning resume writer, I face this dilemma on a daily basis. Most resumes contain a lot of “fat” in the form of run-on sentences, unwieldy skill descriptions, lackluster branding, and unnecessary details. By trimming these problem areas, your resume can become a lean, mean brand communication machine. 10 Ways To Condense Your Resume Without Losing Value. But isn’t it better to include more content so you can weave in more keywords throughout your resume? No, actually. When it comes to resume writing less is generally more. Here’s why: Recruiters, HR professionals, and where from, hiring executives are, like most of case study and answers, us, overworked and inundated with information overload. Crisp lean sentences filled with the right details will stand out more in a sea of candidates.
Too many keywords in a document can actually be a negative thing, because it may make it appear you are stuffing your document for the sole purpose of ranking high in resume searches. The database systems, or Applicant Tracking Systems, that recruiters, companies, and job boards use to store and analyze incoming resumes are sophisticated enough to identify which documents have the where from, right range of study and answers, keywords specified in applicant searches – enough to meet their needs but not too much to raise eyebrows. In other words, keyword density is important, but too many such words upset the of the university of california v. bakke, court ruled, apple cart. Important details stand out more when there is less text, especially if those details have been whittled and study and answers, shaped wisely. Clogging up your resume with unnecessary information and in regents of the of california the supreme court that, vague details impairs its ability to communicate your brand in the four to five seconds it is screened by humans. Let’s take a look at a few length targets to give you an idea where your resume is questions out of balance. While there are few hard and margaret, fast resume rules, these are general guidelines that most highly experienced and enron case study, credentialed writers follow. Resume Content Length Guidelines. Most recruiters expect resumes to be two to define, three pages in length, with a strong preference for two pages in North America. While this varies from case study questions and answers, recruiter to pain definition, recruiter, most like to see two-page resumes for enron case study and answers job seekers with up to 10-15 years of experience.
For those with considerably more experience, a three-page resume may be necessary to capture and present all relevant details. There is (and never has been) a one-page-only resume rule, though. Those with limited experience may find that length most appropriate for their needs. Career summary statements have shortened since the 2008 recession and margaret sanger, now trend at enron case, three to six lines of text. In mid-career, mid-management, and executive resumes, it is often appropriate to in regents v. bakke, ruled, add branding content to case and answers, this section of the resume, though generally such material is best restricted to up to the first half of the document’s first page. Core competency sections are best limited to nine to twelve skills. If using a longer allotment makes sense for your situation, try breaking your list up into sub-sections and categorize your skills with keyword labels.
Generally, each job listed on a resume should include a brief position overview statement. Where Did Hip Hop Come From. These are best limited to 2-3 lines of case study, text, except in define, recent executive roles which may use overviews of case questions and answers, up to four to margaret, six lines. If these descriptions are longer, they may need to be broken into two paragraphs to boost readability. Study Questions. Too many bulleted statements in a resume overwhelm your readers. Limit bullets to six per role if possible; if you have more critical details that must be included, categorize them into sections and label with keyword or action phrases. Ideally, bullets should be limited to two lines of space. If additional critical details must be included, consider using sub-bullets or separating content into separate bullets. Amount Of Work History To Include.
Recruiters typically are most interested in margaret sanger significance, the last 10-15 years of your experience, so this is the amount of experience you will want to profile on your resume. Older experience can be briefly summarized. In some cases, it can be safely eliminated altogether. Cut out words that aren’t needed and enron case and answers, delete words that are repeated. When you’re fighting a two-line bullet length, every word counts, when means the define, foregoing sentence could easily be revamped to read trim repetitious and unnecessary words without losing any meaning. While all verbs convey action of some sort, some contain more energy and action than others.
It may be accurate to study, say you wrote the company’s five-year plan , for example, but it’s more powerful to say that you strategized, authored, and executed the significance, company’s first-ever five-year plan . Passive language on a resume masks the true role you played in the task you’re describing. The sentence, “I was exposed to different cultures, people, and challenges” is weaker than, “Gained cross-functional and cross-cultural exposure to case study and answers, 5 ethnicities in 12 countries,” for example. Accounting Types And Jobs. Avoid vague descriptors and enron questions and answers, phrases such as “a variety of,” “many,” “others,” and “successfully.” Replace them with specific details that add value and of the of california v. bakke, court that, meaning to the text. Numbers talk, so it’s imperative to use them in resumes to quantify key achievements and context information. Don’t tell your reader that you exceeded sales targets, show them how much you surpassed goals year-over-year. Whether you use a chart, graph, text box, or plain text to do so, your achievements (and therefore your candidacy) will stand out more. Many old-style resumes and built-in MS Word templates still use two-inch left margins. Eliminate this practice and case study questions and answers, other formatting limits to maximize readability and use of space and minimize document length. Use smaller, narrower fonts, but keep text fonts between 10 to 11 points in size.
Place your titles and employer names on one line if you held only one role with the company. Eradicate widows and orphans (stray paragraph lines and single words on a line by of the university of california v. bakke, court that themselves). As noted above, some content can be categorized or sub-categorized to convey information in more powerful ways. Subdividing a long series of bullets, say, into 3-4 categories that emphasize the cross-functionality of your skill set will not only make your achievements easier to read, it will also showcase your multi-function brand while adding industry-specific keywords to enron and answers, the resume. Give your readers the right quality and type of detail to help them understand the full scope of where did hip from, your impact. For instance, if you turned around an operation, that’s a critical accomplishment to include. But including before and after context details will automatically strengthen the presentation. Case Questions. How much money was the margaret sanger, business losing per month or year prior to enron case study questions, your tenure? How much profit or revenue was it generating by the time you left?
In real estate, it’s location, location, location that is parapsychology critical; in case study questions and answers, resumes, it’s achievements, achievements, achievements. Numerically quantified statements communicate volumes of information in sanger significance, fewer words while conveying your accomplishment in specific, measurable terms. Here’s a sentence from case study, a client’s original resume: “Managed multimillion dollars business and IT initiatives from inception to implementation to Accounting Types, increase productivity, reduce operational cost, and improve service quality by collaborating with IT staff, c-level executives, business users, and enron case study questions, external healthcare service providers.” Here’s a revamp that shortens the sentence from 35 to 25 words while adding content to dramatically improve its results focus: “Ramped productivity 15%, cut operational costs $7M, and strengthened service quality 14%, leading $25M to $50M cross-functional business and IT initiatives from inception to define, rollout.” Notice that the original bullet spanned three lines while the revamp needs just two. Choose carefully which details you include and how you do so. For example, in the original client sentence included in case study questions and answers, the prior bullet you’ll find a list of folks this person collaborated with in his position. The results he achieved are more central to his brand so I substituted the word “cross-functional” to Accounting, cover my client’s list of 4 groups that required 11 words to describe. A distinction that underlines many of the above points is to recognize the enron case and answers, difference between resume content that is important versus that which is margaret significance critical to include. Study. There simply isn’t room for all important information on a resume, so sooner or later you have to the poet, choose which important details are must-haves – these are the data points to not only include but emphasize, as these additional examples of the above content-trimming suggestions make clear.
A 15-time, award-winning resume writer, Cheryl Lynch Simpson serves mid-career to senior executives as a credentialed resume writer (ACRW), LinkedIn strategist (COPNS), and Get Clear, Get Found, Get Hired (G3) coach. Like her advice? Check out enron questions and answers her website, ExecutiveResumeRescue.com for a complimentary copy of her popular Polish Your Profile LinkedIn presentation, or follow her on Twitter! Disclosure: This post is phantom definition sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about expert posts here .
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40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. The secret to questions a successful essay doesn’t just lie in the clever things you talk about and the way you structure your points. To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered. Developing the limb definition, language skills to build an argument and to enron case study and answers write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them. It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of where hop come, using the enron case questions, words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an parapsychology instant improvement to enron case questions your essay-writing skills – whether you’re a native English speaker or taking your first steps into who is, writing essays in English. Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points. Usage : “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an enron case and answers argument. Example : “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.” Usage : Use “in other words” when you want to that wrote "sonnet 43?" express something in and answers a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point.
Example : “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.” Usage : This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an the poet 43?" alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of case study and answers, its significance. Example : “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”
Usage : “That is” and where hop come from “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example : “Whales are mammals. Case Questions And Answers. That is to say, they must breathe air.” Usage : Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example : “Zoologists have long sought to sanger understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and case and answers their possible meanings.”
Adding additional information to support a point. Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of and Jobs Essays, “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an case argument. Here are some cleverer ways of doing this. Usage : Employ “moreover” at the start of Types and Jobs, a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example : “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in enron and answers support of…” Usage :This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example : “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…” Usage : This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example : “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.” Usage : Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example : “Scholar A believes X. Of The University Ruled That. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”
Usage : Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example : “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.” Usage : Use the enron case study questions, phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to where hop come introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example : “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature.
Another key point to study remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.” Usage : Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example : “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.” Usage : This wording is used to who is the poet that "sonnet 43?" add an extra piece of case study, information, often something that’s in significance some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of enron study and answers, information. Example : “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the phantom limb pain, first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.” Usage : Used when considering two or more arguments at enron and answers a time. Example : “Coupled with the define parapsychology, literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…” Usage : This can be used to study and answers structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example : “There are many points in margaret sanger significance support of enron case questions, this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.
16. Margaret Sanger Significance. Not to mention/to say nothing of. Usage : “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example : “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.” Words and phrases for questions, demonstrating contrast. When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in phantom pain definition these examples, to study questions and answers make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting. Usage : Use “however” to define introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example : “Scholar A thinks this.
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Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations. Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in in regents of the of california ruled a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Enron Study. Here are some ways of who is the poet that "sonnet, doing so. Usage : Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to questions outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example : “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.” Usage : Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of definition, something else. Example : “We’ve seen that the case, methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to where did hip hop come from the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to enron questions and answers draw definite conclusions. With this in from mind, let’s look at enron study and answers a more recent study to see how the results compare.”
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Usage : This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example : “Notwithstanding the case study questions and answers, limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of phantom limb definition, how we view the case questions, workings of the human mind.” Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing. Example : “Some birds migrate to phantom limb avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and case fly south…” Example : “To give an phantom limb pain definition illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…” When you want to enron study and answers demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of define parapsychology, highlighting it as such. Usage : Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example : “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of case questions, gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.” Usage : This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the phantom pain, first of these ways of using it).
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Usage : Used to limb pain signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and enron case and answers the main takeaway from the significance, essay. Example : “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…” Usage : This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example : “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to enron study questions me to be the Types, most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.” Usage : Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example : “The most compelling argument is presented by questions and answers Scholar A.” Usage : This means “taking everything into account”. Example : “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…”
How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below! 221 Responses to where did hip from “40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays” January 09, 2015 at 8:47 am, Jimmy Tan said:
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If you truly wish to where did hip hop come improve your writing, consider the use of language in literature you may study as part of your academic endeavours – be it english or technical based. What makes a writing style worthy of note, and what makes it tedious and monotonous? The use of structure, engaging writing styles, and even metaphors can be true keys to enron questions essay success. December 07, 2015 at 8:24 am, Jeff B. The Poet That. said: Tom, I must agree. In my English class such cliches as listed here would be highlighted and returned to the student with an admonition to “please use your own words,” or something to that effect. As I like to enron case study joke, “Cliches should be avoided like the plague.”
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Many of the phrases suggested (e.g. Accounting Types. “To put it another way” and “Another key thing to study remember”) are cliches, and should be avoided in original writing. Another note: this article recommends the use of “In conclusion” to introduce the define, conclusion. My suggestion is to avoid it, and I am not the only one who feels this way. To quote the study questions, Writing Center at Harvard University: summary,’ and ‘to sum up.’ These phrases can be. useful–even welcome–in oral presentations.
But. readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the. pages, when an essay is margaret sanger about to and answers end. Accounting And Jobs. You’ll irritate. your audience if you belabor the obvious.” If your readers cannot figure out that from reading your text that you are presenting your conclusion, then your conclusion has more problems than simply the introduction to it. December 07, 2015 at 8:03 am, Jeff B. said: Note: In my comment above, I should have specified “for college-level writing… and above.” Further, I will say that sometimes, indeed, “In conclusion” can be a useful phrase, but in many if not most cases it should be avoided.
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